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The present Edition of this work, though differing little in 
balk from the preceding Edition, contains several marked 
features of distinction. The last Edition has undergone 
complete revision and emendation. Many terms, fallen 
more or less into disuse, have been omitted ; and a consider- 
able amount of fresh matter has been introduced, in order to 
meet the requirements of the present day. The definitions 
adopted in the M Nomenclature of Diseases," drawn up by a 
Committee of the Royal College of Physicians, are here 
inserted with a distinct notice in each case. Further, the 
inevitable introduction of new terms into Medical Nomen- 
clature, arising from constant discovery, and the unclassical 
character of many of the terms in common use, have sug- 
gested to the Author the propriety of offering a few general 
remarks on orthography, derivation, and composition, with 
special reference to medical terminology; and it is hoped 
that the intelligent student will derive some profit, perhaps 
pleasure, from carefully considering the following para- 

1. The letters C and K. — A certain amount of discri- 
mination has been observed by thoughtful writers, during the 
last few years, in the use of these letters. The employment ol 
the letter C, instead of the letter E, in terms of Greek origin 
has led, and still leads, to confusion, not only of spelling, but 
also of articulation, especially when the former letter is 
followed by the vowels e and t, which suggest, to the English 
ear, the soft sound of S, instead of the hard sound of E, of 
the initial syllable of Greek terms. 1. In words of which 
the E is initial, the objection to its use is gradually did- 


an action, sometimes the product of the act, sometimes the 
object which causes the verbal state." Viewed in this 
simple manner, the two classes of words have a distinct 
relation to, and connexion with, each other: the former, 
those ending in -sis, represent a cause ; the latter, those 
ending in -ma, represent an effect ; the former denote an 
act, the latter a fact ; thus glaucosis is the cause of glauco- 
ma ; in other words, glaucosis is an act, glaucoma a. fact ; 
phlogosis produces phlogoma, leucosis leucoma, and so of all 
the others. Reference is generally made, on the occurrence 
of these allied terms in the body of the work, to this 

3. Latin Substantive* ending in -Io and -Us or - Um. — 
There are about thirty pairs of terms in medical nomencla- 
ture, of Latin origin, presenting a similar relationship to, 
and connexion with, each other, to what has been observed 
in Greek terms, in the preceding paragraph. The term 
Affectio, for instance, denotes an action which imparts an 
inclination to the body or the mind; the term Affectus, then, 
denotes the state or disposition of the body or the mind 
induced by the particular " Affectio." We have here, as in 
the Greek words terminating in -sis and -ma, a cause and 
an effect, an act and a fact. Thus, Apparatio is the act of 
preparing, Apparatus is the thing prepared; Auditio is 
the act of hearing, Auditus is the sense of hearing; Decoctio 
is the process of boiling, Decoctutn, the thing boiled ; and 
so of all the others. Our English language, it is true, does 
not recognize these nice distinctions : with us, the word 
" Decoction * stands for the act of boiling and the thing 
boiled ; " Conception " for the process of conceiving and the 
thought conceived. The Greeks and the Latins were more 
precise ; in availing ourselves of their terminology, it would 
be desirable also to adopt their precision. 

4. Hybrid and Meaningless Terms. — 1. The convenience 
of combining the Greek nouns fikyos, jc^Xi;, fUrpov, 6bvvr\, 
with other terms, is undoubtedly great, but the abuse of the 
convenience is painfully seen, perhaps felt, in the following 

k. • 

viii PREFACE. 

hybrids: cox-algia, Btern-algia; muco-cele, scroto-cele, varico- 
cele; spiro- meter, lacto-meter ; lumb-odynia, scapul-odynia; 
and many more. 2. Hybrid terms ending in -(o)id, as 
cancr-oid, ov-oid, admit of obvious correction, by substitution 
of the Latin term forma for the Greek -18, -id, as in cancri- 
form, ovi-form, &c. In several cases we have genuine 
cognate terms, derived from the two classical languages, as 
pterygo-ic? and a\i-form, xipho-td and enai-form, psallo-»<fe« 
and lyri-form, thyreo-i<£ and scuti-form, &c. As a general 
rule, however, in Medical Nomenclature, comparative terms 
are objectionable ; the names of diseases, as well as their 
definitions, should be derived from positive and self-evident 
characters, not from comparison with other diseases, the 
characters of which may be less familiar than those of 
immediate interest. What value, it may be asked, is 
attached to the term typhoid, as characteristic of a species 
of fever P 3. Meaningless words are of frequent occurrence. 
Take the Greek words taxis and taraxis, the former simply 
denoting order, the latter disorder or confusion, and, 
etymologically, signifying nothing more. Yet they are used 
arbitrarily in medical nomenclature, the former being applied 
to a special surgical operation, the latter to a specific affection 
of the eye. The terms compounded with &ypa, a seizure, 
generally of gout, are legitimate, but ment-agra is hybrid and 
meaningless. Phlegmasia dolens, Delirium tremens, Porrigo- 
phyte, Caput gallinaginis, Yeru montanum, Yitiligoidea, 
Chiorodyne, and others too many for insertion, remain as 
literary curiosities, to excite a smile or a sigh, according to 
the temperament of the reader. But these things should 
not be. Surely the members of a noble profession, whose 
object, and, it may be said, privilege, are the investigation 
and treatment of the manifold ills that " flesh is heir to," 
may be fairly expected to exercise a wholesome vigilance in 
promoting and maintaining the purity of their professional 

2, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, 
September, 1878. 





A (*). In words of Greek derivation beginning with a consonant, 
this letter is employed, as a prefix, in a privative sense, as in a-cepha- 
lous, headless, a-phonia, voicelessness. In words beginning with a 
vowel, the a becomes cm, to prevent the hiatus, as in an-encephalia, 

A A (contracted from £i>4), ' of each/ An expression used in pre- 
scriptions, to denote an equal quantity of two or more substances. 

AAA. A chemical abbreviation for amalgama, amalgamate. 

AB. A Latin preposition and prefix to words of Latin origin, 
signifyinp/rom, separating, or departure. Before e and t, it is generally 
changed into a£#, aa in abe-ceu, abs-tinence, &c. 

ABAPTFSTON (A/9dirricrT0«, not to be dipped, that will not 
sink ; Lat. immertabuis). A kind of trepan or trephine, furnished with 
a ring or knob a little above the extremity, in order to prevent its 
penetrating the cranium too suddenly, and so injuring the brain. Hence 
the name did to fxh /Sawrtgiadai, says Galen, because it could not be 
suddenly plumped or immened into the brain. 

ABARTICULATIO (ab, and articulue, a joint). A species of 
articulation which admits of free motion. The term is the Latin 
synonym of the Greek diarthrorii, the preposition ab of the former 
corresponding with the preposition did of the latter, each denoting 
separation, and so mobility. 

ABDO'MEN. The belly or the cavity situated between the thorax 
and the- pel via; the lower part of the belly, venter abdomine tardw, 
Juv. The term is perhaps a corrupted form of adipomen, from adept, 
adtpis, fat: in Cicero, it denotes corpulence. 

ABDOfMlNAL REGIONS. The abdomen if distinguished into 
three transverse zones— an upper, » middle, and a lower. Each tone 


ii divided, by perpendicular lint*, into three compartment* oriroionj- 
a middle, tad two literal. They in thin named :— 

1. Epigastric Region. The middle region of the upper zone, lituated 
immediately over the inn.ll end of Ibe itomach. The two lateral 
regiona of tliit zone, lituated under the cartilage! of the riba, are called 
the hypochondriac. 

2. Umbilical Region. The middle region of themiddle zone, lituated 
immediately over the umbilical. The two lateral region! of thii ions, 
lituated ovrr the loint, ire called the lumbar. 

3. Hypogattric Region. The middle region of the lowett zone, 
aiCuated below the itomach. The two lateral region! of thii zone, 
aituated over the ilia, are called the iliac. 

4. Inguinal Region. By thii term ii denoted the vicinity of Pou- 
part'i ligament. 

ABDOMINAL RING, EXTERNAL. A triangular opening 
formed by the separation of the fibrei of the iponeurniii of the oUlqnna 
The internal abdominal ring ii an 
raalii vel Cooperi. 

Ken, and o-xotiw, to examine). An 
u of the abdomen in order to delect 

ABDUCENTES NERVI {ahdnotre, to draw from). The name 
of tba tilth pair of nervea, or mo/area extend, to named from their 
influence in drawing the eyei outward. 

ABDUCTION (obdMcert, to draw from). 1. The movement of a 
limb from the median line, or aiia of the body. 2. A trantvene 
fracture, in which the broken parts recede from each other. See 

ABDU'CTOR (qoduoert, to draw from). Abducent. A mnacle 
whoae office ia to draw a part of the body from the median line ; thui 
Ibe reetni extemui ii called abdndor oculi from iti action in drawing 
the eye outward. Its entagooitt ii called addxetor. 

ABERRATION (aWare, to wander from). 1. A partial aliena- 
tion of mind. 2. The paaugs of a fluid into pertt not appropriate for 
it* reception. S. In botany, a deviation from the ordinary Itructnre of 
related groups of plants ; thui a natural order may be aberrant by being 
intermediate between two other ordera. 

ABIOGENESIS (a, priv., fJio., life, yiWu, production). Areki- 
genait. Spontaneous generation. A term applied to the alleged 
production of living beinga without the pre-exiatenre of genua of any 
kind, and therefore without the nre-eiiilence of parent-organiima. See 

ABLACTATION (aMaetart, to wean). Thii term denotei the 
eeaaation of the period of auckling, aa regard! the mother. The tame 
period, with retard to the infant, it termed waning. 

ABLATION (ablatio, the act or proce** of taking away). A term 
applied to any mode of removing tumon. Dungliaon uaee the term for 

ABLETSIA{a0Xiip<a, blindnew, from «, priv., and M>»». to 
tee). CmeitaM. Blindneea; privation of aight. 

A'BLUKNTS (ablnm, to wash away). Detergent: Medicine! 
formerly auppoaed to eleanae the blood by waahlng away impuritici. 

ABNORMAL (aft, fro ...-..:-> 

a rale). Irregular; that whit 

A B 0-A B 8 3 

deviates from the usual order, as the position of stamens when opposite 
to, instead of alternate with, petals. The term anormal denotes any- 
thing that is without rule or order. 

ABCRTION. Abortio. The expulsion of the ovum from the 
uterus before the sixth month of gestation. Expulsiou between the 
sixth and ninth month is called premature labour. Miscarriage, as 
popularly understood, is the expulsion of the foetus at any period of 
gestation, and in law no distinction is made between abortion and pre- 
mature labour. [The term abortio is derived from the verb aboriri, 
the primary meaning of which expresses the letting of the heavenly 
bodies, as opposed to exoriri, to arise. Hence the term wss applied to 
failure, as of the foetus.] 

1. Abortus. A person born prematurely — the result of abortio. 
The English confound the two words, describing both as " abortion." 

2. Abortive. 1. That which is brought forth prematurely. 2. 
That which is supposed to produce abortion ; but this is more commonly 
called abortifacient. 

A BRA'S! O, ABRA'SUM (abradere, to scrape or shave off). The 
former term denotes the act of abrading ; the latter, an abraded part, or 
superficial excoriation with loss of substance, in the form of small shreds. 

A'BSCESS (abscess**, from abscedere, to separate). Apostema. An 
imposthume, gathering, or boil; a collection or pus formed or deposited 
in some tissue or organ. It is so named from the separation of the 
sides of the cavity which is produced. Where the skin is thinnest, 
and fluctuation most palpable, the abscess is said to point, or to make its 
point. If the pus is absorbed, the abscess is said to be dispersed. 

ABSENCE OF MIND. A mental phenomenon which seems to 
consist in a disturbance of the proper balance between conscious and 
unconscious cerebration, leaving the latter to perform tasks of which it 
is incapable. 

ABSINTHE. A deleterious liquor in which five drachms of the 
essence of absinthium, or wormwood, are added to one hundred quarts 
of alcohol. 

ABSOLUTE (absolute, freed from, complete). A term denoting, 
in chemistry, pure and unmixed, as absolute alcohol, or alcohol entirely 
freed from water. 

ABSORBE'NTIA (absorbere, to suck up). Antacida. A class of 
medicines, including the alkalies, the alkaline earths, and the carbonates 
of these substances, possessing absorbent powers. 

ABSORBENTS (absorbere, to suck up). Two distinct sets of ves- 
sels, which absorb and convev fluids to the thoracic duct These are 
the lacteals, which take up the chyle from the alimentary canal ; and 
the lymphatics, which pervade almost every part of the body, which they 
take op in the form or lymph. 

ABSORPTION (absorbere, to suck up). The function of the ab- 
sorbents and, it is said, of the capillaries and veins ; it is the function 
by which the fluid and soluble portions of the food enter into the blood 
of the living animal. 

1. Interstitial Absorption. The function by which the particles of 
the tissue which fill the meshes of the capillary network are removed, 
at in the atrophy of the tail of the tadpole, and of the pupillary mem- 
brane in the foetus, and in the development of cells in bones. 

2. Cutaneous Absorption. A function of the skin, by which' certain 


■ degree. Thus, mercury, applied in" this 
' " : ste of antimony it 

4 A B S— A C C 

prepare lions, rubbed into the skin, have the unit action u when given 
internallv, only in a '— J ™~ "-■ : - - L: - 

ABSORPTION, in CAemirtry (oosoroere, to incli up). Tint' term 
denotes the psjatge of a gai or vapour into a liquid or lolid substance; 
or that of ■ liquid i n to the pores of s solid . Thus, water absorbs carbonic 
acid em, lime absorbs water. Sic. 

ABSTEMIOUSNESS (o6r, from, lenutum, strung drink). The 
habit of being abstemious or sparing in the tue of food and strong 
drinks. The word expreatea a greater degree of abstinence than 
temperance ; and it differs from aittintnet because the latter may be 
temporary. See Temetum. 

ABSTE'RGENTS (aiilerocre, to cleanse, to wipe dry). AbtUrncei. 
Lotions, or other applications, for cleansing tores. Applied to sup- 
purating surfaces, they are called dettrtieti. 

ABSTINENCE {a6»(tinn!, to abstain). Cura/amu. Eieeasive or 
total privation of food. See Atnttmiommen. 

ABSTRACTION (onjrroAere, to draw from). The proeeM of dis- 
tilling a liquid from any substance ; a separation of volatile part* by the 
process of distillation. 

ACA'NTHA (Acawfa, a thorn). A spine or prickle of a plant- A 
prickly fln of a fish. A spinous process of a vertebra. The term hat 
been rued for the spina dorsi, or entire vertebral column. 

ACA'RDIAC fa, priv., naptta, the heart). Emon. Wanting a 
heart: * term applied to tlic/o*w when it is dealitute of a heart. 

A 'CARL'S (Snap,, a mite or tick, from a, priv., and mtpa, to cut; 
a kind of animal atom). A genus of minute animals belonging to the 
Acaridea, a division of the Arachnides. 

or rouge t ; a minute animal which attacks the legs during the harvest 
season, and thence proceeds to every other part of the body. 

2. Acana follitntorui*. The name given by Dr. Simon, of Berlin, 
to an animalcule found in the sebaceous follicles. It i. also called 
demodex fullictilorum. See Stealozotm. 

3. Acarut icahici. Tbe itch-animalcule; a parasite which infests 
the human scarf-skin, commonly between the fingers, iu (he bends of 
the wrists and elbowa, the same parti of the lege, and the front of the 
trunk or the body. See Dtrmatozoa. 

4. Aetna Stockhotmii. The Stockholm acarui; a parasitic animal- 
cule more than three timet at large as tbe harvest-bug and itch-animal- 
cule; it was found on a lady residing in Stockholm. 

5. Aeanu Crosiri. A minute animal supposed by Mr. Create tn 
have been developed in a solution of silicate ofpotalea, when submitted 
to slow galvanic action for the purpose of obtaining rryltals of tiler, 

AC At ATOSIS (a, priv.,, deglutition). An inability to 
twallow liquids; a term tynonymout with hydrophobia. 

ACADLE'SCENT (a, priv., mttAoc, a cabbage-stalk). Stemteat; 
a term applied to certain plant*, of which the item it to short at to he 
almost reduced to nothing, at in attcw aosutlit. Tbe term nheamlewmt 
would be preferable in these «**•. 

ACCE-SSIO (oooteVe, t 
by the Latin wi item in a ■ 

A C C— A C E 5 

word paroxysm, and denoting the hot or cold stage of a febrile seizure. 
In the present day, the term is generally limited to the commencement 
or onset of a fit — its insult**, as denominated by the Latiu writers. 
Cullen speaks of an " accession of paroxysms. ' Strictly speaking, 
access** is an Approach ; accessio, the act of approaching. 

4CCESSOR1I WILL1SII (accedere, to be added to). The superior 
resp ir at o ry nerves ; a pair arising from the spinal marrow, and joining 
the par vaoum ; named from Willis. 

ACCESSORY (accedere, to be added to). A term applied to several 
muscles, ligaments, Ac, which depend on, or are added to, some other 
part. Thus, Haller applied the term accessory of the parotid to a small 
eland which accompanies the parotid duct, and seems to be a mere pro- 
longation of theparotid itself. 

ACCIDENTAL (aeddere, to happen). Adventitious. That which 
occurs unexpectedly, as a tissue^ when the result of a morbid process. 

ACCLIMATIZATION. The naturalization or domestication of 
animal or vegetable forms to a country which is foreign to them. 

substance which sometimes surrounds the opaque crystalline lens, and 
remains after the operation for cataract, causing a secondary cataract. 

ACCRETION (accrescere, to grow to). The addition of new parts, 
as in the formation of a crystal by the position of new parts around a 
central nucleus. The organic and inorganic kingdoms are distinguished 
by their mode of increase ; the former increasing by intussusception and 
alimentation, the latter by accretion without alimentation. 

ACCU'BITUS JUNIO'RIS. The animal heat of a young and 
healthy person ; a remedy employed in cases of extreme exhaustion 
with great depression of the temperature of the body, especially in the aged. 

-A'CEOUS. Terminations in -aceous denote a resemblance to a 
substance, as membranaceous, resembling membrane ; whereas termina- 
tions in -ous denote the substance itself, as membranous, belonging to 

ACE'PHALOCYST(a,priv.,Kt4>a\if, the head, «v<tt»v, a bladdei V 
The hydatid or headless bladder-worm; a small bladder-like body 
found in various tissues of the body, especially in the liver. It is a 
tape-worm in a particular stage of development. See Vermis and 

ACETHALOUS (a, priv., ia 4>aA*i, the bead). Without a head ; the 
condition of s > foetus born without a head. 

ACE'RVULUS CE'REBRI (dim. of acervus, a heap or collection 
of things of the same kind). Literally, a little heap of brain; a term 
applied by Soemmering to a small quadrilateral mass of concretions 
collected under the tela choroidea, near the posterior commissure of 
the brain. 

ACETABULUM. A little cup used for holding acetum or vinegar. 
Hence it denotes the cup-like cavity of the os innominatum which 
receives the head of the os femoris, the socket of the hip-bone. See 

ACETIC ACID (acetum, vinegar). An acid liquid existing 
naturally in the juices of several trees, and prepared artificially either 
by fermentation of spirit, or by destructive distillation of wood and 
subsequent purification. It exists in vinegar in a dilute and impure 
state. Its salts are called acetates. 

6* AC R-A C H 

Glacial Acetic Acid. Concentrated acetic acid, corresponding to at 
least 84 per cent of anhydrous acid. See Glacial. 

ACETIC ETHER. Acetate of cthvl. A colourless liquid, 
formed bv distilling acetate of sodium, alcohol, and sulphuric acid. 

ACE'flFICATION. The process of manufacturing acetum, or 
Tinegar, from malt, the infusion of which is allowed to undergo the 
alcoholic and the acetous fermentations. 

ACETINES. Artificial oils formed by the direct union of acetic 
acid and glycerine. There are three of these, termed monacetine, dia- 
cetine, and triacetine. 

ACETO'METER (acetum, vinegar, nirpov, a measure). AccHmeter. 
An instrument for ascertaining the strength of vinegar and other 

ACETON^E'MI A {acetone, and at pa, blood). A disease occasioned 
by excessive production of acetone in the blood. 

ACETONE. Pyro-acetic spirit. A colourless liquid prepared by 
the dry distillation of an acetate. The term acetone or ketone is applied 
to a class of bodies composed of an acid-radical united with an alcohol- 

ACETUM. Vinegar ; an acid liquid prepared from malt and un- 
limited grain by the acetous fermentation. The term acetum was origi- 
nally the participle of the verb acere, to be sour, as iu " acetum vmum," 
sour wine or vinegar. 

ACETYLENE. Klumene. A luminous hydrocarbon gas found 
in coal-gas, and capable of being formed by the direct union of carbon 
and hydrogen by means of the electric spark. The name is derived 
from the hypothetical radical acetyl, to which acetylene bears the 
same relation as ethylene bears to ethyl. 

ACHjE'NIUM (a, priv., x a ""*> to gap 6 * to °P en wide). A general 
term for a dry, indehiscent fruit, comprising the caryopsis. the cypsela, 
the glans, and, in a restricted sense, the fruits of ranunculus, fraxinus, 

ACHl'LLIS TENDO (tendon of Achilles). The strong tendon 
of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which is inserted into the 

ACHLAMY'DEOUS (a, priv., xW*v, a cloak). A name 
applied to those plants in which the floral envelopes — the calyx and the 
corolla — are both absent, as in conifer a. 

A'CHLYS (<tx\vr, a mist, mostly over the eyes). Caligo. Dimness 
of sight; defect of vision from ulceration or cicatrization of the cornea 
over the centre of the pupil. See Caligo. 

ACHO'LIA (a, priv., x°M, bile). Bilelessness. Arrest of the 
functions of the liver; so that matters from which bile is formed 
accumulate in the blood, producing toxaemia or blood-poisoning. Acholic 
diseases comprise jaundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, and cholera. 

ACHOR (ax">P* scurf, d and riff). A term formerly applied to a 
small acuminated pustule of the scalp, containing a straw-coloured 
matter, and succeeded by a thin brown or yellowish scab. 

ACHO'RION. A term probably derived from achor, and consti- 
tuting the generie name of a vegetable parasite, the A. Sckonleimi, 
probably the penicellium glaucum, being the parasite in tinea favosa ; 
the A. Leberiii, or trichophyton tonsurans, being the parasite in tinea 

A C H— A 01 7 

ACHROIA (a"xpo<«V A Hippocratie term denoting want of 
colour, low of colour, paleness; opposed to t$xpota, euchrota, or good- 
new of colour. The term is also applied to a colourless state of the 
skin depending upon a want of pigmentary matter of the ret© mncosum. 
See Jjutchrosu. 

ACHROMATCPSIA (a, priv., "xpwpa, colour, 6*fnt, vision). 
Want of power in distinguishing colours. See Chromatodysopsia. 

ACl'CULAR (adcula, a little needle). A term applied, in crystal- 
lography, to needk-ekaped crystals; and, in botany, to the fames of 
certain plants which are long, stiff, and pointed, like a needle ; or to 
smrfaee$ which are marked with fine needle-like streaks. 

A'CID. An electro-negative compound which is capable of uniting 
in definite proportions with alkaline bases, and which, when liquid or 
in a state of solution, has a sour taste, changes blue litmus to red, and 
restores to turmeric, previously changed brown by an alkali, its original 
yellow. An acid may be defined, with reference to its composition, as 
" a hrdrogenized body which can readily exchange its hydrogen for a 
metal" It is a salt of hydrogen. 

1. The Names of Acids, formed from the same base, vary in their 
terminations, according to the quantity of oxygen which they are pre- 
sumed to contain. Thus, Acids which terminate in -ic denote the 
maximum of oxidation ; in -©»», a lower proportion : those which begin 
with kyper- (inrip, above) denote sn excess of oxidation ; with hypo- 
(wro, under), the lowest proportion. 8ee Sal. 

2. The Acids which terminate in -ic form compounds which terminate 
in -<gtt ; those which terminate in -ous form compounds which terminate 
in -He; thus, sulphurs? acid forms salts which are called sulphate*, 
while sulphuitNM acid forms salts which are called sulphites. 

3. AcidifiabU. A term applied to substances capable of being con- 
verted into an acid by an acidifying principle. Substances possessing 
this property are called radicals, or acidifiabU bases. 

4. Acidifying Principle. That which possesses the property of con- 
verting a substance into an acid. Oxygen was formerly supposed to be 
the general acidifying principle of nature : no such general principle, 
however, exists. 

5. Actdi-mrtry (furpim, to measure). The measurement of acids. 
The process of determining, either by volumetric analysis, or by direct 
weighing, the amount of free acid contained in acid solutions. 

6. Acidulous. Slightly acid ; a term applied to those salts in which 
the base is combined with such an excess of acid that they manifestly 
exhibit acid properties, as the supertartrate of potassa ; and to certain 
mineral waters which contain carbonic acid. 

ACI'DITAS E8URI'NA («trrtre, to be hungry). A disease in 
which an excess of acid secretion in the stomach is capable of being 
neutralized or absorbed by most of the substances eaten by persons 
affected with pica. 

A'CIDS, COUPLED. Organic acids which contain an acid coupled 
with another body, which does not neutralize the acid, but accompanies 
it in all its combinations. Thus, in hydro-sulphuro-naphthalic acid, we 
have hydro-sulphuric acid coupled with naphthaline, and the coupled 
acid neutralizes exactly as much base as the hydro-sulphuric acid alone 
would neutralize. . 

ACINE'SIS («, priv., «(»•/«, to more). A kinesis. ParsAyixi o\ 

8 AC I— A C O 

motion, as distinguished from caunihena or paralysis of sensation. See 

A'CINI (pi. of acinus, any juicy berry containing seeds, especially 
the grape ; the seed of a berry). 1. The term acini is applied, in botany, 
to the minute bodies composing certain aggregate fruits, as raspberry, 
blackberry, &c. 2. The term is also applied to the minute, granular 
parts of the lobules of the liver, connected together by Teasels. 

Aciniform. A term applied by the old anatomists to the choroid, 
from its resemblance in structure to the grains of the raisin. 

ACME' {aKfjLri, a point or edge). 1. A term, as applied to a disease, 
signifying the third stage, or mm, when it is at its height. Hippo- 
crates employs the term al dtcuai (plur.) to denote the crisis or a 
disease. 2. As applied to the life of man, it means the flower of hit 
age. Hence the pimples that appear on the face at this period vera 
called &Kuai % the indications of puberty. See Acne. 

ACNE' (okvtj, quasi air/biff, from its appearance in youth, or at the 
acme of the system). lonthus. Varus. "Copper-nose." A chronic 
inflammation of the sebiparous glands, and of their excretory hair- 
follicles, characterized by an eruption of hard, conical, and isolated 
pustules with deep-red bases. 

1. Acne vulgaris. Stone-pock, or whelk, comprising the species 
simplex, or simple ; punctata, or maggot-pimple, or grub ; ant* in- 
durata, or stone-pock, of Willan. Appears on the forehead and ckeek. 

2. Acne rosacea. Rosy drop, carbuncled face, grog-blossom, or 
bubukle. This is also termed Bacckia, and, by Mason Good, lonthus 
corymbi/er. Appears on the nose. See Gutia rosacea. 

ACO'LOG Y (&kos, a remedy, Xdyov, a description). That depart- 
ment of Therapeutics which relates to the consideration of remecies. 
By some authors the term is limited to the consideration of surgical 
and mechanical remedies. See Iamatologia. 

ACONl'TIA. An alkaloid contained in the root of Aconitum 
napelluSy a ranunculaceous plant cultivated in Britain. 

ACONO'XYLON (axuvof , without a conical top, £u\o», wood). 
The name of a new kind of stethoscope differing from that of Laencec 
in being solid instead of hollow, and constructed upon the principle of 
the better conduction of sound through solid bodies. 

A'COPON (a, priv., jcoVov, weariness). That which removes weari- 
ness. Hence to Slkoicow (sc. (pApfxaicov), a restorative. The term 
originally signified something that was rubbed upon the joints, but wai 
afterwards extended to applications without reference to the relief of 

ACO'RIA (aKopla, a ravenous appetite, from anopo* or Auroptfrrof, 
ceaseless). A Greek term employed by Hippocrates and Aretaeus for 
ravenous appetite. 

A'CORUS CA'LAMUS (atopov of the Greeks). The rhizome of 
the Common Sweet Flag, a plant of the order Acoracem, commonly 
called calamus aromatic us, from its aromatic qualities. 

ACOTYLE'DONES (a, priv., Koruktidw, a seed-lobe). Acotyle- 
donous plants ; plants whose embryos have no cotyledons or seed-lobes. 
But the acotyUdonous embryo is not exactly, as its name seems to indi- 
cate, an embryo without cotyledons ; for, in that case, cuscuta would 
be acotyledonous. On the contrary, it is an embryo which does not 
germinate from two fixed invariable points, namely, the plumule and 

A C 0-A C R 9 

the radicle, but indifferently from any point of the surface, as in some 
Aracess and in all flowerless plants. See Cryptogamia. 

ACOUSTIC NERVE (aKovw, to hear). Auditory nerve. The 
nerve of hearing, the portio mollis of the seventh pair. 

ACQUISITIVENESS (acquirer*, to obtain). A term in phreno- 
logy indicative of a desire to possess, a pleasure in accumulating, with- 
out any definite object for such desire. It is common to man and the 
lower animals. Its organ is situated at the back part of the temples, or 
the anterior inferior angle of the parietal bone. 

ACRATIA, ACRATETA, ACRA'SIA (a* part*, powerless, from 
«, priv., and KooVroe, strength). Allied terms denoting powerlessness, 
as of a nerve ; also incontinence, or impotentia of the Latins. 

A'CRIDA (acris, pungent). 1. Substances which make a thorp 
impression, that may originate from an excessive quantity of salts. 
2. A class of topical medicines which stimulate, irritate, or inflame the 
living tissues, independently of any known chemical action. They are, 
in fact, dynamical irritants. 

ACRI TICAL (a, priv., jr/otrtiroc, critical). Having no crisis; 
giving no indications of a crisis ; as aerUical symptoms, an acritical 
a b scess, &c. 

[ ACROS] AKROS (AVpoc). Extreme. An adjective denoting the 
termination or extremity of anything. 

1. Akro-bystia (fivm, to stop up). 1. Uncircumcision. 2. The fore- 
skin ; the extremity of the prepuce ; or that part which covers the glans 
penis. See Akro-posthia, of which the term is perhaps a corruption. 

2. Abro-ckeir (x«fp> the hand). A term used \>y Hippocrates to 
designate the fore-arm and hand. But d«^o'x*«p is a later form for 
&*pa x*if>* tDe k**dj whereas \^P includes the arm (Qalen). Some- 
times it may signify tike fingers. See Akro-pous. 

3. Akro-chordon (yopln, & string). An excrescence on the skin, 
with a slender base ; a tumor which Langs by a pedicle ; a wart with a 
thin neck, as distinguished from a lAvpuniciov, myrmecion, which has a 
broad base. See Myrmecia. 

4. Akr-odynia (Mini, pain). A painful affection, especially of the 
wrists and ankles, which was qpidemic in Paris in 182&-9 ; by some 
it was referred to rheumatism, by others to spinal irritation. 

5. Akro-gen (ytwwam, to produce). Point-grower; the name of a 
plant which grows only at its point or top, as a fern-tree. It is dis- 
tinguished from an eso-gen, which grows by deposition on the exterior, 
and from an endo-gen, which prows by deposition towards the interior, 
of its trunk. See Cryptoganua. 

6. Akr-olein (IXatov, oleum, oil). A limpid liquid of a highly pun- 
gent odour, obtained by the dehydration of glycerine. 

7. Akr-oleuion (t»\i*n, the cubit). The upper extremity of the ulna ; 
the point of the elbow ; a term synonymous with olecranon. 

8. Akr-omion(t»not, Ahe shoulder). A Hippocratic term denoting the 
Urge process which terminates the spineof the scapula— the outer extremity 
of the shoulder-blade; the top of the shoulder. In a horse, the withers. 

9. Akr-omphalion (6n<t»a\o*, umbilicus). The extremity or middle 
of the umbilicus, or navel. 

10. Akro-pathia (irddot , disease). A disease at any extremity of the 
body. Hippocrates applies this term to disease of the internal orifice of 
the uterus, and to cancer. 

10 AC R-A C V 

11. Akro-postkia (-wovQtj, the prepuce). The extremity of the pre-, 
puce ; * term synonymous with acro-bystia. 

12. Akro-potu (4*p<nrov«, an anomalous word for &icpot wove, 
Hipp.). The extremity of the leg, i. e. the foot— the foot, rather, perhaps, 
than the toes. But the uses of the word are analogous to those of ahro- 

13. Akro-spire (cwtTpa, a spire). The part of a germinating embryo 
called the plumula; named from its spiral form. 

14. Akroterion. Any topmost or prominent part. The plural, 
Akroteria, denotes the extremities of the body, hands and feet, fingers 
and toes. Akrokolia («<*\ov, a limb, esp. the leg) also denotes the 
extremities of the body, usually of the lower animals, as snout, ears, 
trotters, pettitoes, or the Latin trunculi. 

15. Akro-thymion (pupae or dvpov, thyme). A conical, rugated, 
bleeding wart, compared by Celsus to the flower of thyme. The term 
thymus (Ov/uov) was applied by Galen to a warty excrescence, from its 
likeness to a bunch of thyme-flower. 

16. Akrotioa. One of the orders of the class EccriUca of Mason 
Good, comprising " diseases of the external surface. 1 * See Katotica. 

ACROTI'SMUS (a, priv., Kporot, any striking, or sound produced 
by striking). Defect of pulse. Asphyxia is the term employed for this 
affection by Ploucquet See Crotophus. 

A'CRYL. The name of a hypothetical radical, analogous to acetyl. 
Acrylic acid is a compound analogous to acetic acid, standing in the 
same relation to acroleine as acetic acid does to aldehyde. Acrylic 
alcohol is a colourless transparent liquid, of a pungent odour, resem- 
bling that of mustard. 

A'CTINE (d*<ri«, a ray of light). The name given by Sir J. 
Herschel to the unit which he proposed to establish for the intensity 
of solar heat It is the value which would, in one minute of time, 
dissolve a thickness equal to one millionth part of a metre of a horizontal 
sheet of ice, when the sun's light rails vertically upon it 

ACTINISM (dKTt't, a sun-beam). Tithomciiy. A name recently 
applied to the chemical constituent of the solar ray, found to be distinct 
from the luminous and the calorific constituents. 

ACTI'NOGRAPH (Aktic, a sun-beam, ypd<pu, } to describe). An 
instrument for registering the variations which occur in the actinic or 
chemical influence of the solar rays. 

ACTINCVMETER (<Ut(«, a ray of light, /ut rpo*, a measure). An 
instrument for measuring the intensity of the sun's actinic rays. 

A'CTION (agere, to act). A general term for doing anything. 

1. Voluntary actions are those produced by acts of the will, as the 
contractions of the muscles. 2. Involuntary actions are those excited 
either mediately, through the nerves and spinal marrow, as those of the 
larynx, pharynx, sphincters, &c. ; or immediately, as those of irritability. 
3. Mixed actions are those motions or alternations of inspiration and 
expiration which constitute the acts of respiration. 

ACU'LEUS (probably a dim. of acus, a needle). A sting or dart 
of animals; a prickle; a hard, conical expansion of the bark of tome 
plants, as the rose. It is composed entirely of cellular tissue, and must 
be distinguished from the spine or thorn, which consists of woody 

ACUPRESSURE (acus t a needle, pressura, pressure). Needle- 

A C U— A DE 11 

pressure; a simple method of arresting hemorrhage from wounded or 
cat arteries by the pressure of a needle passed across their course. 

ACUPU'NCTURE (acta, a needle, punoere, to prick). Acuptmctura- 
tkm. The insertion of needles into the skin or flesh for remedial pur- 
poses, as in severe rheumatic affections. 

ACUTE DISEASES. Diseases of considerable severity, rapid 
progress, and short duration, as distinguished from chronic, or long con- 
tinued diseases. Diseases were formerly thus distinguished : morbi acu- 
<ttssmt, verj acute, lasting only three or four days ; morbi iubacutisrimi, 
lasting seven days ; and morbi iubacuti, lasting from twenty to forty days. 

ACUTENA'CULUM (acta, a needle, tenaculum, a handle). A 
needle-handle ; the name given by Heister to the porte-aiguille. 

ADDISON'S DISEASE. Dermato-melasma suprarenale. Disease 
of the supra-renal capsules, with discoloration of the skin and incurable 
anemia. It is also called Cutis area, or ** Bronzed Skin, 1 * though this 
feature is not exclusively indicative of the disease. 

ADDITAME'NTUM (adder*, to add). An addition, an accession. 
A term applied to the futures which connect the parietal and occipital 
bones to the mastoid portion of the temporal. 

A ddUamentum pedum hippocampi. The name given to a bulging ob- 
served in the substance which forms the bottom of the ventricles of the 
brain ; it follows the direction of the cornua ammonia. 

ADDU'CTION (adducerc, to draw to). The movement of a limb 
towards the median line. It is opposed to abduction. 

ADDU'CTOR (adducere, to draw to). Adducent. A muscle whose 
office is to bring one part towards another. Thus, the rectus internus 
is also called adductor oculi, from tho action of this muscle in turning 
the eye towards the nose. Its antagonist is called abductor. 

ADEI/PHI A (adt\<p6x, a brother). Literally, a brotherhood ; a 
term applied in hotanv to a combination of the filaments of the stamens 
into a single mass. Thus, if there is only one combination, as in Mallow, 
the 61aments are said to be mon adelpkow ; if there are two, as in Pea, 
they are di-adelphous ; if three, as in some species of St John's Wort, 
they are tri-adelphous ; if many, as in Melaleuca, they are called poly- 
adelphous. The tube formed by the union of monadelphous filaments 
is termed, by Mirbel, androphorum. 

ADEMCTNIA (ddtiporf'ai, to be troubled). Trouble, distress. 
Buttmann derives the term from £A»j/Aof, not at home, ill at ease. 
Others refer it to diim, to satiate ; hence ddiijuwy, cast down. 

ADE*N (Adtiv). This term denotes an acorn; in medical language, 
upland. Hence the terms, aden-itis, phlegmasia glandulosa, or inflam- 
mation of the lymphatic glands *, aden-algxa or aden-odynia, pain of a 
gland ; aden-emphraxis (J/u<£/>a£iv, stoppage V glandular obstruction ; 
adeno-gnxpktf, a description of the glands ; aaeno-logv, a treatise of the 
glands ; aden-oid, gland-like, a term applied to flesh-like tumor of the 
brain, and to chronic mammary tumor ; and adeno-tomy (ro/in, section), 
or incision of a gland. 

1. Adeno-ceU (<ojXff» a tumor). Glandular tumor. ** A tumor 
growing in or near a gland, and more or less perfectly resembling it in 

2. Adeno'ma. A tumor formed by hypertrophy of a lymphatic 
gland ; a tumor of the mammary gland formed by hypertrophy of the 
proper gland-structure. 

12 AD E— A D J 

3. Adeno-meningeal (Mtjvtyg, a membrane). A variety of gaitric fever, 
depending on disease of the mucous follicles. Pinel. 

4. Adeno-phyma (<f>vfia t a suppurating tumor). A swelling of a 
gland ; when it occurs in the liver, it is called hepato-pkyma ; but when 
it occurs in the inguinal gland, it is termed 01160. 

ADEPHA'GIA (ainv, abundantly, <paya> % to eat). Gluttony; 
voracious appetite, particularly as it occurs in children affected with 
worms. Sophocles speaks of an d&iitpdyou vooov % or devouring, in- 
satiable disease ; an epithet well adapted to the race of <paytdaiviKu>¥ 
diseases, which are also called uofiai, or eating sores. See Bulimia. 

ADEPS. The soft fat or grease of animals, as distinguished from 
the sebum, or hard fat. Adeps praparatus, adeps suillus, axungia, or 
lard, is the purified fat of the sub scrofa, or hog. Adeps ansermus is 
goose-grease. Adeps ovilius, sebum or sevum, is mutton-suet. Com- 
pare Pinquedo. 

ADH&RE'NTIA (adharere, to stick to). A general term for 
adhesions, including thickening and ossification. 

ADHE'SION (adharere, to stick to). The process by which parts, 
which have been separated by accident or design, unite. This is owing 
to an intervening deposit of coagulating lymph, or albumino-fibrin, 
commonly called cicatrix. See Intention. 

ADHE'SIVENESS (adherere, to stick to). A term in phrenology, 
indicative of attachment, and the production of friendship and society. 
It is common to man and the lower animals. Tbe organ is situated just 
above the lam bd old suture, immediately above and to the outer side of 
the organ of Philoprogenitiveness, and on each side of Concentrative- 
ness. It is generally stronger in women than in men. 

ADIAPNEU'STIA (a, priv., <5ia-rviu», to blow through). Want 
of evaporation ; defective or impeded perspiration ; a term nearly 
synonymous with adiaphoresis. 

A'DIPOCERE (adeps, fat, cera, wax). The fatty spermaceti-like 
substance into which muscle is converted by long immersion in water 
or spirit, or by burial in moist earth. 

A'DIPOSE ARTERIES. Arteries which supply adeps or fat, par- 
ticularly those branches of the diaphragmatic, capsular, and renal 
arteries, which supply the fat about the kidneys. 

A'DIPOSE TISStJE (adeps, fat). Tela adipesa. The tissue which 
encloses the adeps or fat. It is composed of minute cells clustered 
together within toe areolae of common cellular tissue. 

ADIPO'SIS (adeps, adipis, fat). Excessive deposition, or hyper- 
trophy of the adipose substance. The result is aaipoma, the actual 
deposit. But each term consists of a Latin word with a Greek suffix, 
and is therefore unclassical. See Preface, par. 2. 

AD1TSIA (a, priv., tfya, thirst). The total absence of thirst ; one 
of tbe dworexia, false or defective appetites, of Cullen. 

ADI'PSOS (a, priv., &t\fta, thirst). The primary sense of this 
word is not thirsty. Its secondary and active sense is, quenching 

ADITUS (adire, to go to). An approach or access ; the entrance 
to a canal or duct, as the aditus ad aaumductum Fallopii. 

ADJECTIVE COLOUR. A colour which requires to be fixed by 
some mordant or bane, to give it permanency. 

A'DJU VANS (adjuvarc, to help). A constituent part of a medicinal 

A D N— JE GO 15 

formula, denoting ( that which assists and promotes the operation * of the 
principal ingredient or basis. See Prescription. 

ADNATA (adnata, to grow to). Literally, grown to, or adhering. 
1. An adjectival term (tunica being understood) applied to the tunica 
conjunctiva, or external coat of the eye, so named from its close adherence 
to the anterior part of the eyeball. 2. This term is applied, in botany, 
to the anther, when it is attached to the filament by its back, as in 
polygonum. See Anther. 

ADOLESCENCE (adolescere, to now up). The period of youth, 
between puberty and the time at which the body has acquired its full 
development, ranging between 14 and 25 in man, and 12 and 21 in 
woman. See Adult. 

AD OSCULATION (adosculari, to kiss at or to). 1. Impregnation 
by mere external contact, without intromission, as in fishes. 2. The 
insertion of one part of a plant into another. 

A'DRAGANT (a corruption of tragacanth). A gum obtained 
from several species of Astragalus. It consists, in great measure, of a 
scaly substance, called adragantine. 

ADULT (adulttu, part of adolescere, to grow up). That which 
has reached the period when the body has acquired its full develop- 
ment, when adolescence is completed. See Adolescence. 

ADULTERATION (adulterare, to defile). Figuratively, the 
mixing up of noxious or inert ingredients with articles of food or medi- 
cine; the debasing of any product of manufacture, especially chemical, 
by the introduction of cheap materials. 

ADU'STION (adurere, to bum). The action of heat, as applied to 
the body. In surgery, the term denotes cauterization. 

ADVENTITIOUS (adventus, an arrival, from advenire } to come 
to). Accidental, casual, that which is not normal; that which comes 
from some other person or thing ; a term applied to false membranes ; 
or opposed to the term hereditary or congenital ; also applied, in botany, 
to anything developed out of the ordinary course, as aerial roots, extra- 
axillary buds, &c. The term adventicius is opposed, in classical lan- 
guage, to the terms nroprius, innatus, insitus, &c. 

ADYNA'MIA (o., priv^duva/utf, power). The defect of power; 
considerable debility of the vital powers. By the term Adynamia some 
nomologists designate all asthenic diseases. Adynamic /ever is fever 
characterized by prostration or depression of the vital powers. 

JEDOl'A(aldola, pudenda, from aioM«,pudor). The pudenda. Hence, 

1. AZdcdo-ptosis (TT»<rtf, lapsus). Prolapsus of one or more of the 
pudenda. Sauvages and Sagar apply the term to the meatus urinarius, as 
well as to the uterus. 

2. JEdao-ptophia [^6<pox, a noise). Flatus issuing per urethram, or 
per vaginam. 

jBGER, jEGROTUS. These adjective terms agree in denoting 
the unsound state of a patient; the former, however, extends to both 
mind and body, while the latter is limited to the body alone. 

jE'GILOPS (al£, alyot, a goat, &\jr, the eye). Anchilops. An 
ulcer at the inner canthus of the eye, so called from the supposition 
that goats are subject to it. 

.raGOBRONCHOTHON Y (all, * g *^ 0P°yX°*i a bronchos, and 
4>wrn, voice). The bleating and bronchial voice, the principal symptom 
in pleuro-pueumonia. See A uscultation. 

14 MQO—JR8T 

JEGOTHONY (al£, a rat, <pmt*j y a voice). A peculiar sound 
of the voice, resembling the bleating of a goat, heard in certain diseases, 
on applying the ear to the back of the chest over the bases of the lungs, 
as in cases of pleurisy with effusion. See Auscultation, 

JEGRITUDO, jEGROTATIO. The former term is generally used 
for sorrow, care, anxiety, &c. ; the latter for bodily sickness. " Proprie 
ut segrotatio in corpora, sic aegritudo in animo nomen habet" — Vic. 
When Cicero says, u quod minus noceant animi segrotationes quam cor- 
poris/' he speaks of the passions which last for some time. 

JB'OLIPILE (JEolipUa, JEolus's ball). A hollow metal ball with 
a slender pipe for the purpose of converting water into steam. 

-ffiQUA'TOR OCULI. The equator of the eye ; the line formed by 
the union of the lids when closed. But this line is below the middle of 
the globe, and the term is therefore a misnomer. 

AE'R (Anp t aioov, aer, air, the dense air which we breathe, the 
atmosphere). This prefix denotes the presence of air or gas in the 
following terms : — 

1. Aerate. To impregnate with carbonic acid gas, or fixed air, as in 
aerated or gas-waters. The process is termed aeration. 

2. Atrial Acid. The name given by Bergmann to carbonic acid, 
from an idea that it entered into the composition of atmospheric 

3. Acri-ferous (Jero, to carry). Air-carrying; a term applied to the 
tubes which convey air, as the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. 

4. Aeri-form (Jorma, likeness). Air-like; a term applied to gaseous 
fluids, from their resemblance to common air. 

5. A erostatic press (<rra<m, from Z<rrtifu, to make to stand). A 
machine for extracting the colouring matter from dye-woods, and simi- 
lar substances, by means of the pressure of the atmosphere, which forces 
the extracting liquid through the substance, below which a vacuum has 
been formed. 

6. A'tro-therapeia (0»pairtta % medical treatment'). A method of 
treating certain diseases by subjecting the patient to the influence of air 
maintained, by steam-power, at a pressure somewhat greater than that 
of the surrounding atmosphere. 

7. Aeroby, An-aeroby (0foc, life). Terms invented by Pasteur to 
distinguish beings living without air and obtaining the oxygen they 
require from oxygenized substances already prepared, as ferments and 
vibriones, giving rise to ' septikaemia' — from beings which absorb the free 
oxygen of the blood, liberating carbonic acid and causing carbuncle, as 
the bacteridies. 

8. Aero-steam engine. An engine in which compressed air is united 
with steam. It is said to have effected the saving of 47 per cent, of 

-JE'RESIS (atpt <m, a taking of anything, from aipt <•, to take). A 
termination denoting a removal or separation, as in aph-aresis, the 
removing of a diseased part ; di-aresis, a solution of continuity ; ex- 
a rests, an old term for the removal of a diseased part, &c. 

JERWGQ (<m, copper). Verdigris; an impure di-acetate of copper, 
formed by placing plates of the metal in contact with the fermenting 
marc of the grape, or with cloth dipped in vinegar. See Verdigris. 

/ESTHE'SIA (aZffOtjfftv, sensibility, from aIo*6a'vo/*at, to perceive). 
Perception ; feeling ; sensibility. 

M 8 T— M T H 15 

1. Dyn-mathesia. Defective perception; a morbid state of the cor- 
poreal senses generally. 

2. A n ms l hts ia , Abaenee of the tense of touch. The former term 
is extended to all the senses; the present is limited to a single 

3. AZsfheterium. The seat of the senses, or the tentorium. The 
term has been applied to an organ of sense, and to the perceptive 

4. JEstkesiomeier (/t/rpoy, a measure). An instrument for measuring 
the tactile sensibility of the surface of the human body, in health and 
d i s ea s e , by finding the shortest distance by which two points can be 
separated when brought into contact with the body, ana yet both be 
distinctly perceived and felt. — Webster. 

jESTrlE'TICA (aMirrtcov, belonging to ataOtjiuv or sensation). 
Agents affecting sensation, and employed either to increase or to 
diminish sensibility ; in the former case they may be termed hyper- 
entketica. in the latter hypmsthetiea. See AnsBsthehea. 

ESTIVATION (osttevs, belonging to summer). Prmfloratum. 
A term used in botany, to express the manner in which the parts of a 
flower are arranged in the flower-bud, with respect to one another, 
before their expansion. Compare Vernation. 

.*'8TU8 VOLATICU8. Literally, flying heat ; a synonym of 
Wild-fire rash. See Strophulus. 

JET AS. Age; a term including the several states of life, as infancy, 
youth, and old age. Mtas firm at a is the prime or full strength of 
age, the age of thirty. jEUmm constant is the steady age, the age of 
forty. A*Jtas wtatura is the age of maturity or prudence, the age of 

To these may be added the following terms : — Mtas ajfecta, a state of 
total decay in the human frame ; Mtas ingravescent, a burdensome age, 
the weight of years ; /Etas ejsacta vel prcBcipitata y the decline of age or 
end of fife ; Mtas decrepita, decrepit age, as relates to the countenance 
and state of old age ; and Mtasextrema, relating to the approaching end 
of life. See Apes oflAfe. 

AKTHECOAMOUS PLANTS (aWnt, unusual, yafiot, mar- 
riage). 8emivaseular plants; a class of flowerless plants furnished with 
stomates and vascular tissue. The term has reference to the unusual 
method of their reproduction. See Amphigamous. 

jETHER (nltfifp, ether, the sky, the pure region of air above our 
atmosphere). A term applied to a highly volatile ami inflammable 
liquid produced by the action of an scid on alcohol or on rectified spirit. 
The ether of the Br. Ph. is u a volatile liquid prepared from alcohol, 
and containing not less than 92 per cent, by volume of pure ether." 
Pure ether is ** ether free from alcohol and water.** 

jETHE'REA. Spmtuosa. A class of stimulants, including ardent 
spirit*, wine, beer, and the ethers. See Methystiea. 

jETHE'REO-OLEO'SA. A class of vegetable stimulants which 
owe their medicinal powers wholly or chiefly to volatile oil. 

JETHIOPS (AWioxLr, an Ethiop). An Ethiop; and, hence, a medi- 
cine as black as an Ethiop. Hence the terms mineral esihinps* or black 
sulphuret of mercury; srthiops per se, or grey oxide of mercury ; mar- 
tial athiopt, or deutoxide of iron ; &c. 

iETHOGEN (aldm*, brilliant, yti»oM<", to become). A comvoxixvd 

16 JET I— A F F 

of boron and nitrogen, discovered by Mr. Balmain. It gives a bril- 
liant phosphorescent light, when heated before the blowpipe. 

JETIO'LOGY (ai-rioXoyia, a giving of a cause; from air la, a cause, 
Xdyoc, an account). The doctrine of the causes or reasons of phe- 
nomena ; hence, the doctrine of the causes of disease, the proximate or 
occult, and the remote or evident causes. 

AFFECTIO, AFFECTUS {officer*, to do something to). The 
former term denotes the affecting of the mind or body ; the latter 
denotes the effect thus produced. See Preface, par. 3. 

A'FFERENT (afferre, to convey to). Bearing or conducting; a 
term applied to the lymphatic vessels which convey fluids into the 
glands, as distinguished from the efferent vessels, which convey the 
fluids from the glands towards the thoracic duct. The term afferent 
has also been applied to those nerves which convey impressions to the 
central axis, ana which Hartley called sensory nerves, in contra- 
distinction to the efferent or motor nerves. See Efferent. 

AFFl'NITY, CHEMICAL (affinitas, relationship). That kind of 
attraction by which different classes of bodies combine, at insensible 
distances, to form compounds, or new bodies, as in the case of an acid 
with an alkali, forming a salt. The term was introduced from the idea 
that chemical attraction takes place between those substances only which 
resemble each other. The metaphor signifies, however, not a resem- 
blance, but a disposition to unite. 

1. Single affinity is the power by which two elementary bodies com- 
bine, as hydrogen and chlorine. 

2. Elective affinity denotes the preference which one body manifests 
in combining with another, rather than with a third, a fourth, &c. 

3. Double elective affinity occurs when two compounds decompose 
each other, and two new compounds are formed, by an exchange of 
elements. This is also called double decomposition, or complex affinity. 

4. Quiescent affinity is that which tends to maintain the elements of 
a compound in their present state, preventing decomposition. 

5. Divellent affinity is that which tends to arrange the particles of a 
compound in a new form, producing decomposition. In mixing dif- 
ferent compounds, if the sum total of the divellent be more powerful 
than that of the quiescent affinities, decomposition takes place. 

6. Disposing affinity it that which promotes the tendency of bodies to 
combine in a particular way, by presenting to them a third substance 
which exerts a strong attraction to the compound they form ; when the 
combination has been effected, the third substance may be withdrawn. 
Some writers call this tendency to unite the affinity of intermedium. 
Berthollet styles it reciprocal affinity. 

7. Bertholiet distinguishes affinity into elementary, when it takes 
place between the elementary parts of bodies : and resulting, when it 
takes place with a compound only, and would not take place with 
the elements of that compound. 

AFFl'NITY, BA / SYLOUS,HALO , GENOUS. Terms employed 
in the investigation of chemical polarity, and denoting two attractive 
powers of opposite natures ; thus, in a binary compound, as chloride of 
potassium, there is the basylous affinity of the metal potassium, and 
the halogenous affinity of the salt-radical chlorine. The former corre- 
sponds with vitreous, the latter with resinous electricity. 

AFFLA'TUS (qffiare, to blow or breathe on). A blast, vapour, 

A P F— A G M 17 

or blight. The term is applied to a current or blast of air which strikes 
the body and produces di>ease. 

AFFTJ'SION (afimdere t to pour to). The pouring of water upon 
the whole or a part of the body, as a remedy in disease. 

ATTER-BIRTH. A term applied to the placenta and membranes 
of tbeovum, which are expelled after the delivery of the foetus. 

ATTER-DAMP. The carbonic acid which results from the explo- 
sion of marsh-pas, or light carburetted hydrogen. 

A'FTER-P'AINS. A term applied to the contractions of the uterus 
which are continued for a certain length of time after delivery. 

AGALA'CTIA (<ft<yaX«Arrta, from a, priv., and ya\a, milk). 
Deftctus lactis ; oligogalactia. A diminution or complete abtence of 
milk m nursing women. See Galaeiorrhafa. 

A'GAMjE {iyapos, from a, priv., yapo*, marriage). Agamous or 
sexless ; a term applied to cryptogamous plants, from the notion that 
they posses* mo sexual organs. 

AUA'RICUS. Agaric; the generic name for all the species of 
mushrooms, properly so called. The term must not be confounded 
with Amadou. See Boletus Igniarius. 

AGENNETSIS ( a. priv., yi^wtjatv, a producing). Male sterility ; 
inability to beget offspring. As applied to the brain, it denotes im- 
perfect development and atrophy of that organ. 

AGES OF LIFE. The periods of human life, characterized by the 
most remarkable processes of development, or by their completion, are, 
according to Miiller, the following : — 

1. The period of embryonic life. During this period the processes of 
formation and growth are in their greatest activity. The organs which 
are forming present none of their functional phenomena, or only a 
gradual commencement of them. 

2. The period of immaturity. This period extends from birth to 
puberty. It is marked by growth, by the development of the forms of 
the different parts of the body, and by the gradual perception and 
analysis, by the mind, of the different phenomena of the senses. The 
period of childhood comprises the first 6ix years; that of boyhood ex- 
tends to the fifteenth year. 

3. The period of maturity. This period begins at puberty and ends 
at the period when the generative power is lost, which in woman occurs 
from about the forty-fifth to the fiftieth year. This period is distinguished 
into the ages of youth and manhood, or womanhood. 

4. The period of sterility. This period extends from the cessation of 
the fruitful exercise of the generative function to extreme old age. 

AGEU'STIA (aytvaTia, from a, priv., and ytvofiai, to taste). 
This term properly denotes fasting, but is used to imply defect or loss 
of taste, one of the dysesthesia of Cullen. 

AGGLUTI NATION (agglutinare, to glue or cement to). Adhesive 
union ; the adhesion of parts by means of coagulating substance. See 

A'GGREGATE {aggregatus, herded together). 1. Formed into 
clusters, as aggregate glands. 2. Composed of florets united within a 
common receptacle, as in composite; ; or of carpels crowded together, as 
in ranunculus. 

A'GMINATE GLANDS (agmen, aominis, a heap). Another name 
for the aggregate or clustered glands of Peyer, situated in the smaU 
intestines. AyvuxaS i* the classical term. 

18 AG N-A G U 

A'GNAIL {ang-nmgle, A.S. from ange, uneasy). An old English 
term for a small flaw of the skin, near the tiu^er-nail, occasioning 
sometimes a whitlow. It is now applied to the little ragged bond ot 
cuticle which curves back and projects at the root of the nail. If the 
etymology given above is correct, the vulgarity of the term hangnail is 
solely owing to the undue use of the unfortunate letter A. 

AGNl'NA MEMBRA NA (agninus, from agnus, a lamb, membrana, 
a membrane). The name given by Aotius to one of the membranes 
of the fortus, from its tenderness. 

-AGO'GA, -AGOGUES {dymyot, one who leads, from <Sy»,to lead 
or drive). A termination of words denoting substances which expel 
others, as in copr-agogues, expellers of faces ; lith-agogues, expellers of 
calculus, &c. 

AGO'MPHIOS (AyofMpiov, from a, priv., and y output*, a grinder* 
tooth). Without grinders. The terms agomphiasis and agomphosu 
are not classical; but gomphiasis and gomphosis are found, the former 
denoting tooth-ache, the latter a form of articulation. 

-AGRA (ayoa, seizure). A termination of words denoting a seizure, 
or pain, generally as applied to gout, as in c\eh-agra, gout of the clavi- 
cle ; pod-twjrra, gout of the foot, &c. 

AGRA'PHIA (a, priv., ypntfrw, to write). Loss of the cerebral 
faculty of expressing iaeaa by writing. See Aphonia. 

A'G R I OS (aypiov, wild, fierce). Agriut. This term denotes liv- 
ing in the fields, and, hence, living wild. In a medical sense, it means 
malignant, cancerous, &c., with reference to the violence of certain 
diseases, as in lichen agriut. 

AGRY'PNIA {aypvirvla). Sleeplessness; waking; watching. 
Hence the terms agrypnocoma (icwua, drowsiness), a lethargic state 
without actual sleep ; and agrypnotica, agents which cause wakefulness. 
The latter have been termed anthypnotica. 

A'GUE (Fr. aigu, from Lat. acutus, acute). Intermittent fever. An 
intermittent fever, attended by alternate cold and hot fits. The interval 
of the paroxysms has given rise to the following varieties of ague : an 
interval of 24 hours constitutes a quotidian ague ; of 48 hours, a tertian; 
of 72 hours, a quartan ; of 96 hours, a quintan. 

The following terms arc also in use : — 1. The double quotidian, 
having two paroxysms every day. 2. The double tertian, having a 
paroxysm every day, those of the alternate days being of equal 
duration and intensity. 3. The triple tertian, in which two paroxysms 
occur on one day, and one on the other. 4. The duplicated tertian, 
which recurs twice on each alternate day. 5. The double quartan, 
in which a paroxysm occurs on the day succeeding that of the regular 
quartan % so that there is a perfect intermission only on the third 
nay. 6. The duplicated quartan, in which two paroxysms occur on 
the day of attack, with two days of intermission. 7. The triple 
quartan, in which a slight paroxysm occurs on each of the usual days 
of intermission. 8. Those forms of ague which have longer intervals, 
as five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten days, a month, or a year, are 
termed erratic. See Brasefounderi Ague. 

AGUE-CAKE. Enlargement of the spleen, induced by ague, and 
orescnting the appearance of a solid mass or cake. 

AGUE-DROP. A solution of the arsenite of potaasa; an 
empirical remedy for which the liquor arwenicalit, or Fowler's solution, 
is now snb&tituted. 

A I R— A LB 19 

AIR Uhfce, Mir). This term denotes popularly the atmosphere. In 
chemical language it is frequently applied to a gas, ox a permanently 
elastic or aeriform fluid. Thus, oxygen gas was called vital air; 
hrdrogen gas, im/tammable air; carbonic acid, fixed air; ammonia, 
alkalim air, dec 

AIR-BED. A mattress made of vulcanized india-rubber, divided 
into separate compartments, each of which is provided with an air- valve. 
Air-coahioos axe similarly prepared. 

A1R-CELI£ IN PLANTS. Air-camiies. Circumscribed spaces 
surrounded by cells, or lacuna formed by obliteration of the septa 
between a number of contiguous cells, as in hemlock and the pith of 
walnut. They axe large in aquatic plants, and enable them to float. 

AIR-GAS. The principle of this and similar inventions is that of 
mating atmospheric sax through light hydrocarbons, the latter furnishing 
the illuminating nower. 

AKY'ANOBLEPSIA (a, priv., *uavoi y blue, 0X«w«, to see). A 
want of power to distinguish the shades of the Mm colour. 

AL. 1. The Arabic article signifying us, prefixed to many terms 
formerly in use, as al-ehemy, al-kahesU at-cokol, dec. 2. The terminal 
particle -al is frequently employed in chemical nomenclature, to express 
the names of bodies which axe either homologous with aldehyd, or are 
derived from it, as bmtyr-al, waler-al, chlor-al> orosvo/, Ac. 

A 'LA. A wing ; and, by metonymy, the arm-pit Also, in botany, 
the designation of each lateral petal of a papilionaceous corolla. The 
following are its anatomical uses : — 

1. Ata % or pavilion. The upper and cartilaginous part of the ear. 

2. Aim majoree. Literally, larger wings ; another term for the labia 
externa of the pudenda. 

3. Aim nunores. Literally, letter wing* ; a name applied to the two 
small folda formed by the nymphas. 

4. Aim nasi. The lateral or movable cartilaginous parts of the 

5. Aim vespertdionnm. Literally, bats' wings ; the broad ligaments 
situated between the uterus and the Fallopian tubes. 

6. Aim vomeris. Two lamina) constituting the sphenoidal edge of 
the vomer. 

ALAIjIA (a. priv., and \a\im, to speak). An old name revived 
to designate the loss of the cerebral faculty of speech. See Aphasia. 

ALA'RIS {ala, a wing). Pterygoid or wing-like ; as applied to each 
of the jstervgoid proc es ses of the sphenoid bone, &c 

ALBlTvO (o/ms, white). A person in whom the skin, hair, and 
iris are light, and the pigmentum of the eye is wanting. The term 
Albino is derived from the Portuguese, by whom it was applied to in- 
dividuals found on the coast of Africa, who resembled the negroes in 
everv respect except in their colour, and who were consequently called 
Lemk'jEtkiopes, white negroes. The ferret is supposed to be an albino 
polecat. See Alphosis. 

ALBUGl'NEA (aftw. white). Whitish. The word tmdea being 
understood, we have the following terms : — 

1. Albmgimea oculi. The Uuuea sclerotica, or fibrous membrane 
situated immediately under the conjunctiva, formed bv the expansion 
of the tendons of the four recti muscles. From the brilliancy of its 
whiteness, it has given rise to the popular expression while of to* eye. 

20 A L B— A L C 

2. Atbuainea testis. A thick fibrous membrane of a white appearance, 
forming the -proper tonic of the testis. 

ALBU'GO (albugo, whiteness, film, from albus, white). Leueoma ; 
cornea opaca. A disease of the eye in which a white, opaque spot 
appears on the transparent cornea. 

ALBU'MEN (albus, white). A member of the group of substances 
known as the albuminoid or protein group. 

1. Animal albumen exists in two forms, the liquid and the solid. In 
the liquid state, it is a thick, glairy fluid, constituting the principal part 
of the white of egg. In the solid state, it is contained in several of the 
textures of the body, as the cellular membrane, &c. A substance 
slightly differing from albumen has been obtained from the serum of 
chyle, and termed by Prout incipient albumen. 

*2. Vegetable albumen closely resembles animal albumen. It is an 
ingredient of emulsive seeds, constitutes the floury part of the cereal ia, 
and is generally known, in plants, as the perisperm. It exists alto in 
the sap of many plants. 

ALBU'MINOID DEGENERATION. A degeneration of the 
kidney, in which the morbid material is of the nature of albumen. 
The terms lardaeeous and waxy are also used with reference to the 
appearance of the morbid tissues. See Amyloid. 

ALBU'MINOID or PROTEIN GROUP. A group of substances 
nearly identical in their chemical composition. These are, albumen, 
represented by the white of egg and the serum of blood ; fibrin, the 
muscular tissue of animals ; casein, found in solution in milk, and 
forming the basis of cheese ; and legumin, existing in the seeds of all 
leguminous plants. To these may be added globulin and viiellin. 

ALBU'MININ. Oonin. Names given by Couerbe to the mem- 
branous tissue in which the liquid albumen of the egg is contained. 

ALBU'MINOSE (albumen). Albuminoid matter prepared for 
absorption by the process of digestion. See Epidermose. 

ALBUMIN U'RI A (albumen, and oi/piw, to make water). An un- 
claesical term for a disease of the kidneys, attended by the presence of 
albumen in the urine. See Bright* $ Disease. 

ALBUR'NUM (albus % white). The white and softer part of the 
stem of exogenous trees, situated between the inner bark and the hard, 
dark, and innermost portion of the stem, or duramen. From its being 
the channel of the ascending sap, it is commonly called sap-wood. 8ee 

AL'CHEMY. Al-kemy. An art which aimed at transmuting metals 
into gold, and at discovering a panacea or universal remedy for disease. 
Chemistry is probably derived from Alkemy, "the wise daughter of a 
foolish mother." 

AL'COHOL. The spirituous principle of wine, beer, and spirits, 
produced by the fermentation of sugar. In the diluted state, it is 
sometimes called u spirits of wine.** Absolute alcohol is entirely free 
from water. 

Alcohols, series of. Series of homologous bodies divided into 
ntomUomic, diatomic, and triatomie alcohols, according to their 
construction upon the type of one, two, or three molecules of 
water. The diatomic alcohols are called glycols ; the triatomio, gly- 

A L'COHOLISM . An acute attack of poisoning by alcoholic drinks, 

A L C— A LI 21 

especially affecting the nervous centres and liver, and inducing 
delirium tremens, mania e potu, &c. See Dipsomania. 

ALCOHOLCMETRY (alcohol, and nirpow, a measure). The 
process of estimating the percentage amount of absolute alcohol in any 
sample of spirits, which is usually effected by the determination of the 
specific gravity of the sample. The instrument employed in the process 
is called an alcoholometer or amometer. It is usually some form of the 
hydrometer with a special scale. 

AliDEHYD. A colourless liquid, one of the products of the 
oxidation of alcohol. Its name is derived from the first' syllables of 
the words a/cohol and cfeAatfrogenatus. Aldehyd is t in fact, alcohol 
mmm» hydrogen. 

1. A&ekfdic or Acetous add is prepared from aldehyd, and may be 
retarded as acetic acid deprived of an equivalent of water. 

2. Resin ofatdekgd is a product of the decomposition of aldehyd by 
alkalies, with the assistance of air. 

ALE'MBIC. A chemical vessel of glass or metal, formerly used in 
distillation, but now generally superseded by the retort. 

ALEMBROTH SALT. The Salt of Wisdom of the alchemists. 
A compound of bichloride of mercury and sal-ammoniac. 

ALEPPO EVIL. Aleppo button. A disease endemic in Aleppo, 
supposed to be allied to anthrax, and corresponding with " Delhi boil." 

ALBURO'METER (£\»vpo*, wheaten flour, uirpov* a measure). 
An iustmment for determining the quantity of gluten in flour, and thus 
indicating itspanifiable properties. 

ALEXIPHA'RMIC (aAagi^dpMaKot, from a\t£«, to repel, 
+mpmmxo*i poison). AUxiteric Expelling or resisting ooison ; acting 
ss an antidote. Generally, in a substantive sense, a remedy or antidote ; 
sometime* a charm or spell. See Antidote, 

A'LGAROTH, POWDER OF. The oxy-chloride of antimony, 
named alter Victor Algarotti, of Verona. 

-A'LOIA (oAyot, psin). A termination of words denoting, like 
•otfjnssa, the presence of pain, as in gutr-aloia, pain of the stomach ; 
odont-olpta, pain of the teeth, Ac. 

A'LGOR (aloere, to be cold). A sudden chilliness or rigor. 

ALIENATu) (alienare, to alienate). The transferring of a thing 
from one person to another. Hence, alienatio mentis is, figuratively, 
loss of reason, lunacy ; and the former of these two words is also used, 
in the same sense, absolutely, without the addition of the latter word. 

A LI E'NIST (alienus, not one's own ; of the mind, distracted, delirious). 
A term sometimes applied to one who treats diseases of the mind. 

ALIFO'RMIS (ota, a wing, forma, likeness). Pterygoid, or wiog- 
like; as applied to processes of the sphenoid bone. See Alarvt. 

ALIMENTARY CANAL. The entire passage through which 
the aliment or food passes. It is a musculo-membranous tube, ex- 
tending from the mouth to the anus. 

ALIMENTATION [alimentum, nourishment). The process of 
converting food into nourishment. The organ* of alimentation are 
the mouth, gullet, stomach, and intestines, with their appendage*. 

ALISPHE'NOID (a/a, a wing, spkenotdes, the sphenoid bone). An 
unclassicsi term applied by Professor Owen to the middle portion, or 
great wing, of the sphenoid bone— to the " ncurapophysis " of the 
" neural arch." See Vertebra, 

22 A L I—A L L 

A'LTZARINE (alizari, the commercial name of madder in the 
Levant). A crystalline body, constituting the red colouring matter of 
madder, the root of Rubia tinctorum. See Anthracene. 

ALKALESCENT. A term applied to substances in which alkaline 
(amrooniacal ) properties are becoming developed. The term is generally 
applied to the urine. 

A'LKALI (Arab. al % the, kali, the name of a plant called oTtm-teorf, 
and an old name for potash). A substance which unites with acicls in 
definite proportions, has a peculiar soapy feel and taste, changes yellow 
turmeric to brown, and restores the blue colour to litmus paper which 
has been reddened by an acid. These properties are called alkaline, 
apparently because they were known to the early alchemists as being 
possessed by the ashes of plants (potashes) called kali. There are three 
kinds of alkali : — 

, », r , ,, t> * u {or fixed alkalies, being left in the 

1. The VegctabU, or Potash, J ^ of inknd ^ m \^ e hnU 

2. The Aft neral, or Soda, | respectively. 

3. The Animal, or Ammonia, or volatile alkali, being raised by 
distillation from hartshorn, &c. 

ALKALI METER {alkali, and filrpov,*. measure). An instrument 
for ascertaining the Quantity of alkali in given substances by the 
quantity of dilute sulpnurie acid of a known strength which a certain 
weight of them can neutralize. 

ALKALINE EARTHS. Substances which possess alkaline pro- 
perties ; such as lime, baryta, and strontia, which, oeing far less soluble 
in water than potash and soda, are distinguished as the alkaline eaHke. 

ALK A LOI 1)8 {alkali, and tide*, likeness) . Salifiable bases existing 
in some vegetables as proximate principles, and belonging to different 
series. These substances are sometimes termed vegetable alkalies, 
having been hitherto found exclusively in vegetables; they are also 
called organic alkalies, from their requiring a vital power to effect 
their formation. The term alkaloid has reference to their re- 
semblance to alkalies, the properties of which they possess in the 
lowest degree. 

A'LKANET. A fine red colouring matter, obtained from the root 
of Anchuea tinctoria, or Dyers* Bu gloss. 

ALKA'RGEN. Kakodplic acid. An add formed by the action of 
the air upon kakodyl or its oxide. Alkarnn is an impure oxide of 
kakodyl formerly caned liquor of Cadet ; it is remarkable for its insup- 
portable odour and spontaneous inflammability in air. 

A'LLANTOIS (AXXarroiiAffc, sc. v^iriv or Yirciv, from AXXat, 
AXXavrot, a sausage, and tldof, likeness). Altaniotdet membrana. 
The name applied to one of the membranes of the foetus from its 
somewhat resembling a sausage ; it is situated between the chorion and 
the amnion. It is sometimes rendered in Latin farciminalu (membrana), 
from fare i men, a sausage. 

1. Allantoic Acid. A compound described by Vauquelin under the 
name of amniotic acid, and said to exist in the liquor amnii of the cow. 
It was found by Dzondi to be present solely in the liquor of the allan- 
tois, and to be in fact the urine of the foetus. 

2. AUantoin. A crystalline substance found in the allantoic fluid of 
the cow, and produced artificially by boiling uric acid with the pure- 
coloured oxide, or peroxide, of lead. 

A L L—A LP 28 

3. Allan&o-toxicwm (rogue**, poison). A name given to a poiion 
developed in sausages competed of blood and liver. 

ALLEVA'TIO {allevare, to raise up). The act of railing; 
figuratively, the act of relieving pain. Auevamentum is the eaae or 
comfort received. AUevator it an apparatus for raising invalids. 

ALLOTATHY (£\Aot, other, wd8o*, disease). Heteropa&y. 
The art of curing, founded on dijfereucet, by which one morbid state 
removed by inducing a different one. The practitioner it termed ai. 
■ffinpsrti'tf, or, more curtly, allopath. See Homwopaihy. 

ALLO-STEATODES (aXAot, other, ariarwiw, tallowy). A 
term denoting altered sebaceous secretion, and embracing the morbid 
change* of the sebaceous substance. See Stearrkwa. 

ALLOTRIOPHA'GIA (dXAdrpcos, extraneous, 4>&y<*, to eat). 
Malaria. The name by which Volpato has described the pica endemic 
ia certain parts of Italy. 8ee Pica. 

ALLOTROP Y (dAXdrpovoc, of a different nature). A term used 
to designate the property poss e ss e d by certain substances of existing in 
two or more distinct states, the chemical and physical properties of the 
same substance differing in each of the states in which it exists. 
Sulphide of mercury, for instance, may be procured in the black and in 
the red state, yet its composition is precisely the same in both. Carbon 
furnishes three forma— -plumbago, charcoal, and diamond. Dimorphism . 
or diversity in crystalline form, is, therefore, a particular case of 
allotropy. See Ozone. 

ALLO'XAN. The erythric acvl of Brugnatelli, the chief product 
of the oxidation of uric acid. Alloxanic add is produced by the meta- 
morphosis of alloxan by caustic alkalies. 

ALLCY. A term applied to a combination of metals by fusion, as 
of copper and zinc, to form brass. When mercury is one of the metals, 
the compound is called an amalgam. 

A'LLYL (allium, garlic, SX»i, matter). The hypothetical radical of 
the oils obtained from alliaceous and cruciferous plants. These oils 
may be termed the allvl oils, to distinguish them from other sulphurated 
oils. AUylio alcohol is an organic liquid, one of the sciiee of alcohols. 

A'LMONDS. Amygdala. This term is applied, popularly, to the 
exterior glands of the neck and to the tonsils. 

A'LOES. A drug consisting of the inspissated juice of the leaf of 
some species of aloe, imported from Barbadoes and from Socotra. 

A'LOIN. A peculiar principle, discovered in nearly all the varieties 
of aloes, by Meissner, analogous in many of its chemical characters to 
rktin, the peculiar principle of rhubarb. See Nataluin. 

ALOPE'KIA (dXstwtKia, a disease, like the mange in foxes, in 
which tbe hair falls off; from dXdWtig, a fox). Fluxus eapiltorum ; 
ana ; eahiHee. Baldness, or the falling off of the hair, called fox^vil 
or wemrf. 

Alopekia unmis. Fall of the nail ; an affection in which the nail 
is regularly shed ; a new nail being formed beneath, while the old one 
become* loosened previously to falling off. 

ALPH A-O'RCEIN. Dr. Kane finds the orcein of archil to be often 
a mixture of two substances, differing in their proportion with the age 
of the archil, which he name* alpha orcein and beta-orcexn ; the latter 
is produced by the oxidation of the former, and is the orcein of Koni- 
qurt and other chemist*. 

24 A L P— A L V 

ALPHA-ORSELLIC ACID. One of the colorific principle! of the 
Orchella weeds. The others are the beta-orsellic and the eiythric acids. 

ALPHA-RESIN. 1. The name of one of the two resins of colo- 
phony, or pinic acid; the other, or beta resin, is identical with sylvic 
acid. 2. Turf or peat contains several resinous bodies, respectively 
designated by the terms alpha, beta, gamma, delta. See Alpha-orcein. 

A'LPHITON {d\<pnow). Peeled or pearl-barley, barley-meal, 
polenta of the Latins, opposed to dktvpo*, wheat -meal. The term is, 
however, applied generally to any kind of meal or groats, as of wheat or 

A'LPHOS (4\</>ot, a duU-whit* leprosy, especially of the face). This 
is the lepra alphos of the Greeks, the vitiligo alphos of Celsus, and the 
lepra of Willan. The term corresponds with albus of the Latins. 

ALPHO'SIS (&\<p6t, white). Aehroia. A state of colourlessness ; 
a term applied by Mason Good to general leucopathia or albino-skin. 
Alphosis JEUiiopica is a state of complete albinism occurring in the 
negro- See Albino. 

ALTERA'NTIA NERVI'NA. A class of substances, as spirituous 
liquors and narcotics, which produce material changes in the brain, 
attended by disturbance of the intellectual functions. 

A'LTER ATI V ES (alterare, to change). A vague term for remedies 
which are supposed to have the property of altering the physiological 
condition of tissues, organs, or secretions. 

ALTE'RNATE GENERATION. A term expressive of resem- 
blances occurring in alternate generations ; that is, not between the off- 
spring and the parent, but between the offspring and the grand-parent. 
The solitary salpa, for instance, produces a series of connected salpse, 
each individual of which, in turn, yields a solitary salpa, the mode of 
generation being alternately solitary and aggregate. See Metagenesis. 

A LT H E' A . An alkaloid procured from the root of A ItJuea officinalis, 
or Marsh Mallow, a malvaceous plant, abounding in mucilage. 

ALU'MEN. Alum. " A sulphate of ammonia and alumina, crystal- 
lized from solution in water." 

ALU'MINA. Aluminous earth. One of the primitive earths, 
which, from constituting the plastic principle of all clays, loams, and 
boles, was called argil, or argillaceous earth, but now, as being obtained 
in its greatest purity from alum, is called alumina, or the sesqui-oxide 
of aluminium. It occurs nearly pure in the sapphire and the ruby. 

ALUMl'NIUM. The metallic base of the earth alumina, which, in 
combination with silica, is the chief constituent of clay. 

ALVEA'RIUM, ALVEA'RE (alveus, a cavity). Literally, a bee- 
hive. The meatus audi tori us externus, or auditory canal of the ear. 

A'LVEOLAR STRUCTURE (alveolus, a small tray or trough). 
A term applied by Hewson to minute superficial cavities found in the 
mucous membrane of the stomach, oesophagus, and small intestine, and 
which he compared with the cells of honey-comb. They are distinct 
from the follicles. 

A'LVEOLl (dim. of alvei, channels). The alveolar processes of the 
maxillary bones, containing the sockets of the teeth. Hence the term 
alveolar, as applied to the arteries and veins of the sockets of the teeth. 

A'LVEUS COM MUNIS (alveus, a canal or duct). The name given 
by Scarpa to the common duct or communication of the ampulho of the 
semicircular canals of the ear. 

A L V— A MB 25 

A'LYUS. This term denotes, correctly, the interior cavity of the 
▼enter, or belly ; but it it used to designate sometimes the intestines, at 
other times the intestinal evacuation. Alvidmca are medicines which 
promote evacuation of the bowels. Alvidudio is another term for 
enema or clyster. Alvifiurus and cUvu$ soluta are Latin terms for 
diarrhoea. Altms adstrieta and altms coacta are Latin terms for con- 
stipation or the state of hardened feces. See Venter. 

ALVSMUS («\w<tmoV restlessness, from *Uuw, to be vexed). A 
term used by Hippocrates to denote anxiety, or restlessness, chiefly 
affecting the pnecordia, with lowness of spirits, &c. 

A'MADOU. A spongy inflammable substance, prepared from the 
dried plant of the Boletus Igniarim, found on old ash and other trees. 
It is used for stopping hemorrhages, for tinder, &c. 

AMA'LGAM {ana, together, yapim, to unite). A mixture of 
mercury with some other metal. Amalgamation is practised for sepa- 
rating gold and silver from their ores by mixing these with mercury. 

Native amalgam. Tbe only native body of this kind is a compound 
of 64 parts of mercury and 36 of silver. 

AMARTHRITIS (*/»«, together, &pdpiru, gout). A term signi- 
fying universal tout, or gout affecting several joints at once. 

AMARYTHR1N (amarus, bitter, and eryikrin). Ermthrin bitter 
of Heeren. A bitter extractive matter, obtained by dissolving erythrin 
in hot water, and exposing it some days to the action of air. 

A'M ATI V EN ESS (aware, to love). A term in phrenology, indica- 
tive of a propensity to the sexual passion. It is common to man with 
the lower animals. Its organ is the cerebellum, and its energy is de- 
noted by tbe extent of the space on each side of the head between the 
mastoid process, immediately behind the ear and the spine of the occi- 
pital bone. 

AMA'TORII (amare, to love). Pathetici, or the superior obliqui 
muscles of the eye ; so named from the characteristic expression which 
they impart. 

AMAUROSIS {apavpoto'tc, a darkening, from auavpov, obscure). 
Caligo oculorum. A term now used almost exclusively to denote total 
blindness, without even perception of light; dependent generally upon 
cerebral disease. 8ee Outta sertna. 

1. Muscular amaurosis. Weak-sigh tedness, from fatigue of the 
muscular system of accommodation. Sec Asthenopia. 

2. Reflex amaurosis. Amaurosis due to remote causes, as irritation 
of teething, intestinal worms, ovarian or uterine disease, &c. 

3. Amaurotic cat s-eye. Gale amaurosis. An amaurotic affection, in 
which the pupil presents, apparently in the fundus of the eye, a light 
yellowish or brownish yellow tint, instead of its natural dark appear- 

A'MBER. Succinum. A yellowish, translucent, inflammable, 
brittle resin, which is found in beds of wood-coal, and appears to be 
the altered resin of trees ; by Berzelius it was considered as a concreted 

A'MBERORIS (ambregris, Fr., grey amber). A sebaceous substance 
found floating on the sea in warm climates, supposed to be a concretion 
formed in the intestinal canal of the Pkyseter Macrocephalus, or 
Spermaceti whale. The Japanese call it whale's dung. 

AMBIDEXTER (am6o, both, dexter, the right hand). One w\\o 

** '**y 

28 AMP 

be * haloid salt, while sulphate of soda would be an amphid gait. In 
modern chemical nomenclature this distinction it not made, the two 
classes being considered identical ; sulphate of soda being formed on the 
type of chloride of sodium. 

3. Amphi-artkrosis (&pdpw<rt? y articulation). A mixed kind of arti- 
culation, with obscure motion, partaking of both the movable diarthro- 
sis and the immovable synarthrosis ; it is also called continuous diar- 
tkrosis. Examples occur in the connexion between the bodies of the 
vertebrae, the union of the first two pieces of the sternum, and the sacro- 
iliac and pubic symphyses. See Articulation. 

4. Amphi-blestro -ides {&n<pifl\naTpo¥, a casting-net, «Wo«, likeness). 
Net-like. The term X lTt * v > or tonic, being supplied, we have a Greek 
designation of the retina, or tunica reli/ormis, a term derived from its 
net-work of blood-vessels and its form. Amphiblestroidilis would then 
be a classical substitute for the unclassical retinitis. 

5. Amphi-diarthrosis. The name given by Winslow to the temporo- 
maxillary articulation, from its partaking, according to his view, of the 
motions both of ginglymus and arthrodia. 

6. Amphi-gamous plants (ya/uot, marriage). Cel hilar plants; a class 
of flowerless plants, destitute of stomates and entirely cellular. The 
term has reference to the doubtful method of their reproduction. See 

7. Amphi-sarca (<rdp£ y <rapKo? y flesh). A berry, consisting of seeds 
imbedded in pulp, superior, the outer portion of the pericarp being 
thick-skinned, as in citrus, &c. See Baoca. 

8. Amphi-tropal {rpi-*ut % to turn). That which is curved round the 
body to which it belongs ; a term applied to the embryo of the seed, 
when it is curved round the albumen. 

9. Amphi tropous (rpiirw, to turn). This term is applied to the 
ovule of plants, when the foraminal and chalazal ends are transverse 
with respect to the hilum. 

A'MPHORIC RESONANCE (amphora, a two-handed vessel). A 
sound of the chest like that heard on blowing into an empty decan- 
ter. See Auscultation. 

AMPLE'XICAUL (ampUcti, to embrace, cauUs y a stem). A term 
applied to the stalks of leaves which are dilated and embrace, or 
form a sheath to, the stem. Some leaf-stalks perform this office 
partially, and are called semi-amplexicaul, or half-stem sheathing. 

AMFLIFICA'TIO. Enlargement, as of a gland. The term de- 
notes congestion, as of the liver, or congestio iecinorts. 

AMPU'LLA. A big-bellied jug or bottle, used by the Romans for 
containing liquids. 1. Hence the term is applied to a chemical vessel 
having the same form as a cucurbit 2. It also denotes a dilatation 
of the cavity occurring near one extremity of each of the semicircular 
canals of the ear. 3. The term is used in medicine as synonymous with 
bulla ; hence pemphigus is called, by some of the continental writers, 
teltris umpullosa, or bullosa. 4. The term is also applied, in botany, to 
that modification of the petiole, in which it resembles an open pitcher. 
See Ascidium. 

AMPU'LLULA (dim. of ampulla, a bottle). A term applied by 
Lieberkilhn to the extremity of each villus of the mucous coat of the 
intestines ; it is an oval vesicle, having its apex perforated by lacteal 
orifices, through which the chyle is taken up. 

A M P— A N A 29 

AMFVTA'TIOH Xamputare, to cut off). The removal of a limb, 
or other part of the body, by means of the knife. Amputation is 
termed primary (expcdita), wnen it is performed within forty-eight 
hoars after an injury, and before fever and inflammation have taken 
place ; secondary (prorogate), when it is delayed until inflammation has 
subsided and suppuration is established. 

A'MULET (amuletnm, from amoliri, to put away). A sympathetic 
preservative against sickness, as a gem or paper inscribed with mystical, 
prophylactic characters. To this principle may be referred the reputed 
virtue of the anodyne necklace for facilitating the teething of infants, of 
the metallic ring for preventing cramp, the child' t caul for protecting 
sesvfarins; persons, &c 

AM Y'ELOUS (a, priv., pvtXov, medulla). A term spplied to the 
fattta, in cases in wnicn there is complete absence of the spinal marrow. 
When the encephalon also is absent, the foetus is termed amyencepha- 
lons. There may be absence of the encephalon — of the cerebrum and 
cerebellum only ; in this case the foetus is called anencephalous. Or 
the cerebrum merely may be in a state of defective development, or 
atrophy, more or less partial or extensive. 

AMY'GDALjE (anvyi&kn, an almond). Literally, almonds; a 
popular name for the exterior glands of the neck, and for the tonsils. 

Amygdalitis, Inflammation of the tonsils. Tonsillitis is an unclassi- 
eal term. 

A'M YL (ammonia, and CAn, matter). A radical liquid hydrocarbon, 
consisting of ten parts of carbon and eleven of hydrogen. With the 
addition of one part of oxygen, it forms amylic ether ; and with a 
further addition of one part of water, amylic alcohol, or fusel oil. 
By distilling amylic alcohol with chloride of zinc, the anmthetic agent 
amylene is produced. 

AMYLOID DEGENERATION (a/uuW, starch, sttov, likeness). 
Starch-like degeneration ; a term spplied to a form of degeneration 
especially occurring in the liver— a kind of animal liver-starch. 

A'MYLUM (afivkov, un ground, sc. a\tvpo», wheateu flour). 
Starch ; the starch procured from the grains of Triticum Vulgare or 
common wheat The term denotes fine meal prepared more carefully 
than by common grinding. 

Amyloids. A general designation of a class of vital food- stuffs, in- 
cluding starch, dextrin, sugar, and gum. 

AMYOSTHE'NIC (a, priv.,M", ^vot, a muscle, oOs'ikk, strength). 
That which arrests muscular action. Chloral, it is stated, arrests uterine 
contraction, and thus prevents abortion. 

ANA'- (awa). A Greek preposition, signifying, in compound words, 
upwards, backwards, throughout, and hence sometimes conveying the 
sense of increase or strengthening, of repetition and improvement, £c. 

ANABIOT1C (a*a/9id«, to revive). A term applied by Schulz 
to that effect of remedies which is evidenced by an organizing tendency 
and production of strength, as in the use of wines, tonics, aromatics, 


ANABLETSIS (<tak0X«u7tf, from dva/SXtww, to see again). 

8eeiog again : restoration of sight 

ANADIPLO'SIS (avattirXow, to redouble). A doubling back, or 
reduplication ; the redoubling which occurs in a paroxysm of intermit- 
tent, when its type is double. 

A N «— A N A 

ANjE'MIA (n, priv., bIub, blood). " Deficiency of red corpmclee 
in the Mood." This term denote*. auDply, auWoa of blood, and it im- 

pliee defirietiry of blood ; but it il employed to deiiolo.jjenoralli, au 
■Itention of rpalitf, rather thin of quantity, of blood. The diaceae it 

» ailed olu/oianiiu utd ipaniamua, terms eipmira of deficiency 
or paucity of tbe constituent* of lb* blood. Anmnia it torawd rfimd, 
when it retulta from direct loot of blood; ckromie fend oaotatia, or 
cbloroaii, when the characteri of anemia ud cwheiie ere combined. 

ANXMU'TKOPUY {■, prlr., >I(ia, blood, Tpoa>n. oouriihmont). 
By tbli term, ud hamotrof&y, ire implied, reapeetivelj, a deficiency, 
fend enexceet, of sanguineous nouriahment. Atropiif tni kmr traplg, 
aa commonly understood, include the idea of diminished and increased 
magnitude ; while on*™ and kypermmia hare reference only to the 
quantity of blood present, without regard to ita nntritiTe properties. 
See Htrmotroph*. 

ASMStHSSI A (dMutVla, from o, priv., nMwit neiceptioo). 
1. Lota of sensation ; paralysis of the nervea of aenaation. A> it ocean 
in the retina, it ia dnaoMrDNP ,' in the Auditory nerree, kophotUi in the 
olfactory ncrret, anosmia; in the gustatory nerves, aa aoaa i a : aa it 
occur! In mtiabnoM of the race, it it called «MMi«M faeui. 2. The 
term aiGttAtria it alao applied to the atate of insensibility produced by 
the uae of anaesthetic agents, or the state of being on&xthttued. 

AN.=F,STHESrMKTER(Ji,»„rfl m r;«,iT.«n.ibility, H ; T00 ^amea- 
tnre). A measurer of insensibility ; an apperatut invented by M. 
Dnroy, of Pnrit, tor the adminiatration of chloroform. 

AN.ASSTHE'TICA (a, priv., n i„fl, T ,.Dt, belonging to ui«e„.it, or 

ilroduced to express a aet of agenta uaed to produce inaenaibility to 


ANAKATrlA'RSIS UmM Bo <>■>, to cleanse npwardt, i. a. by 

pain di_.__ --.„.. .,. .. _.. _ . 

hitherto employed hare been ether, chloroform, nilreut oxide, At 
ISIS ^iraxaHaitia, to cleanse upwards, i 
ing). A term used by the Greeks, and copied by Sauvi 
denote cough attended by expect 

Vomitoria. Emetics, or medicii 
they produce merely nausea, Ihej 

ANAI.ETSIS (^dXnd/.., recovery , from i^aXanfidwrn, to take 
up). Recovery of ttreogth after sicltue*. 

ANALE'PTICA («. u X B wri«ai, from ri.dAeuV.s, reconny). Be- 
storatives; medicines which stimulate the heart and vaacular system, 

AN ALOE'S] A (=. pi-iv,, tkyat, pain). Diminished sensibility la 
pain, aa distinguished from kmeratifuia, or increase of aeniibility. 

ANA'LOGOUS TISSUES («W.\oy«, conformable). A term 
applied to all solid, morbid products, which resemble tbe natural 
elementary tiatuet of the body. It ia synonymous with the inp&utu 
nutter of Lobatein. See Hitenlogom Formation. 

A'NALOGUE (*WXi>?«, con form able). A term applied, in com- 
parative anatomy, to in oiyan in one animal which it analogous to 
another organ in another animal, in in riiietiow, without reference to 
ill fundamental ntrncrau-e ; thua, the wing of a bird it the analogue or 
the wing of an inaect, the leaf of a plant it the analogue of the lung of 
an lnlmal, &c. Compare Hemologat. 

ANA 31 

ANA'LY5I8, CHEMICAL (<i»aAu«, to resolve into elemente). 
Tbe resolution of compound bodies, into either their simpler or their 
elementary constituents. When merely the number and nature of 
these are ascertained, the analysis is termed qualitative ; hut when 
their proportions also are determined, the analysis is quantitative. If 
the analysis consists in determining the quantities of the simpler con 
stituents only of a compound, it is called proximate,** when carbonate 
of potash is separated into carbonic acid and potash ; but when the 
operation is extended, and the carbonic acid is resolved into carbon and 
oxygen, and the potash into potassium and oxygen, this process is termed 
ultimate analysis. 

1. Analysis, organic. The generic term for those operations which 
aim at ascertaining the composition and constitution of all matter 
formed under the influences existing in animal and vegetable life. 

2. Analutu, gravimetric. A mode of conducting quantitative ana- 
lysis, by isolating a body and weighing it alone in a balance, and 
ascertaining its quantity ; or by separating it by, and weighing it in com- 
bination with, another body, whose combining proportion is well known. 

3. Analysis, volumetric. A mode of conducting Quantitative analysis, 
by wbffch the amount of a constituent of a compound* may be ascertained 
by noting the volume of a liquid which is required to be added to the 
compound before a given effect is produced. 

4. Analysis, gasometric. A branch of chemical analysis for deter- 
mining the volume of oxygen in samples of atmospheric air taken from 
various localities. The eudiometer is the instrument used in these 
determinations ; and, hence, the terms eudiometry, eudiometrical analy- 
sis, Ac. 8ee Eudiometer. 

ANAMNESTIC SYMPTOM (<k,afi*>i<m«6t, able to recall to 
mindV A symptom which relates to the patient's previous state of 
heal tli. and thus affords the physician a hint by remembrance. 

ANAMORPHOSIS {avau6p<p»oix, the act of forming anew). A 
term indicative of an ascending or progressive development of species 
in the animal and the vegetable kingdoms. The term would have a 
distinct meaning as applied to the imago state of an insect ; but in cases 
in which tbe senses detect no progression, the word metamorphosis is, 
perhaps, co-extensive with our knowledge. 

ANAPHRODISl'ACS (a*a<ppoot*ia, absence of the sexual feel- 
ings). Antaphrodisiacs ; medicinal agents supposed to repress or dimi- 
nish the sexual feelings. 8ee Aphrodisiacs. 

AN APOPHYSIS (*W, backward, <rro>v<r<*, a process of bone). 
A term applied to that process of a vertebra which arises above the 
diapophytis or tranverse process, and projects more or less backward. 
See Vertebra. 

ANATTYSIS (a^airrvw, to spit up or out). Expectoration. A 
term used by the Greeks in the same sense as anakatkarsis. 

A NASA 'RCA. Aqua inter cutem; hydrosarca. General dropsy; 
" an accumulation of serum in the areolar tissue, with or without effu- 
sion into the serous cavities/* It is the leucophlegmasia of various 
writers. Dr. Mayne observes that " Anasarca is properly characterized 
as a noun of the first declension, its grammatical position, as a Latin 
noun, standing unaffected by the circumstance of d»« being a preposi- 
tion, or adpxa being the accusative of adp^, or by the Greek rule 
which joins the former to that case only." 

32 ANA 

ANASTA'LTIC (<ii'a, upwards, orlkXm, to contract). A term 
applied by Marshall Hall to the upward direction of the nervous in- 
fluence. See Diastaltic. 

ANASTOMO'SIS (6.»aoTon6i*, to furnish with a mouth ; to open, 
as of one sea into another). The communication of vessels with one 
another, as of the arteries with the veins, as if the mouths, or open ends 
of one set of vessels, were joined to those of another. 

ANATOMY (dwiTOMTj, dissection, from <i yart /upcd, to cut up). 
This term now denotes the act of dissection^ and comprises the science 
of organization, or the examination of the organs or instruments of life. 
By the older writers it was often used to denote the object dissected; 
and then, as this was stripped of its flesh, it was applied to what we 
now call a skeleton. " Skeleton " had then another meaning. See 

1. Descriptive Anatomy treats of the numerous organs of which the 
human body consists, with reference to their shape and mutual rela- 
tions. This branch is subdivided into the particular anatomy of tie 
or pans, and the anatomy of regions, or surgical anatomy. 

2. General Anatomy treats of the structure and properties of the 
different tissues which are common to several organs. To this branch 
belongs the examination of the general characters of all the organs. 

3. Special Anatomy is that which treats of the health v state of the 
organs, while morbid or pathological anatomy is that which treats of 
diseased states, or alterations of structure. 

4. Pathological or Morbid Anatomy comprehends an account of all 
the changes of structure produced by disease, whether in individual 
organs, or in the primitive or common substances of which these organs' 
are composed. 

5. Transcendental Anatomy is that which investigates the mode, 
plan, or model upon which the animal frame or organs are formed. 

6. Comparative Anatomy is that which investigates the organization 
of the whole animal creation. 

Tbrms in Anatomy used by Barclay: — 

1. Aspects of the Head, Neck, and Trunk. — A plane dividing the 
body into similar halves is termed the mesial plane. Every aspect 
towards this plane is mesial; towards the right or left, lateral, and this 
is dextral, or sinistral. 

2. Aspects of the Head. — Towards the Iviov, or occiput, inial ; towards 
the corona, coronal ; towards the base, basilar; towards the glabella, 
glabellar ; or towards the side opposite to the inion, antimal. 

3. Aspects of the Neck and Trunk. — Towards the atlas, atlantal; 
towards the sacrum, sacral; towards the dorsum, dorsal ; and towards 
the sternum, sternal. 

4. Aspects of the Four Extremities. — Towards the trunk, proximal; 
from the trunk, distal. 

5. Aspects of the Atlantal Extremities. — Towards the radius, radial; 
towards the ulna, ulnar; towards the an con, anoonal; and towards the 
vol a, or Strap, thenal. 

6. Aspects of the Sacral Extremities.— Towards the tibia, tibial; 
towards the fibula, fibular ; towards the rotula, rotular ; and towards 
the ponies, popliteal. 

7. Terms of Aspect common to the Head, Neck, Trutk, Extremities, 

A N A— A N E 33 

and Vi$eera. — Towards the cutis, dermal ; towards the circumference, 
peripheral ; and towards the centre, central. 

8. When d is substituted for the / or r which terminate these ad- 
jectives, they become adverbs, or are used adverbially ; so that coronad, 
imad, glabeUad, radiad, ulnad, tibiad, filmlad, Ac., will respectively 
signify toward* the coronal, inial, glabellar, radisl, ulnar, tibial, and 
fibular aspects. 

ANATRIP80LO'GIA Urirpttyit, friction, from drarplfa, to 
rub in, \6y09, a description). A treatise on friction employed as a 
remedy. This process has been variously termed the iatraleipUc 
method, the epidermic method, and espnoic medicine. 

ANATROPOU8 (dwarpiirw, to turn up or over). Inverted; a 
term applied to the ovule of plants, when the inside of this organ is 
reversed, so that the apex of the nocleus, and consequently the foramen, 
correspond with the base of the ovule. 

AN AUDI A (a, priv., atftj, speech). Speechlessness. The term 
amamdia has a weaker signification than aphonia, the former denoting 
an inability to articulate, the latter an entire loss of voice. 

AN-AZOTU'RIA («, priv., azote, and ovpim, to make water). A 
term applied by Dr. Willis to that variety of chronic diuresis in which 
a less quantity of urea is excreted in the urine than in a healthy state. 
flee Axotmria, 

ATOCHILOPS (oyx*> »«•*. «^» the eve). A sore under the inner 
angle of the eve ; incipient fistula lacrymalis. According to Blanchard, 
the swelling is called anckilops, while yet entire, and ssadops, when the 
abs ce ss has burst. 

ANCHYLOSIS. This term should be spelled ankylosis: the 
Greek letter is *, not X- Ankylosis is inconvenient, the e before the y 
having generally the soft sound of*. 8ee Ankylosis. 

A'NCON {uynmv). A Hippocratic word, synonymous with olecra- 
non, but often used for the whole elbow generally. Hence the terms 
aneonal aspect, relating to the side on which the ancon or elbow is 
situated ; anconad, '* towards the anconal aspect ;" anconeus, a muscle 
which assists in extending the forearm ; and anconotd (<Ioot, likeness), 
or elbow-like, applied to a process of the cubit 

ANDROCE'UM (drfjo, a man). A term applied to the male 
apparatus in plants, commonly called the stamens — the apices of old 
botanists. See Gynmeenm. 

ANDROGYNUS (drjp, a man, yvnf, a woman). A hermaphro- 
dite ; a lusus natures, in which the organs of generation appear to be a 
union of both sexes. 

ANDROPHONOMA'NIA (dmjp, dwipts, a man, Qoptv*, to kill, 
**via, madness). A form of mania characterized by the desire to 
commit murder. 

ANENKEPHA'LIA («, priv., tynifaXot, the brain). The 
state of an anenkephalus ; the absence of a greater or less part of 
the cerebral portion of the head. Geoffrey St Hilaire justly distin- 

1. Real Anenkephalia, or entire absence of the brain, which might be 
denominated hol-anenkephalia {B\ox, entire), or pant-anenkephalia (v«, 
vejrrov, all). 

2. Cyet-anenkephalia (jc*Vrc«, a bladder), or the vesicular brain, ta 
which, instead or a brain, a bladder is found Btted with fluid. 



84 ANE 

3. Der-anenkephalia (&ipn t the neck), in which only a small portion 
of the brain exists, resting on the cervical vertebras. 

4. Pod-anenkepkalia (irovc, iro6o«, a foot or stalk), in which a brain 
indeed exists, but it is situated outside the cranium, attached as it were 
to a stalk. 

5. Not-anenkephalia (v&tov, the back), in which the brain is not 
within the skull, but (at least in great part) is thrust through a fissure 
of the back part of the head, and so produces, like a spina bifida, not- 

ANENKE'PHALUS (a, priv., cyKi>a\o«, the brain). A term 
applied to a monster without brains. 

ANE'NTERELMINTHA (a, priv., cYrtpa, intestines, iV<", a 
worm). The name of those entozoa, or intestinal worms, which have 
no intestinal canal, as distinguished from the sterelmintha or solid, and 
the coelelraintha or hollow, worms. 

ANEPITHY'MIA (a, priv., iTttfv/ua, appetite). A morbid loss 
of appetite, as of hunger, thirst, &c. 

ANERY'THROBLEPSIA (a, priv., IpvOpo*, red, 0\iV», to see). 
A defect of vision in which the different shades of the red colour cannot 
be distinguished. 

A'NESIS (dvtnui, to remit). A remission or relaxation of a disease 
or symptom. The adjective term anetus (cfofroc, relaxed) has been 
employed to denote intermittent fever. Here, it up « to v, fever, must be 

ANEURA'LGICON (a, priv., ysvpov, a nerve, aXyoc, pain). An 
instrument for allaying pain of the nerves, used by Dr. C. T. Downing. 
It is a kind of fumigating apparatus in which dried herbs are burned, 
and the heated vspour is then directed to any part of the body. 

A'NEURYSM (dvtvpvvua^ a widening). A tumor, consisting of a 
preternatural dilatation of an artery. The corresponding disease of a 
vein is called varix. 

1. True Aneurysm, also called fusiform or tubular, consists of a pre- 
ternstural dilatation of an artery, all the coats of which are equally 
expanded throughout the whole circumference of the vessel. 

2. Sacculated Aneurysm consists of a tumor springing from the side ox 
an artery or of a tubular aneurysm, with the interior of which it com- 
municates by a narrow aperture, called the mouth of the sac. True 
sacculated aneurysm is a partial dilatation of all the coats of the vessel ; 
false sacculated aneurysm is that variety of the disease in which the 
internal, or the internal and middle, coats have been ruptured, and are 
consequently deficient. 

3. False Sacculated Aneurysm admits of some distinctions. When 
the extravasation is diffused, the disease has been termed a diffused 
false aneurysm; when circumscribed, a circumscribed false aneurysm. 
The French writers term the former anevrisme faux primitif the latter 
anivrisme faux consicutif. 

4. Dissecting Aneurysm is a remarkable form of the disease, in which 
the sac is situated in the wall of the artery between its coats. This is 
also termed partial rupture of the artery. 

5. Aneurysm by Anastomosis. A tumor consisting of a congeries of 
small and active arteries, absorbing veins, and intermediate cells. The 
cellular substance through which these vessels are expanded resembles 
the gills of a turkey -cock ; or the substance of the placenta, spleen, or 
uterus; or the nam materni of infants. 

A N F— A NO 85 

6. Mixed Aneurysm. Aneurysm anting from the dilatation of one 
or two of the coaU, with division or rupture of the other. Two varieties 
have been described, viz. mixed external aneurysm, in which the inter- 
nal and middle coats are ruptured, and the areolaris dilated ; and mixed 
internal aneurysm, in which the internal coat is dilated, and protrudes, 
like a hernial sac, through the ruptured middle and outer coats. This 
variety has been called aneurysma hernia arierks sistens. 

7. Aneurysm, traumatic. Aneurysm occasioned by a wound, and 
presenting, in addition to the injury of the vessel, a rabenuneous 
extravasation of blood, with more or less pulsation, thrill, and bruit, 
from the projection into it of blood from the wounded vessel. 

8. Aneurism, internal and external. Internal aneurysm is situate in 
the great splaochic cavities, and occurs in the heart and great vessels of 
the cheat, abdomen, Ac. External aneurysm is situate at the exterior 
of the head, neck, and limbs, and is distinctly pulsatory. 

9. Aneurysmal Varix. A particular kind of aneurysm, in which the 
blood effused from a wounded artery passes into a neighbouring vein, 
which it dilates in the form of a sac. It is produced when a cutting 
instrument pierces a vein and a subjacent artery at the same time, form- 
ing a direct communication between the two vessels. 

10. Aneurysmal Sac The sac or pouch formed by aneurysm, and 
containing the blood which constitutes the tumor. 

11. Actim Aneurysm of the Heart. The increased muscular struc- 
ture of the left ventricle of the heart, which frequently accompanies the 
cartilaginous thickening of the semilunar valves of the aorta. Passive 
a—rjrii is simple dilatation of the wall of a ventricle. 

12. Cardiac Aneurysm. Acute aneurysm of the heart. " This term 
has been applied to those cases in which blood becomes effused into 
the substance of the heart owing to inflammatory softening and rupture 
of the endocardium and muscular tissue.** — Nom. ofDis. 

ANFR AXJTUS (dn<pi, about, <ppdo*t», to environ). A winding, or 
turning. The term denotes the anfractuoeities, furrows, or depressions, 
by which the convolutions of the brain are separated. 

ANGEIE'CTASIS {dyytlov, a vessel, tVra<rt«, extension). Ex- 
tension or hypertrophy of the capillaries and minute vessels of the skin 
or nsevoid growths ; hence, angeuetasis capillaris, a term applicable to 
several forms of vascular nevus. 

ANGEIOLEUCITIS (dyytlos, a vessel, Xtvnds, white, and Hi*, 
denoting inflammation). Lymphangitis. Inflammation of the lymphatic 
vessels ; literally, white- vessel-inflammation. 

ANGEIOXOGY (dyyrtov, a vessel, Aoyot, a discourse). A dis- 
course on the blood-vessels or vascular system. Bv some of the older 
writers the term was employed to express the selection of veins (for 
section), a and it has been found in connexion with the word dprnpio- 
ro*u«, or section of arteries. The operation is described by Celsus, 
who has " venas legere," to select the veins. 

ANGEIO'SIS, ANGEIO'MA (dyyttos, a vessel ; a blood-vessel). 
The former term denotes the formation of a tumor composed of 
vascular tissue; the latter denotes the tumor formed. See Preface, 

par. 2. 

ANGEIOSPE'RM^ (oyycto»,a vessel, vtripfia, seed). A division 
of plants which have their seeds enclosed in a vessel, or pericarp. 
Compare Oymnoeperma. 

V ■ -' 

36 AN G-A N I 

ANGEIOTE'NIC FEVER {dyytlov, a vessel, rnVw, to stretch). 
Inflammatory/ever, situated in the organs of circulation. — Pinel. 

ANGE1CTTOM Y {dyytlov, a vessel, to/kiJ , section). Dissection of 
the vessels of the body. 

ANGI'NA PECTORIS (angina, from angere, to choke). Syncope 
anginosa. Breast-pang; "sudcfen and acute pain in the chest, referred 
to the sternum, accompanied by intense anxiety, and fear of death.** 
Hypenesthesis of the cardiac plexus. 

1. The synonyms of this affection are numerous ; at present, angina 
tonsillaris means sore throat; angina trachealis, croup; angina paro- 
tidea, mumps; and angina scarlatinosa, a modification of simple 
scarlatina. Angina putris, cynanche maligna, putrid or sloughing 
sore throat, must be distinguished from malignant scarlet fever. 

2. In the root ang or one the ideas of " bending *' and " squeezing** 
are comprised, as in dyjem*, ankon, the bent arm ; ayirvXo*, bent, and 
hence ankylosis, a stiffening of a joint ; dyicvpa, ancora^ and hence 
ankvroides, applied to an anchor- shaped process, &c. 

A'NGLIC US SUDOR. The English sweating-fever, or the ephemera 
maligna of Burserius, described by Dr. Cains as "a contagious 
pestilential fever of one day.** It made its first appearance in London 
in 1480, or 1483. 

A'NGOR (angere, to choke). "Great anxiety accompanied by 
painful constriction at the belly, often with palpitation and oppression. * 
Figuratively, angor denotes vexation of a transitory nature, and is thus 
• distinguished from anaietas, which is of an abiding nature. 

A'NGULAR MOTION. Motion of the joints capable of being 
performed in four different directions, viz., forwards and backwards, 
constituting./&vrtofi and extension, or inwards and outwards, constituting 
adduction aod abduction. 

ANHELA'TION (anhe/atio, from anhelare, to pant). Duwnma, 
Difficulty of breathing; shortness of breath ; panting; tussis anhela, a 
cough making one out of breath. 

ANHIDROSIS. Hippocrates employs this word d»topm*ix for the 
act of sweating, deriving it from dvi&pom, to get into a sweat Later 
writers view it as composed of a, priv., and lip**, sweat, and hence it 
denotes the suppression or diminution of the perspiratory secretion from 
arrest of the function of the sudoriparous glands. 

A'N HYDRIDES (int&pos, without water). Chemical compounds 
which arc free from water. Salts, when free from their water of 
crystallization, are called anhydrous salts, as distinguished from hydrated 
salts. See Hydrates. 

ANIL (ant/, Portuguese for indigo). Nil. An American plant, 
yielding indigo. Anilic add, formerly called indigotic, is formed by 
the action of nitric acid on indigo. Aniline is an oily alkaline body 
found among the products of the distillation of indigo by the action of 
caustic potash or soda on indigo. 

A'N IMA. The name given by Stahl to the intelligent ayent sup- 
posed to preside over many parts of the animal economy. This is the 
Archmus of Van Helmont, and has been termed the vital principle, the 
spirit of animation, &c. The classical writers applied the term to the 
wind, bresth, animal life, the air we breathe, and sometimes used it 
synonymously with animus, the mind. See Archmus. 

A'NIM A L CHARCOAL. Carbo animalie. A mixture of charcoal 

A N I-A N K 87 

and betie-aah, prepared bv calcining booet in clow vessels. It is called 
oone-o/sKsY, i Tory- black. Ac 

A'NIM A L M A'GNETISM. Mesmerism. Theae terms are applied 
to the effect*, real or •apposed, of a peculiar agent upon the human 
body. The following it a classification of theae effects, by Kluge, a 
German writer on the subject : — 

1. First degree : called waking, presents no very remarkable phe- 
nomenon. Toe intellect and the senses still retain their usual powers 
and susceptibility. 

2. Second degree: — half-sleep or imperfect crisis. Most of the 
senses still remain in a state of activity, that of vision onlv being im- 
paired, the eye withdrawing itself from the power of the will. 

3. Third degree : — the magnetic or mesmeric sleep. The organs of 
the senses refuse to perform their respective functions, and the patient 
is in an unconscious state. 

4. Fourth degree : — the perfect crisis or simple somnambulism. In 
this state the patient is said to " wake within himself/* and his con- 
sciousness returns. He is in a state which cannot be called either 
sleeping or waking, but which appears to be something between the 

5. Fifth degree .—lucidity or lucid vision. This is called in France, 
and mostly in this country, clairvoyance; in Germany, HcUseken. 
In this state the patient is said to obtain a clear knowledge of his own 
internal mental and bodily state, is enabled to calculate with accuracy 
the phenomena of disease which will naturally and inevitably occur, 
and to determine what are their most appropriate and effectual 
remedies. He is also said to possess the same faculty of internal in- 
spection with regard to other persons who have been placed in mesmeric 
connexion (en rapport) with him. 

6\ Sixth degree: — universal lucidity ; in German, allgtmeine Klarheit. 
In this state the lucid vision becomes gradually increased, and extends 
to objects, whether near or at a distance. 

ANIM AL'CULES (dim. of animal). Microscopic animals. They 
doubtless exist in the atmosphere, and in all rivers and ponds ; they are. 
beside*, in/ueory, observed in all fluids impregnated with any animal 
or vegetable substance ; and spermatic t supposed to have been discovered 
in the semen of animals. See Spermatozoon. 

AN1M ALIZA'TION. The process by which food is assimilated, 
or converted into animal matter. 

A'NIML A resinous substance, improperly called gum animi, said 
to be obtained from the Hvmenma Courbaril. 

A'NION (aVtoV, that wnich goes up). A term applied by Faraday 
to the body which passes to the positive pole — to the anode of the 
decomposing body— as it is separated by electricity. It is, in other 
phraseology, the electro-negative body. See Kation. 

ANKYLOBLEPHARON (dy«uA n , a noose of a cord. /9Ai>apov, 
the eyelid). Cohesion of the eyelids at their ciliary border ; preter- 
natural union of the free edges of the eyelids. See Symblepharon. 

ANKYLOSIS (aynvX »<m, from ayicvXo*, curved). The stiffen- 
ing of a joint from bony union ; a fusion or union of the ends of bones. 
1. False or spurious ankylosis consists in union of the joints by thicken- 
ing of the synovial membrane and adhesion of the component parts. 2. 
Ligamentous ankylosis signifies the union of two articular surfaces by 

38 AN K— A N O 

fibrous tissue. 3. Bony ankylosis results from ossification of this 
fibrous tissue. [In correct terminology, ankylosis is a stiffening of a 
joint ; a stiffened joint is ankyloma. See Preface, par. 2.] 

ANKYRO'IDES {dyKvpoui^, sc. d-woQvait). An anchor-shaped 
offshoot ; an ancient designation of the coracoid process of the scapula, 
from its resemblance to the beak of an dytcvpa, or anchor. The term 
anUstroidetj or hook-shaped, was applied synonymously to the same 
process, from its resemblance to an cryjuarpo*, or fish-hook. 

ANNOTTO. Rocou. A substance procured from the pellicles 
of the seeds of Bixa OreUana, a liliaceous plant. The red colouring 
principle is called bixin. 

A'NNULUS (Latin). A ring; a circle, or rounded margin. 

1. Annulus abdominalis externus. A triangular opening caused by 
separation of the fibres of the aponeurosis of the externus obliquus. 

2. Annulus inguinalis intemus, Tel posterior. An oval opening in the 
fascia transversals, vel Cooperi, half an inch above Poupart s liga- 

3. Annulus membranm tympam. An incomplete bony ring, consti- 
tuting in the foetus the auditory process of the temporal bone. 

4. Annulus ciliaris, vel albidus. The ciliary circle or ligament ; a 
white ring, forming the bond of union betwixt the choroid coat, the iris, 
and the corona ciliaris. It is the annulus gangliformis tunica chorotdem 
of Soemmering. 

5. Annulus oralis. The rounded margin of the septum, which occu- 
pies the place of the foramen ovale in the fetus. It is also called the 
annulus /oraminis. 

A'NODE (aV£, upwards, 6oot, a way}. A term applied by Faradav 
to that part of the surface of the electrolyte or decomposing body which 
the electric current enters — the part immediately touching the positive 
pole. See Kathode. 

A'NODIC {&*d, upwards, 6 Ms, a way). A term employed by Marshall 
Hall, in his Diastaltic Nervous System, to denote the upward course of 
the nervous influence. See AnastalHc. 

A'NODYNES («, priv., dduvrj, pain). Remedies against pain, as 
opium. From their tendency to induce sleep, they are sometimes 
called hypnotics ; from their causing insensibility, they are also termed 

ANO'MALOUS («, priv., o/uaXot, even). Irregular; a term ap- 
plied to diseases, in which the symptoms are irregular. Hence the term 
anomalous erantkem denotes those rosy rashes which resemble measles 
and scarlatina, as false measles and rubella. 

ANOPHTHA'LMIA (a, priv., 64>6a\/uo«, the eye). This term 
has been employed to denote absence of the eye, and it is said to be 
svnonymous with anopsia. But each term is utterly inadmissible in 
the sense proposed ; the former denoting absence of ophthalmia, the 
latter, the want of fish to eat with bread. 

ANO'RCHUS (dvopxot, without fyx 1 '*' or testes). A person born 
without testes ; or one in whose case tne testes have not descended into 
the scrotum. 

ANORE'XIA (a, priv., optgtt, appetite). Inappetentia. Want of 
appetite; absence of appetite, unaccompanied by loathing of food. 

ANOHMAL (anormis, without rule). Without rale or order; 
irregular ; contrary to the usual state. See Abnormal. 

A N O— A NT 39 

A NO'S MI A (a, priv., 6<rfir\, odour). Loss of smell ; it it organic, 
arising from disease of the Scbneiderian membrane, or atonic, occurring 
without manifest cause. 

ANTA'CIDS. Remedies against acidity of the stomach, as alkalies 
and absorbents. 

ANTAGONIST MUSCLES («W, against, dy*v, a struggle). 
The general name of muscles which act in opposition to others, as the 
adductors in opposition to the abductors. 

ANT A'LGICA (a'rrf, against, akyos, pain). Anodynes. Remedies 
which remove or relieve pain. 

ANTA'LK ALINES. Remedies against alkalescence, as applied to 
the urine. 

ANT APHRODISIACS (aVrf, against, 'Atfrxrifn), Venus). Medi- 
cines which blunt the aphrodisiac or venereal appetite. 

ANT ARTHR1TICS (a'rri, against, dptpiTit, gout). Antiarihritic. 
Remedies against arthritis or gout. 

ANTEFLE'XIO UTERI {ante, before, fledere, to bend). Uterus 
provolmttts. A morbid bending forward of the uterus or womb. 

ANTEVE'RSIO UTERI (ante, before, vertere, to turn). Utenu 
prowus. A morbid inclination of the fundus uteri forward. This 
and the preceding term are synonymous. See Retroverno. 

ANTHELMINTICS (*Wi\ against, iXfiipt, a worm). Vermi- 
r wrt. Remedies against worms. The term anthelmintic is sometimes 
applied to medicines which prevent the formation, as well as to those 
which promote the expulsion, of worms; the term vermifuge is re- 
stricted to the latter office. 

A'NTHER (drtnpox, from driim, to flourish). The part of a plant 
which has hitherto been considered as the male sexual organ. It is the 
essential part of the stamen, consisting, in most cases, of two thecaj 
placed at the top of the filament, and hence called bilocular. 

The anther is termed innate, when it is attached to the filament by its 
base, as in sparganium ; adnate, when it is attached to the filament by its 
back, as in polygonum ; versatile, when it is attached to the filament by 
a single point of the connective, from which it slightly swings, as in 
grasses ; antica or introrta, when the line of its dehiscence is towards 
the pistil ; and poslica or eafrorsa, when the line of its dehiscence is 
towards the petals. See Pollen and Fovilla. 

ANTHO-CA'RPOUS (av9o«, a flower, napwo^ fruit). Flower- 
fruited -, a characteristic designation of certain fruits described under, 
the term Sorosis. 

ANTHOTA'XIS (ayOot, a flower, Td£i», arrangement). Flower- 
arrangement ; the arrangement of flowers on the axis of growth. 8ee 

ANTHRACENE (£»6>a£, a burning coal). A crystalline body 
found in coal-oils, sometimes called paranaphthaline. Anthracene has 
been obtained from alizarine, and alizarine from naphthaline. 

ANTHRACO'SIS (J»o>aE, a burning coal). An affection occur- 
ring among copper-workers, from the introduction of carbonic particles 
into the respiratory passages. We read of the u black-lung of miners.** 
See Pneumo-coniosis. 

A'NTHRAX (aVepaff, a burning coal). Carbuncle; a hard, cir- 
cumscribed, flattened tumor, verv little raised above the level of the 
skin, but extending deeply into toe cutaneous tissue. The term %u%- 

• t 

40 ANT 

gests a coal-black appearance, or the dark-red colour of the precious 
stone called carbuncle. See Pruna and Tcrminthus. 

ANTHROPO'LOGY (aripu-Ko*, man, Xo'vot, a description). The 
doctrine of the structure of the human, body ; the natural history of tho 
human species. 

ANTHROPO'TOMY (oV8p«iro«, man, to/iij, section). The ana- 
tomy or dissection of the human body. 

ANTHYPNO'TICA (aim', against, Cir*o«, sleep). Agrypnotka. 
Medicinal agents which induce wakefulness. See Hypmca. 

A'NTI- (oVr/). Against ; a Greek preposition, signifying opposi- 
tion* and in this sense compounded with words implying counter-agents 
or remedies, as anl-acids, an** -dotes ; with words denoting opposition in 
situation, as onli-helix, anti-lobium ; and with words indicating oppo- 
sition in action or feeling, as antagonist, an/t-pathy, &c. 

ANTIADITIS (duriadkt, the tonsils, and the termination His). 
Inflammation of the tonsils. This is a classical term, whereas tonsillitis 
is barbarous. 

A'NTI ARIN. The poisonous principle contained in the milky juice 
of the Antiaris toxicaria, or Unas-tree of Java. See Upas. 

ANTICA'RDIUM (drriKapdtov, the pit of the stomach, from dirt, 
against, icapoiu, the heart). The scrobiculus cordis, or pit of the 
stomach, opposite to the heart. 

A'NTICHEIR (aVr/xcp. from dm', against, x"P> the hand). 
Sub. AdVcTi/Xoc, a finger. The thumb, as being opposite to the fingers, 
or hand. 

ANTICNE'MION (arriKinimov, the shin, leg, from drri, against, 
Kiuj/uti, the calf of the leg). The shin-bone, as opposed to the calf. 

A'NTIDOTE (airri, against, fcooiwi, to give). Antitoxicon. A 
counter-poison ; a remedy against the action of poison. Among the 
Greeks, antidotes against the bite of poisonous animals were called 
Otipiaiid, theriaca* or treacles ; those which were used in cases of poison 
taken internally, were called a'Af£*<pa'pMa*a, or alempharmics. 

ANTIHE'LIX (aVW, against, ZA<£, a helix or coil). The semi- 
circular prominence of the external ear, situated before and within the 

ANTILI'THICS (aW, against, Xt'Ooc, a stone). Lilhotdripiics. 
Remedies against stone ; agents which counteract the tendency to the 
deposition of calculus or urinary sediments. 

ANTILO'BIUM (dVri, against, \o/9oc, the lobe of the ear). The 
tragus ; the process opposite to the lobe of the ear. 

ANTIMO'NIUM. StUnum. Antimony; a brittle whitish metal, 
usually found associated with sulphur. It is sometimes called regulus 
of antimony* to distinguish it from crude antimony* the name by which 
the sulphuret is sometimes called. The etymology of the term has 
been fancifully derived from its fatal effects upon some monks (anti- 
moine, anti-monachus), upon whom its properties were tried by Valen- 

A'NTINIAL (di"ri, against, Iviov, the occiput). A term applied by 
Barclay to an aspect directed towards the part of the head opposite to 
the inion. By the term antiniad, used adverbially, Barclay denotes 
44 towards the antinial aspect. ** See pope 32. 

ANTIPATHIC (dim, against, mitfov, a disease). Allopathic. A 
term applied to the method of employing medicines which produce 
effects of an opposite nature to the symptoms of the disease, and the 

ANT 41 

maxim adopted it " contraria contrariis opponenda ;" at opposed to the 
kfimeto-patkic treatment of disease. 

ANTIPERIODIC (Arri, against, vipio&K, a period). A remedy 
which counteracts periodicity in a disease, as the sulphate of quinine in 
intermittent fever. 

ANTIPERISTALTIC (ini, against, wspttrriMm, to clasp and 
compress). A term applied to the vermicular contraction of the intes- 
tine* in a direction contrary to that which is natural or peristaltic 

ANTIPHLOGISTIC TREATMENT (dm', against, ^Xdymtrit, 
inflammation). The employment of means for removing or lessening 
inflammation, and of obviating its effects, as by blood-letting, &c. 

ANTIPLA'STIC ALTERATIVES (arri, against, wAaa-ri «<K,fit 
for moulding, from tXcwk, to form). Dysplasttca. Terms applied by 
Oettcrlein to the class of medicines more commonly termed spanetmics, 
or agents which impoverish the blood. 

ANTIPYHETIC (curt, against, wvpirov, fever). A remedy 
against fever. The term antupyrotic (vvptoati) is applied to a remedy 
against burns. 

ANTISCORBUTICS (tW, against, scorbutus). Remedies, real 
or reputed, against scorbutus— -a barbarous word denoting scurvy. 

ANT1SETTICS (arri, against, onhroAtat, to putrefy). 1. Substances 
which resist or correct putrefaction, as acids. 2. Remedies which 
counteract a putrescent tendency in the system, as cinchona. 

Antiseptic Gauze. Made by impregnating a cotton cloth of open tex- 
ture — a Kind of book-muslin — with a mixture of carbolic acid, resin, and 

A'NTISPASIS (arri, against, <nr<£<riv, a drawing back). Revulsion, 
or derivation, of fluids from one part of the body to another ; the effect 
produced by tbe application of a blister. 

ANTISPASMODICS {arri, against, awaafiot, a spasm). Anti- 
spastics. Remedies against spasra, as opium, &c. 

A'NTITHENAR Jarrl, against, 0cVap, the palm of the hand). A 
muscle which extends the thumb, or oppose* it to the hand. 

ANTITHETIC or POLAR FORMULAE. A method of writing 
a chemical formula in two lines, placing all the negative constituents in 
the upper, and the positive in the lower line. From their construction, 
these formulas are named antithetic* the two orders of constituents being 
placed opposite or against each other ; or polar, from exhibiting the 
opposite attractive forces of tbe elements.— Graham. 

A'NTITRAGUS (arri, against, Tpdyox, a goat). A prominence of 
the lower posterior portion of the external ear, opposite to the tragus. 

A'NTITRISM US (drW, against, -rpicrfio^ stridor). A form of spasm 
in which tbe mouth is open, and the jaw is incapable of moving to close 
it See Trismus. 

A'NTITROPAL (aW, against, rptiro*, to turn). Antitropous. 
Straight, and having a direction contrary to that of the body to which 
it belongs ; a term applied to the embryo of the seed, compared with the 
direction of the seed itself. 

ANTODONTAXGICS (aVW, against, odotrraXyta, tooth-ache). 
Remedies against tooth-ache. See Odontalgic. * 

A'NTOZONE (a*W, against, and ozone). One of the bodies of 
which ordinary oxygen is said to be composed. It is stated to have 
been obtained, by Meissner, by electrifying' dry oxygen and then depriv- 
ing it of its ozone. It has been suggested that ozone is really tbe neg&- 

42 AN T— A P H 

tivc atom of oxygen, detached from the positive atom of antozone, 
associated with it in the molecule. Antozone is supposed by some 
chemists to be peroxide of hydrogen diffused in'oxvgen. See Ozone. 

A'NTRUM HIGHMO'RI ANUM {antrum, a cave). Antrum maril- 
lare. The maxillary sinus ; a cavity situated above the molar teeth of 
the upper jaw. 

A'NTRUM PYLOHI {antrum, a cave). The cave of the pylorus ; 
a dilatation at the lesser end of the pylorus. 

ANU'Rl A (a, priv., oupita, to make water). A synonym for ischuria 
renalis or suppression of urine. See Ischuria. 

A'N US. The termination or verge of the rectum, serving as an out- 
Jet for the fieces. 1. Artificial anus is an opening in the parietes of 
the abdomen and of some part of the intestinal tube, subjacent and 
adherent This is also termed anus nothus and fistula stercorosa or 
fecal fistula. 2. Imperforate anus is congenital closure or obliteration 
of the anus. 3. Am prolapsus, exania, or archoptosis, is protrusion of 
the rectum or of its internal membrane. 

The term Anus, or foramen commune posterius, is applied to the 
anterior aperture of the aqueduct of Sylvius. See Aqueauct. 

AO'RTA (dopTiw, a lengthened form of dtipw, to raise or hang up). 
The great artery which proceeds from the left ventricle of the heart. 
It is characterised by the terms ascending and descending aorta ; in the 
, abdomen it is called the abdominal aorta. 

Aortitis. Inflammation of the aorta. 

AP ARTHROSIS (diro, from, <fp0p«<rtv, articulation). Abarticu- 
lation. An old term denoting articulation which admits of free motion. 
Diarthrosis is the usual term. See Abarticulatio. 

A'PATHY (d-rdflna, from a, priv., and irdttnc, suffering). Want 
of passion ; insensibility. According to the Stoics, the term denotes 
dispassionateness, calmness — the perfection of the wise man. 

APE' PS I A (a, priv., irt irrw, to concoct). Indigestion. The term 
dyspepsia is now used, denoting faulty digestion. 

ArE'RlENTS (aperire, to open). Mild purgatives; medicines 
which gently open the bowels. 

API?TAL.ffi (a, priv., it ixaAo*, a petal). Monochlamydem. Having 
no petals ; the name of a sub-class of exogenous plants, which have a 
calyx only, or none. 

A P HA 'SI A (atpatria, speechlessness, caused by fear or perplexity). 
A classical name recommended by M. Trousseau for loss of the " cere- 
bral faculty of speech," for " loss of memory of words/ 1 Two kinds of 
Aphasia have been distinguished : — 

1. Amnesic or UthologtaU aphasia. Loss of speech depending on 
defective memory of words, and therefore to some extent a psychical 
defect. The patient has lost the ability to write as well as to speak. 

2. Ataxic or aneural aphasia. Loss of speech due to lesion of a 
supposed cerebral apparatus of co-ordination for the movements of 
articulate speech — a defect in the nervous mechanism only. The patient 
retains the ability to write, but cannot articulate. 

3. Several unclassical terms have been used as synonyms of aphasia, 
as aphemia, apJiraxia, alalia, and aphthenxia. Sometimes loss of speech 
or of voice was expressed by a periphrasis, as ** apocope vocis," or 
41 abscissio," or " amputatio vocis, ' as used by Avicenna. 

APHE'MIA (a, priv., and Qnfii, to speak). Aphemie. A term in- 

A P H— A P O 43 

tented by M. Broca to denote the loss of the cerebral faculty of speech. 
M. Broca now proposes the term aphrasie (a, priv., and <pp&lw, to 
apeak). See Aplasia. 

APHCKNIA (a, priv., <pmvn, voice). Loss of voice ; voicelessncss, 
eeeaaioned by organic or functional disease of the vocal cords, and rang- 
ing in degree from slight deficiency of voice to complete dumbness. See 
Amamdia and Dysphonia. 

APHCR1A (atpopim, to be barren). A not bearing; a dearth, of 
fruits, of children; barrenness of land ; sterility of intellect. 

APHRODISIACS CA<ppoiirri t Venus). Medicines which excite 
the Tenereal appetite. Remedies against impotence. 

APHTHA (£$0a, *<*0<t<. from 5-ttc, to inflame). Ulcuscula oris; 
Stomatitis vesiculosa. Thrash ; numerous minute vesicles terminating 
in white sloughs, and occurring in the mouth and other parts of the body. 
The adjective aphthodcs occurs in the works of the older writers, signi- 
fying, in connexion with substances, a complication with, or simply the 
affection of, aphtha. 

1. ApkUus lactaniium is infantile or white aphtha ; aphtha adtdtorum, 
aphtha of adults or black aphtha ; and aphtha anginosa, aphtha of the 
throat. See Stomatitis. 

2. Aphtha parasitica. Parasitic aphtha ; parasitic thrush. The name 
of the Thrush parasite is Oiduan albicans, or thrush fungus. It occupies 
the mouth in cases of thrash, and certain mucous and cutaneous surfaces. 

3. Aphtho-phyte (<p\rro», a plant). A name suggested for aphtha by 
Groby, who considered the disease of vegetable origin. 

APHTHO'NGIA(a, priv., and <p6iyyonai, to speakY Aphthoncie. 
This term, and aphthenais or aphthenxia, similarly derived, have been pro- 
posed to designate the loss of the cerebral faculty of speech. See Aphasia. 

APLA'SIA (a, priv., wXdo-tf, a moulding, from irX<i<x<re», to 
mould). The non-development of an organ or tissue. See Hypoplasia, 

APLASTIC! (a, priv.. irXaaaw, to form). Without regular form 
or structure ; a term applied to morbid unorganized deposits. 

APNCE'A (a, priv., v*o<4, the breath). Interrupted or suspended 
respiration. It leads to asphyxia, or pulselessness. Sometimes the 
asphyxia precedes the apnosa, as in the undue administration of chloro- 
form. See Asphyxia. 

A / PO {aw 6). A Greek preposition, signifying from, ojf, Ac, and, 
in composition, denoting separation, as in a/w-phrsis; frequently it only 
strengthens the meaning of the simple word, as in apo-plexy. 

APO'CARPOUS (dxo\ from, tapir 6%, fruit). A term applied to 
fruits which have distinct carpels, as distinguished from syncarpous 
fruits, in which the carpels cohere — the bean, for instance, as distin- 
guished from the orange. 

APO'COPE (air 6, from, Koirrm, to cut). A cutting off; a wound 
accompanied by loss of substance ; a fracture, with loss of bone. Syno- 
nymous with tne old term apharesis. 

APOKENOSIS (d<rd\ from, KtVwffit, evacuation). A morbid flux. 
A term sometimes applied to a partial evacuation, as distinguished from 
kemosis or general evacuation. 

APOLLINA'RIS WATER. A table-water of the efferveacent 
alkaline class, intermediate in composition between the famous waters 
of Sellers- bmnnen and Kr'anchen at Ems. 

APONEUROSIS (dvovevoefcrtr, the end of a muscle, where \\ 

44 APO 

becomes tendon ; a later name for Ttvmv, a tendon, or, rather, a muscle). 
The tendinous extremity of a muscle, whether it be flat or round. The 
term, though derived from pfvpov, nervus, Latin, has nothing to do 
with nerves ; it was not till the time of Galen that the term vtvpo* 
was applied to a nerve, as an organ of sensation proceeding from the 
brain. See Fascia. 

APOPHLEGMA'TIC MEDICINES (<hro4>X«yM«Tf£u», to purge 
away phlegm). Medicines which promote the discharge of phlegm or 
mncus from the mouth or nostrils, as squill, &c. 

APOPHLE'GMATISM (&*o<1>\tyna<riafA6t). Properly the se- 
cretion or discharge of <p\iyna y or phlegm ; but Dr. Greenhill states 
that the term is more commonly used to signify a medicine calculated 
to promote this secretion or discharge, whether used in the form of a 
gargle (or mouth-wash) or a masticatory. 

APO'PHYSIS (diro^iuaiv, an off-shoot). A process of a bone, and 
a part of the same bone (see Epiphysis). By the old writers the term 
apophysis was extended to other parts than bony protuberances, viz., to 
branches of a nerve, to the cerebral nerves, to a branch of the vena coca, 
to the male urethra, as being a prolongation of the bladder, and perhaps 
to the labia hud prepuce. 

APOPLE'CTIC (airoirXijKTjjco^ apoplectic, relating to apoplexy). 
A term generally applied, by the early writers, to the individual struck 
by apoplexy ; sometimes to the accidents or symptoms of the disease. 
Dr. Greenhill observes that the application of the word — 1, to remedies 
for apoplexy; 2, to the constitution predisposing to apoplexy; 3, to 
the state or condition of apoplexy ; and 4, to the juguur veins — is 
medieval or modern. W * J 

APOPLE'XIA (aVo'rX.tigla, from awuirXiiororw, to cripple by a 
stroke). Apoplexy ; apoplectic stroke or fit ; a term which has been used 
in two different senses : by some authors it is employed to denote a group 
of symptoms ; by others, an anatomical condition. According to the 
former, Apoplexy means a sudden loss of consciousness ; according to the 
latter, an extravasation or haemorrhage into the cerebral or other tissues. 

1. Apoplejy, congestive or simple. In this there is distension of the 
vessels of the brain, with or without effusion into the ventricles ; in 
serous apoplexy, there is effusion of serum into the ventricles, or under 
the arachnoid, on the surface or at the base of the brain ; in hemor- 
rhagic apoplexy, or cerebral haemorrhage, there is effusion of blood 
into the substance of the brain, into the ventricles, at the bate, or on 
the surface. 

2. Apoplexiafulminans of the old authors. This is a sudden and 
violent form of the disease, the apopUxiafortissima of the moderns, the 
apoplexie foudroyante of the Frencn. 

3. ApopUxia pulmonaiis. This term has been recently applied to 
haemorrhage into the parenchyma of the lungs, usually attended by 

4. Apoplexy of the liver. A term applied to ex travn sated masses of 
blood found in the hepatic tissue or beneath its capsule, arising from 

5. Par-apoplexy. A soporous state resembling apoplexy. False 
apoplexy. — DungCison. 

APOPSY'CHIA (airo, from, uVvX*?, the soul). Leipopsychia of 
Hippocrates; syncope or fainting. But Dr. Greenhill observes that 


the term is of doubtful authority, and rests on one passage only of 
Galen, where the reading is undoubtedly corrupt. See Apsyehia. 

APOSETEDIN (aro, from, <rfprio«y, putrefaction). A substance 
formed from the putrefaction of animal matters; it is also called 
easeoms oxide, 

APO'STASIS (a-ro'<TTa<rtt, a standing away from). An aposteme, 
impoathume, or abscess. When a disease passes away by some outlet, 
Hippocrates calls it apostasis by accretion ; when the morbific matter 
settles on any part, he calls it apostasis by settlement ; and when one 
disease turns to another, apostosts by metastasis. 

APOSTA'XIS (d-rdffTaPt*, a trickling down). The dripping of 
any fluid, as of blood from the nose. 

APOSTE'MA (aVoVrif/ua, an interval, an abscess). An aposteme 
or abscess ; a separation of parts, as expressed by the similar Latin 
word anenrssus, ** qua 4room)juaTa Orssci nominant " (Celsus). The 
English term is incorrectly written imposthume. 

APOSYRINGE'SIS (dw6 t from, wptyg, fistula). The degenerating 
of a sore into a fistula. 

APOTHE'CA (airotiifrif, a shop, or store, where anything is laid 
up). A shop where medicines are sold. Hence the term apotkecarius, 
an apothecary, a compounder of medicines. This designation is more 
correct than those of chemist and druggist. 

APOTHE'CIA (<fro0ii«q, a case or repository). Sctdella. Shields ; 
a name given, in botany, to some of the organs of reproduction in cryp- 
togamic plants, particularly the Lichens. 

ATOZEM (ajro^afia, a decoction, from eVo, from, £«», to boil). 
A decoction ; a preparation differing from a ptisan only in the addition 
of various medicines, and in its being employed at prescribed intervals, 
and not as a habitual drink. 

APPARATUS {apparere, to be at hand). A term applied to a 
collection of instruments employed in surgery, chemistry, &c. ; also to 
certain methods of cutting for the stone (see Lithotomy) ; also to a 
collection of organs all of which concur in a common function, as the 
respiratory apparatus, &c. 

ligament ; a broad and strong band which covers in the odontoid process 
and its ligaments. 

APPE*NDIX {appendere, to hang to). Properly, a small building 
added to the main fabric. Figuratively, it denotes what is accessory 
or depends upon another. Cicero says, " appendix animi corpus. * 
Generally, a process or appendage ; something appended to another part, 
without being essential to the existence of this part, as a thorn or gland 
in plants, Appendtcula is the diminutive of appendix, and denotes a 
little appendage, or small incident. 

1. Appendix cad vermsYnrmii. A long worm-shaped tube or process, 
the rudiment of the lengthened caecum. 

2. Appendix auriadaris. A process situated at the anterior and 
upper nairt of the auricles of the heart. 

3. Appendices epiploic*, vel pinmiedimsa. Small irregular pouches 
of peritonsBum, filled with fet, and situated like fringes upon the large 
intestine. They are sometimes tailed omentmlm intmtini crassi. 

A'PPERTS PROCESS. A method introduced by M. Appert for 
preferring articles of food unchanged for several years. 


ATPETENCY (appetere y not only to with for, but also to attempt 
to get a thing). The disposition of organized beings to acquire and 
appropriate substance* adapted to their support. 

APPOSITION (apponere, to place at). A term applied to that 
part of the function of nutrition, by which the components of the blood 
are transformed on the free surface of an organ into a solid unorganized 
substance, which is the mode of growth of the non-vascular tissues. 
See Transformations. 

APPROBATION, LOVE OF (approbare, to approve). A term in 
phrenology, indicative of a desire for the esteem of others, love of praise, 
desire for fame or glory. It is common to man and the lower animals. 
Its organ is situated on each side of Self-esteem ; when much developed, 
it generally elongates the upper and back part of the head, but it tome- 
times spreads out laterally, so as to widen rather than lengthen it. 

APSY'CHIA (ai^pWa, lifelessness, swooning). This term, at well 
as apop$yckia t leipopsychia, and leipoihymia, signifies faintness, or loss 
of spirits, but probably, according to Dr. Greenhill, never lifelessness. 

APYRE'XIA (a, priv., wupif it, a fever). An intermission be- 
tween the paroxysms of a fever, tke duration of the intermission de- 
pending on the type of the fever. This is the iniermissio of the Latins. 
The term also denotes the cessation of febrile symptoms in acute 

A'PYROUS (a, priv., wvp, fire). A term applied to bodies which 
sustain the action or a strong heat for a long time, without change of 
figure or other properties. In this respect apyrous bodies differ from 
those which are simply refractory, which may be altered though not 
fused by heat. 

A'QUA FO'RTIS. A name applied by the alchemists to nitric acid, 
on account of its strong solvent and corrosive properties. 

A'QUA LABYRI'NTHI. Liquor of Scarpa ; a fluid found in the 
cavities of the petrous bone. It is secreted bv a mucous membrane 
which lines the vestibule and semicircular canals. 

A'QUA MORGAONI. The name given to a minute quantity of 
fluid, supposed by Morgagni to be contained within the capsule of the 

A'QUA RE'OIA. Nitro-hydrochloric arid. Royal water; the 
name given by the alchemists to a mixture of two parts by measure of 
strong spirit of salt with one part by measure of strong aqua fortis ; 
from its property of dissolving gold, styled the king of metals. 

A'QUA TOFA'NIA. A subtle, certain, slow-consuming poison, 
prepared by a woman named Tophania, or Tofana, of Sicily. The phials 
of the aqua bore the inscription, " Manna of St. Nicholas of Ban." 
Its composition is not known with certainty, but it was probably an 
arsenical solution. 

A'QUA Vi'TM. Eau de Vie. A name given in commerce to 
ardent spirit of the first distillation. Distillers call it low wines. 

A'QUA VULNERA'RIA {vulmu, a wound). A remedy applied 
to wounds ; another term for arquebusade. 

A'QU-ffi DESTILLATjB. Aoum Stillatiti*. Distilled waters; 
waters impregnated with the essential oil of vegetables, principally de- 
signed as grateful vehicles for the exhibition of more active remedies. 

A'QUjE MINERA'LES. Aqua MartiaUs. Mineral waters; a 
term conventionally applied to such waters as are distinguished from 

A Q U—A R A 47 

spring, lake, river, or other waters, by some real or supposed medicinal 
properties. Mineral waters are of four kinds : — 

1. Acidulous ; owing their properties chiefly to carbonate acid ; as 
those of Pyrmont, Seltzer, Spa, Carlsbad, and Scarborough. 

2. Chalybeate ; containing iron in the form of sulphate, carbonate, or 
muriate ; they have a styptic, inky taste ; they are found at Brighton, 
Cheltenham, Bath, and Tun bridge. 

3. Sulphureous or hepatic ; deriving their character from sulphuretted 
hydrogen, either uncombined, or united with lime or an alkali ; they 
are found at Enghien, Aix-la-Chapelle, Harrogate, and Moffat. 

4. Saline ; containing a large quantity of some salt ; as those of 
Cheltenham, Leamington, Seidlitz, and all brackish waters. 

A'QUEDUCT {aqua ductus, a water-course). A term applied to 
certain canals occurring in different parte of the body, as those — 

1. Of Fallopiu*. The canal by which the portio dura winds through 
the petrous portion of the temporal bone. 

2. Of Sylvius. The canal which extends backwards, under the 
tubercula quadrisemina, into the fourth ventricle. 

3. Of the Cochlea. A foramen of the temporal bone, for the trans- 
mission of a small vein from the cochlea. 

4. Of the Vestibulum. The commencement of a small canal, which 
opens upon the posterior surface of the petrous bone, and transmits a 
small vein. 

A'QUEOUS (aqua, water). A term now coming into general use 
for designating definite combinations with water. The term hydrate 
has long been employed for the same purpose. A prefix is used when 
there is more than one atom, as in 6tn-aqueous, fer-hydrate. 

A'QUEOUS HUMOR (aqua, water). That portion of the trans- 
parent contents of the eye which lies between the cornea and the 

A'QUO-CAPSULI'TIS. This unclassical term has been applied to 
inflammation of the capsule of the aqueous humor or lining membrane 
of the cornea. But, as there is no such membrane, the term really 
denotes inflammation of the posterior layers of the cornea. 

A'QUULA (dim. of aqua, water). A little water; a small stream. 
A fatty tumor situated under the skin of the eyelid. 

ARA'CHXOID MEMBRANE (dpavvn, a spider's web, gUot, like- 
ness). Memnx media. The fine cobweb-like membrane situated be- 
tween the dura and the pia mater. It is the serous membrane of the 
cerebrospinal centres, and, in common with other serous membranes, 
secretes a fluid, called the arachnoid fluid, into its interior. 

1. Arachnoiditis, or Arachnitis. Inflammation of the arachnoid 
membrane of the brain ; also termed meningitis. 

2. Sub-arachnoidian fluid. A serous secretion, which fills all the 
■paces between the arachnoid and pia mater, and distends the arachnoid 
of the spinal cord so completely, as to enable it to occupy the whole of 
the apace included in the sheath of the dura mater. 

3. The Arachnoid apophyses, or cobweb-like offshoots, of the old 
writers, signified nervous filaments. Sometimes the term arachnoid 
waa applied to the pulse, when so small and unsteady that it was 
fancifully compared to a cobweb gently shaken by the wind ; sometimes 
to the urine, when fatty substances, Uke cobwebs, float on the surface. 
The term arachnoid was most frequently joined to X 4Tt *»S when it pro- 


48 A R JE-A R C 

bably never signified the arachnoid membrane of the brain (as in 
modern anatomical works), but one of the membranes of the eye. — 

ARjEO'METER (dpaio*, thin or light, fiirpov, a measure). An 
instrument employed for the purpose of ascertaining the specific gravi- 
ties of fluids, generally such as are less dense than water, but capable 
of being used also to determine those of any fluids, and even of solid 
bodies. It differs little from a hydrometer, the depth to which it sinks 
in anv fluid being the test of the gravity of that fluid. 

A'RBOR. A tree. The term is applied to some arborescent forms 
assumed by metals under certain conditions : — 

1. Arbor Diana. A term applied to silver, when precipitated from 
its oxide in the metallic form by mercury ; prepared by introducing 
mercury into a solution of nitrate of silver. 

2. Arbor Satumi. A term applied to lead, when separated from its 
salts in a metallic state by zinc ; prepared by suspending a piece of 
zinc in a solution of acetate of lead. 

A'RBOR VIT/E CEREBELLI. Literally, tree of life of the brain. 
A term applied to the arborescent appearance presented by the cere- 
bellum when cut into vertically. 

Arbor vita uterina. A term applied to an arborescent arrangement 
of folds on the interior of the cervix uteri. They resemble the smallest 
of the cameae columns? of the heart. 

ARCA'NUM (area, a chest). A secret ; a secret remedy; a remedy 
which owes its value to its being kept secret Thus, sulphate of potasn 
was formerly called arcanum duplicatum ; acetate of potash, arcanwm 
tartari ; deutoxide of mercury, arcanum coraUinttm, &c. 

ARCH, FE'MORAL. The name of a considerable arch formed 
over the concave border of the pelvis. It is bounded above by Pou- 
part's ligament, below by the border of the pubes and ilium. 

ARCH, NEURAL ; HAEMAL. Terms applied by Prof. Owen to 
the bony hoops constituting the chief part of the primary segment of 
the vertebra in the archetype vertebrate skeleton. 1. The neural arch 
is that which is placed above the centrum or body of the vertebra (or 
projects backwards in the human skeleton), for the protection of a seg- 
ment of the nervous axis. 2. The hrnmal arch is that which is placed 
beneath the centrum (or extends forward in man), for the protection of 
a segment of the vascular system. See Vertebra. 

Arches, visceral. A term applied to the haemal arches of the cranial 
vertebrae in the embryo. Their interspaces are called visceral clefU. 

ARCH OF THE AORTA. The curved portion occurring between 
the ascending and the descending portions of the aorta. 

ARCH, IP ALMAR, DEEP. Arcus palmaris. The arch formed 
by the radial artery as it crosses the metacarpal bones to the ulnar side 
of the hand. 

ARCH, PLANTAR. Arcus plantaris. The slight curve described 
by the transverse portion of the external plantar artery, the convexity 
being directed forwards. 

ARCHjE'US (apxato*, from dpvtj, a beginning^. This is, accord- 
ing to the theory of Paracelsus and Helmont, the all-pervading primum 
mobile, or fundamental principle of life, which penetrates all parts of 
the living body, and on the condition of which depends sickness or 
health — on its presence, life; on its absence, death. The word is 

A R C— A RE 49 

formed in imitation of the term dpx*in <pvatv t *' fundamental principle 
of nature," used by Hippocrates. See Anima. 

ARCHEGE'NESIS. (<?px»*, beginning, ytWi*, generation). 
Arehebiosis, or Life-Evolution. A term connected with the universal 
evolution theory, and denoting the origin of the simplest organisms 
from to-called lifeless inorganic material. See Abiogenesis and 

A'RCHETYPE (apxiruwot, stamped as a model ; from a>W, a 
beginning, and Tihro*, a type, from timttm, to stamp). A model or 
fundamental pattern on which a system is constructed, and to which all 
modifications of such a system may be referred, as the vertebrate 
archetype in Comparative Anatomy. 

A'RCHIL. Orchil ; Cudbear. A violet-red or bine dye, procured 
from the lichens Rocella Hnctoria and Ceamora tartarea. 

ARCHOPTCTS1S, ARCHOPTO'MA (dpytov, anus, t(vt«, W- 
ttm«, to fall). The former term denotes a failing of the rectum ; the 
latter, its fall, or prolapsus ani. 8ee Amu. 

A'RCIFORM FIBRES (arcus. a how, forma, likeness). A term 
applied by Mr. Solly to a set of fibres which proceed from the corpus 
pyramidale, and pass outwards, beneath the corpus olivare, to the cere- 
bellum. He distinguishes them into two layers, the superficial cert' 
beUar % and the deep cerebellar fibres. 

ARCTATIO lardare, to narrow). Constipation of the intestines ; 
also preternatural straightness of the vagina. Also, the narrowing of 
the calibre of an artery from inflammation. Total closure is called 

ARCUATIO (arcuf, a bow). A gibbosity, or curvature, of the 
dorsal vertebras, the sternum, or the tibia. 

A'RCUS CRURA'LIS. The crural arch ; another name for Pou- 
part's ligament, or the ligamentum Fallopii. 

A'RCUS SENI'LIS (how of old age). Leucomagerontotoxon ; macula 
eornem aremata. An opaque circle round the margin of the cornea, 
occurring in advanced age, and depending on fatty degeneration. 

A'RDOR (ardere, to burn). A sense of heat or burning. Hence 
the terms, ardor urines, a sense of scalding experienced on pasting the 
urine ; ardor wntriculi, heart-burn ; ardor stomachic pyrosis ; ardor 
febrilis, the hot period of fever, Ac. See Fervpr. 

A'REA (arere^ to be dry). Literally, an open place. Under this 
term Celaus describes two varieties of A lopelda, or baldness, viz. : — 

1. Area difikssns. Diffluent areated hair; consisting of bald plots 
of an indeterminate figure, in the beard as well as in the scalp. This 
is the true alopekia of the Greeks. 

2. Area serpens. Serpentine areated hair; consisting of baldness 
commencing at the occiput, and winding in a line not exceeding two 
fingers' breadth, to each ear, sometimes to the forehead ; often termi- 
nating spontaneously. This is the ophiasis of the Greeks. 

A'REA PELLlTCIDA. The transparent space formed after the 
lapse of several hours in the incubated egg, around the first trace of the 
embryo, by the middle portion of the germinal membrane. This is also 
called area germmatwa. 

I. Area vasadosa. A second distinct space surrounding the area 
pellocida, and so named from the formation of the blood-ventls in 

50 A R E— A R M 

2. Area viieliina. A third distinct space surrounding the area via- 
culosa. This zone eventually encloses the whole yolk. 

AREFA'CTION (arefaoere, to make dry). The process of drying 
a substance previous to pulverization. 

ARENA'TION (arena, sand). Saburraiion. The practice of sand- 
bathing ; the application of hot sand, enclosed in a bag or bladder, to 
the body as a stimulant and sudorific. 

ARE'OLA (dim. of area, a void space). The pink or brown circle 
which surrounds the nipple of the female breast. Also the name given 
by Brown to an opaque spot or nucleus observed in the cells of plants, 
and since termed by Srbleiden cytoblast. 

ARE'OLAR TISSUE (areola, dim. of area, a void space). The 
filmy tissue which connects the other component parts of the body in 
such a manner as to allow of a greater or less freedom of motion among 
them. Hence it has also been termed connective tissue. It is the tela 
cellulosa, or cellular tissue, of older writers ; but this term is manifestly 
inappropriate, as its ultimate structure appears to be of a fibrous 
character. For this reason it is also called filamentous tissue. 

A'RGEM A (apyna, from dpyos, white). A small white speck or 
ulcer, occurring partly on the cornea, partly on the sclerotic coat of the 

The sesquiozide of antimony, frequently occurring in the form of small 
shining needles of silvery whiteness. 

ARGE'NTUM (apyos, white). Silver; a brilliant white metal, 
occurring in the metallic state, aud obtained from the ores of lead. 
A r gen turn purificatum is refined or pure metallic silver. Argenium 
divisum is metallic silver, finely pulverized. Argenium foliatum is 
silver-leaf. Argenium in musculis is shell-silver. Argenti nitras is 
lunar caustic. Argenium zootinicum is cyanide of silver. The follow- 
ing are misnomers : — 

1. Argenium musivum. Mosaic silver; made of bismuth aud tin 
melted together, with the addition of quicksilver. 

2. Argenium vivum. Quicksilver, or mercury ; found native, but 
mostly extracted from the native sulphurate. 

3. Argenium vivum purificatum. Hydrargvrus purificatus; or quick- 
silver rubbed with an equal weight of iron filings, and distilled. 

ARG'ILLA {ipyos, white). Argillaceous Earth. White clay, or 
potter's earth ; the earth of clay, called in chemistry alumina, from its 
being obtained in greatest purity from alum. See Alumina. 

Argilla vitriolaia. Alum. 

A'RGOL or ARGAL. Wine-stone. Crude tartar; an acidulous 
concrete salt, deposited by wine on the sides of vessels, and used by 
dyers as a mordant. 

ARGY'RIA (dpyvpot, silver). The slate-coloured stain of the skin 
produced by the internal use of the salts of silver. 

A'RILLODE. A false arillus or aril ; a term now applied to the 
mace of the nutmeg, said to be an expansion of the exostome. 

ARI'LLUS. A term applied, in botany, to an expansion of the 
placenta, or funiculus, about the seed, as the mace of the nutmeg, and 
the red covering of the seed of the spindle- tree. 

ARMAMENTARIUM. Literally, an arsenal or armoury. Hence, 
joarvis componere magna, an " armoury " of surgical instruments. 

A R M— A R T 61 

ARMY ITCH. A special form of contagious akin-disease, engen- 
dered by camp-life, and characterized by itching, but said to have no 
relation to scabies. 

ARQU ATUS MORBUS {arcuate, from arums, a bow). Literally, 
the arched disease ; a name formerly given to jaundice, from the sup- 
posed resemblance of its colour to tnat of the rainbow. 

A'RROW-ROOT. A term applied to the fecula, or starch, pre- 
pared from the tubers of the Maramta arundinacsa of the West Indies ; 
the tubers are said to be efficacious in the treatment of wounds from 

Kisoned arrow*. Some writers derive the word from ora-ruta, an 
dian term meaning mealy root. 

Arrow-root, Brituh. A fecula prepared from the roots of the Arum 
maculatum, or Cuckoo-pint, in the Isle of Portland. 

ARSE'NICUM (dpatiHKOv, masculine, an ancient epithet, denoting 
strong acrimonious properties). Arsenic ; an elementary substance of 
a bluish-white colour, occurring chiefly in the form of arseniuret of 
iron, nickel, or cobalt Arsenic is often classed among the metals 
which it resembles, in some of its properties. (The dpvwucou of the 
Greeks was not our arsenic, but yellow orpiment.) 

1. Arsenious Acid. This compound, frequently called while arsenic, 
and white oxide of arsenic, is an anhydrous acid, * obtained by roasting 
arsenical ores, and purified by sublimation. Its salts are called arsenHes. 
See Anhydrides. 

2. Arsenic Acid. The compound which results from the further 
acidification of the arsenious with nitric acid. Its salts are called 

3L Arsenical Green ; Schweiufurt preen ; Imperial green. An aceto- 
arsenite of copper; a beautiful but very poisonous green pigment, pre- 
pared by boiling verdigris and arsenious acid together. 

4. A rs e niuret ; Arsenide. Chemical names of a compound of arsenic 
with a metal or any elementary substance. 

A RTE'Rl A (dfjV, air, -r »;/>»«, to bold). An Artery. The Ancients 
applied this term to two distinct kinds of tube, viz., the smooth, or 
arteries, and the rough, or bronchi. The latter application seems to 
have suggested the etymology given above. But Dr. Oreenhill observes 
that the derivation from alpm, to raise or carry, will suit either of the 
meanings sufficiently well, "as the lungs may be supposed to be carried 
or suspended by the trachea, or the heart by the aorta.'* 

1. Arteria innominata. A trunk arising from the arch of the aorta. 

2. Arterim helicnuB. The name given by M'uller to one set of the 
arterial branches of the corpora cavernosa penis. " They come off from 
the side of the arteries, and consist of short, slightly-curled branches, 
terminating abruptly by a rounded, apparently closed extremity, turned 
back somewhat on itself: these are sometimes single; sometimes 
several arise from one stem, forming a tuft." 

3. Arterim venosm. The four pulmonary veins were so called, 
because they contained arterial blood. 

4. Arterial Circle of Willis. This is formed by branches of the 
carotid and vertebral arteries at the base of the brain. 

ARTERIALIZA'TION. The conversion of the venous into the 
arterial blood ; a term applied to the change induced in the blood as it 
passes through the lungs, bv the evolution of carbonic acid and the 
abstraction of oxygen from the air. 


52 ART 

ARTERIOTOMY (dprnpta, an artery, ropfj, section}. ]. The 
opening of an artery to let blood, generally the temporal. 2. That 
part of anatomy which treats of the dissection of the arteries. 

ARTERl'TlS. Inflammation of an artery or arteries. It occurs 
in two distinct forms, viz., the adhesive or limited, and the diluted or 

ARTHRO'DI A (dpQpw&ia, a particular kind of articulation, Galen). 
By the older writers this term was used, as it is now, to denote * species 
of synarthrosis, a joint having extensive movement. It is a shallow 
articulation, as that of the humerus with the glenoid cavity. 

A'RTHRON (aptipov). A term sometimes generally applied to any 
kind of joint, but also restricted to the natural juxtaposition of movable 
bones, as distinguished from symphysis, or the union of immovable bones. 
See Articulation. 

1. Arthritis. Inflammatory disease, acute or chronic, of the whole 
or greater part of the structures that enter into, the formation of a joint 
The term was applied by the Ancients to general gout, but has been 
extended to other affections of the joints. See Gout. 

2. Arthr-odynia (66v»n, pain). Pain of the joints. 

3. A rthro-logy (koyot, a description). A description of the joints. 

4. Arthro-pyosis (irvov, pus). Suppuration of a joint. 

5. Arthrosis. Articulation, or jointing. See Articulation. 
A'RTIADS (apTioty even, of numbers ; opposed to vtpurtrov , odd). 

A term connected with the new theory of atomic weights, and denoting 
elements of even atomicity, including the dyads, tetrads, and hexads. 
See Atomicity and Perissads. 

ARTICULA'RIS (articulus, a joint). Relating to joints ; particu- 
larly applied to the arteries given off from the popliteal. 

Arttcularis aenu. This, and the term subcruraus, have been applied 
to a few detached muscular fibres, frequently found under the lower 
part of the crural is, and attached to the capsule of the knee-joint 

ARTICULATION {articulus, a joint). Arthrosis, a jointing. The 
mechanism by which the bones of the skeleton are connected with one 
another. The forms of articulation 

I. Synarthrosis, or Immovable A rticvloHon. 

1. Harmonia (apm, to adapt). Close-jointing; in which the bones 
merely lie in opposition to each other, as those of the face. 

2. Schindylesis (o-x"0vA *?<"** a Assure). A mode of jointing, by which 
a projection of one bone is inserted into a groove or fissure in another, 
as in the articulations of the vomer with the rostrum of the sphenoid 
and with the central lamella of the ethmoid bone. 

3. Gomphosis (yon<pot, a nail). Nail-like insertion, as of the teeth 
into their sockets ; their roots being fixed into the alveoli, like nails 
into a board. This is the only example of this kind of articulation. 

4. Sutura. Literally, a seam. A dove-tailing form of articulation, 
the most solid of the four forms of synarthrosis ; it occurs in the union 
of the flat bones of the skull with each other. There are two varieties, 
viz.: — 

a. Sutura serrata, as in the serrated, or saw like, union of the frontal 
with the parietal bones, and of the parietal bones with one another. 

@. Sutura 9quamosa % as in the scale-like connexion of the temporal 
with the parietal bone. 

A R T— A S A 58 

II. Diartkrotii, or Movable Articulation. 

1. Artkrodia. In this form of articulation, the extent of motion it 
limited, as in the articulation* of both extremities of the clavicle and 
ribs, in the articulations of the radius with the ulna, of the fibula with 
the tibia, of the articular processes of the vertebra, and of the bones of 
the carpus and tarsus with one another, &c. 

2. Ginglrmu* (yiyyXvpot, a hinge). Hinge-like articulation, in 
which the bones more upon one another in two directions only, viz., 
forwards and backwards ; but the degree of motion may be very con- 
siderable. Examples occur in the elbow, the wrist, the knee, the ankle, 
the lower jaw, &c. 

3. Enartkrosi* (i», in, &pdpm<ri* y articulation). Ball-and-socket 
joint, the most extensive in its range of motion of all the movable 
joints. There are three examples of this kind of joint, viz., the hip, the 
shoulder, and the articulation of the metacarpal bone of the thumb 
with the trapezium. 

HI. Amphi-artkrosis, or Mixed Articulation. 

This kind of articulation is intermediate between the immovable and 
the movable forms. It is characterized by having an intervening 
substance between the contiguous ends of the bones, and permitting 
only a slight or obscure degree of motion. Examples occur in the con- 
nexion between the bodies of the vertebras, the union of the first two 
pieces of the sternum, and the sacro-iliac and pubic symphyses. This 
articulation has been called diartkrose de continuity 

ARTI'CULO MORTIS. At the critical moment of death. A term 
applied to a person who is moribund, or dying. 

ARTICULUS NOTHUS (notkus, »69o* y spurious). Fradura non 
coiens. Ununited fracture, or raise joint 

A'RTOS (a pro*, a loaf of wheaten-bread). The Greek term for 
wheaten -bread, as distinguished from /ua£a, or barley-bread. Arto- 
kreas is bread-meat or sandwich ; arto-geda, bread and milk, perhaps a 
poultice ; arto-mtli, bread and honey, possibly a cataplasm. 

A'RTUS (ap», to adapt ; hence apdpop). This term properly means 
a joint — " per membra, per artus," in every limb and joint But it is 
taken in a more general sense, and applied to the limbs of the body. 
8ee Memf/rmn. 

ARYTjCNOID CARTILAGES (dpvraiva, a ewer, tWot, like- 
ness). A term applied to two triangular cartilages of the larynx. The 
derivation of the term relates to the appearance of both cartilages taken 
together, and covered by mucous membrane. In the animals which 
were the principal subjects of dissection among the Ancients, the open- 
ing of the larynx with the arytamoid cartilages bears a striking resem- 
blance to the mouth of a pitcher or ewer having a large spout. 

ARYTiE'NOID GLANDS. The mucous glands situated in the 
arytssno-epiglottidean folds of the larynx. 

ASA-FCETID A. A gum-resin obtained, by incision, from the living 
root of Narthex Asafoetida, an Indian umbelliferous plant. 

ASAPHI'A (dadtpua, from a, priv., <xa<f>rjs, clear). This Greek 
term denotes, generally, want of clearness, uncertainty, as of the mind ; 
but it has been employed, in a special sense, to denote a want of cAeut- 
ness of articulation or speech. 

ASBE'STOS (a, priv., o-fl.Vcuu., to eitinguiib). A fibroin variety 
of hornblende or tremolite, of » 10ft a tenure that it an be apun and 
worcu like flu, Mid >o incoraourtMt that it cmD be cleaned, when dirt;, 
by burning it. There are HTenl varietie*, all mare or ten flexible and 
fibrou*. and tinned taniantim or mountain-flax, &c. 

A"SCAR1S (oVu-npiJu, to jump). The name of a genu of para- 
litica! ccglclminthou* wonni found in the human body. Aicarii lum- 
brmida is the long and round worm ; aicarii vtrnucnlarit, the thread 
or maw-worm ; mcartj myttnx, a worm found in the intntine*. See 

A •SCI (do.ot, a *ack). The tube* or mem bra noun bladder* which 
contain the sporulct of ervptogamic plant*. See Anolieda. 

ASCI'DIUM (d«fo»i., dim. of rfWt, a leathern bag). A name 
given to tbe petiole of certain plant*, when it i> leaf-like, and the 
margin* are folded inward, ao U to lorni a dated urn or pitcher. Sec 

ASCITES (A-c6t, a tec*; a akin-bottle', a big-bellied man). 
Hydropt ventris, Tel abdominis. Dropsy of the belly or abdomen. It 
ni to named from the preaence of the fluid in the peri ton rum, aa in a 
■kin or bag. It it one of the three aneciea of dropey recognized by tbe 
Ancient*, the other* being anasarca and tympanites. 

ASETTA (asnwTor, not liable to rot; from a, priY.and oiaopai, 
to become rotten). A term for lubatancea which are free from the 
putrefactive procea*. 

ASITIA (a, priv., e-i™, food). Literally, wot of food. Hippo- 
cratra employ* the word to denote fatting, and alto want of appetite. 

ASO'DES (iffiiint, from dim, nanaca, and the termination -itnt, 
denoting/.^™). SMtct to natoeu, aa applied to a patient or a di»- 
the*i>; or accompamrd by nautea, aa applied to term* expreuing pain, 

A'SPERAARTE'RIA. Literally.arongh air-vetael. Thetrarbea; 
the wind-pipe which convey* tbe air into tbe lung*, named from the 
inequality of it* cartilage*. See Arttria. 

ASPE'RMIA (a'cari/mnt, from ■, priv., and rwlpua, temen). 

ahaence nf the tote*. 

ASPE'RSION [atpergm, to .prinkle). A kind of aftuion in which 
the liquid ia thrown, drop hy drop, like rain, upon the body. Atperjio 
i« the act of hetprinklinp ; asperoo i* the iprinkling itself. 

ASPHALT. A tolid bitnm'inoua mbaUnce, probably derived from 
decayed veietable matter. 

ASPHY'XIA |a, prtv., ov/.ufit, the pulte). Defictui puliit ; oV- 
ftdia antmi. Thi* term limply meant pnlttltmeii, but it it generally 

ever, opined ia the proper term. This leads toaiphyxia. But aaphyiia 
may occur at once, the breathing continuing, and lead to apnea, aa i 
tome catea of death from rhloroform and amylene. See Apnaa. 

ASPIRATION', PNEUMATIC (aspiratia, a blowing to or upon). 
Thr operation of drawing off gator liquid from a tumor, by meant of * 

A S 8— A ST 55 

mixture. It differs from Anal fit* only in degree, and it performed in 
the dry way by heat, or in the moist way, by acids, Ac 8ee Cvpetta- 

A'SSIDENT SIGNS (assidere, to tit by). A term applied to occa- 
sional si?ns of a disease. They are distinguished from pathognomonic 
signs, which are inseparable from a disease. 

ASSIMILATION (assimilare, to make like). The conversion of 
food into nutriment 1. To the process of the mingling of the food, in 
the form of chyle, with the blood, Prout gave the name primary assimi- 
lotion. 2. To the subsequent changes in the capillaries, and those con- 
nected with the formation and modification of the lymph, he gave the 
name secondary assimilation. 

ASSOCIATE MOVEMENTS. Consensual Movements. Those 
movements which, contrary to our will, accompany other, voluntary, 
movements, those connected by habit or sympathy. Thus, the eye 
cannot be moved inwards, by the action of the rectus internus, without 
contraction of the iris being prod need. 

A'SSUS (quasi arm*, from ardent, to burn). Roasted, as applied to 
foods, and distinguished from elirus, boiled ; " simul assis miscueris 
elixa." But Celsas has assa nutrvc, a careful nurse ; quod puero adsit, 
or assit, which is of a different origin. See Elixation. 

ASTEATO'DES (a, priv., mcrrmdnt, tallowy). A term denoting 
deficiency in the sebaceous secretion ; deficient action of the sebaceous 

ASTHENI'A (ao-0«Vaia, want of strength). A failure of strength, 
or paralvsis of the central organ of the circulation. 

ASTHENIC DISEASES (o'<rd«»»iu>«, weaklv ; d<r0«ntt, weak, from 
a, priv., aOtvot, strength). Diseases characterized by want of vigour. 
The term asthenic is nearly synonymous with the words typhoid and 
adynamic. See Sthenic. 

ASTH ENOTI A (aVflinjs, weak, £ifr, the eye). Muscular amauro- 
sis. Weak sight ; that " state of vision in which the eyes are unable 
to sustain continued exercise upon near objects, although the patient, 
on first viewing such objects, generally sees them distinctly, can employ 
his sight for any length of time in viewing distant objects, and presents 
no external appearance of disease of the eyes/* — Mackenzie. 

A'STHM A {dtrdflaZw, to breathe heavily). Dyspnosa occurring in 
paroxysms, with intervals of freedom of respiration. Humoral asthma, 
or bronehorrheca, is characterized by b rone Dial flux ; congestive asthma, 
or dry catarrh, by scanty expectoration; spasmodic asthma, by pre- 
sumed spasmodic action of the muscular fibres of the air-tubes; hay- 
asthma, by the peculiarities of hay- fever; and hysteric asthma, by 
extraordinary frequency of the respirations, with perfectly healthy 
sound of the chest and breathing. Asthma cultrariorvm is Grinders* 
asthma; asthma metaUariorum, Miners* asthma. 

ASTI'GMATISM (a, priv., o-riyiia, a spot). A term applied by 
Dr. Donders to the phenomena which result from inequality of the 
refractive media, depending on variation of the density of the cornea. 
The term denotes that rays derived from one point do not again unite 
into one point. 

1. Irregular astigmatism. "An aberration, which has reference to 
the rays refracted in one and the same meridian." In this variety a 
Roman letter, for example, appears confused. 

56 AS T— A T H 

2. Regular astigmatism. " An aberration dependent on the differ- 
ence in the focal length of the different meridians of the light- 
refracting system." In thia variety a square appears extended into an 

ASTIGMO'METER. An instrument employed in cases of astig- 
matism, for determining, and noting, for the guidance of the optician, 
the precise angular position of the axes of the cylindrical lenses required 
for correction. 

ASTRA'GALUS (d<rrpdya\ov, a die). The ankle-bone; the 
analogous bones of some animal were used by the Ancients as dice. 

ASTRI'CTION {astrictie, a power of binding close). The action 
of an astringent; a contraction of parts on the application of certain 
substance*. The term was formerly used for constipation. 

ASTRI'NGENT PRINCIPLE (astringere, to hind). A binding 
and contracting principle contained in the husks of nuts, of walnuts, in 
green tea, and eminently in the gall-nut. From the use of this prin- 
ciple in tanning skins it nas obtained the name of tannin. 

ASTRINGENTS (astrinqere, to bind). Remedies which contract 
the animal fibre, and arrest fluxes, haemorrhasres, diarrhoea, &c. 

ASTROBOLrSMUS {&<rrpov, a star, pd\\w, to strike). Astro- 
blesia. The state of one star-struck, stricken by the sun, withered. 
The term has been applied to apoplexy, from the supposition of stellar 
influence. See Siderotic*. 

ASYSTO'LIA (darvarrokov, without contraction). A state in 
which the tension of the pulse is morbidly diminished. 

ATAVISM (atavut, a forefather; strictly, a great-grandfather's 
grandfather). A term applied to a curious phenomenon of hereditary 
predisposition, in which the disappearance of a peculiarity of form, 
character, or morbid tendency, during one generation, is succeeded by 
its reappearance in the next. See Hereditary. 

ATA'XIA (a, priv., Ta£ic, order). Ataxy; irregularity; a term 
applied to the disorder wh ich characterizes fever of no certain type. The 
term is also applied to the pulse, when it is not simply irregular or 
uneven, but wben it has no order in its irregularity; it is then atactic. 
or disorderly. 

1. Under the term Locomotor Progressive Ataxy, Dr. Duchenne 
has described a disease characterized by difficulty of locomotion, and, 
until recently, confounded with paraplegic diseases. See Duchenne' $ 

2. The Atactic Apophyses, or irregular offshoots of the old writers, 
applied to a vein, signified its extreme subdivisions. 

ATA'XIC FEVER (a, priy., Ta£n, order). Irregular fever, in 
which the brain and nervous system are chiefly affected. 

ATELECTASIS (aViAtj*, imperfect, ccrao-iv, extension). Imper- 
fecta explicatio. 1. " Imperfect expansion of the lung in a new-born 
child" (Norn. ofDis.). 2. The term is also applied to the vascula 
system of the skin, and signifies general or universal extensibility, such 
as takes place in the distension of the capillaries, in some forms of 
vascular nevus, and also in cyanosis. — E. Wilson. 

ATHE'RMANCY (a, priv., Qipnaivoum, to become hot). The 
property of arresting the passage of radiant heat. An athermanous sub- 
stance is sometimes spoken of as being opaque to heat. See Diather- 

A T H— A TO 57 

ATHERCMA {Mnprnpa, a tumor filled with matter resembling 
«0«pq, gruel or pap). Under this term are included both fatty and 
calcareous degeneratum* of the blood-vessels, atheroma proper being an 
intermediate condition. The term is derived from the pultaceous or 
pap-iike character of the deposits. See Steatoma. 

ATHETOSIS (a'eiTot, without position or place). Inability to 
keep the fingers and toes from continued motion, which is regular, to 
some extent under the influence of the will, and continuing during 
sleep. Is not this a form of Ataxia? 

ATHRIX (a, priv., 0p<£, hair). Hairless; a term applied by 
Mason Good to a state characterized by diminished formation of hair. 
Thus atkrix calv&e* is synonymous with Alopekia senilis, or senile 
baldness; and atkrix simplex with Defluvium capillorum, or the 
umpjeand pr o g r es sive fill of the hair, producing thinness. 

ATHY'MIA (advpui, despondency, from a, priv., dvfiov, courage). 
Lowness of spirits ; depression; despondency. 

ATL A'NTAL ASPECT. That aspect of the neck and trunk which 
is directed towards the Atlas. The term Atlantad signifies " towards 
the atlantal aspect." See Anatomy. 

ATLAS. The first or uppermost of the cervical vertebrae, articu- 
lating immediately with the occipital bone, and thus supporting the 
globe of the head, — as Atlas was said to support that of the earth. 

ATMOTjYSIS (d-rfios, vapour, Avatc, a loosing or setting free). 
A method of separating gases by diffusion through a porous tube such 
as graphite : thus, on transmitting an explosive mixture of oxygen and 
hydrogen gases through a tobacco pipe, the hydrogen will pass through 
the pores of the tube so much more rapidly than the oxygen that their 
explosive character will be entirely destroyed. See Diffusion, 

ATMOPYRE (ifr/tot, vapour, w5f>, fire). The name given by 
Mr. D. O. Edwards to his invention for solidifying the flame of inflam- 
mable gases, and rendering them available either for warming apart- 
ments or for culinary purposes. 

ATMOSPHERE (drpo*, vapour, <r<p*Ipa, a sphere). The 
envelope of gases and vapours which surrounds the earth. Atmospheric 
air consists chiefly of a mechanical mixture of nitrogen with one- 
fifth of its volume of oxygen, and very small portions of carbonic acid 
and ammonia. The term "atmospheric air" was introduced to dis- 
tinguish the atmosphere from other airs — a term formerly applied to all 
the pases. 

1. Atmospheric Pressure is indicated by the length of a column 
of mercury. A mercurial column, 30 inches in length, presses on a 
given surface with the same force as the atmosphere in its ordinary 
state ; and hence the force of a 60-inch column is equal to the pressure 
of two atmospheres ; that of 15 inches to half an atmosphere ; that of 
one inch to l-30th of the atmospheric pressure. 

2. Atmospheres— two, three, gc. Multiplied pressures of air, arising 
from condensation, the ordinary pressure being fifteen pounds on the 
square inch. 

ATOM (a-ropot , that cannot be cut). An ultimate particle of 
matter, incapable of further division. The term atom is, however, 
not only hypothetical, but often inapplicable, as when half atoms occur. 
Equivalent is only expressive when comparison with a correlative equi- 
valent is directly implied. Proportion meant similitude of Titwi. 

58 A T O 

Proportional is one of the terms of a proportion. Combining ouantitt, 
or weight is sometimes expressive, but. besides being unwieldly, it is 
not always applicable. Dr. Donovan adds, the word aose is universally 
employed to designate a determinate or definite Quantity of a thing given; 
it has the quality of involving nothing bevona a fact, and can often be 
used with advantage. See Atom and Molecule. 

ATOM and MOLECULE. These terms have recently received 
new definitions, in compliance with the new views of atomicity. Thus 
an Atom, sometimes called i( elementary atom,* 1 is the smallest quantity 
of an element or compound that can be associated with others, or trans- 
ferred from one compound body to another ; a Molecule, sometimes 
called "molecular atom," is the smallest quantity that can exist 
isolated in a free state, or stand by itself uncombined. Every mole- 
cule is not an atom, but every atom is a molecule. See Oxide of 

Atomic Theory according to which each element, in combining with 
other elements, or in displacing other elements from combination, does 
so in a fixed proportion, which may be stated numerically. 

ATO'MIC HEAT. The term applied by Regnanlt to the specific 
heat of atoms. The atomic heat of a substance is the number obtained 
by multiplying its specific heat by its atomic weight. 

ATO'MIC SATURATION. A term introduced to express a 
doctrine which affects all chemical compounds — viz., that each element 
is capable of combining with a certain limited number of atoms, and 
that this number can never be exceeded, although the energy of its 
affinities may have been increased by combination up to this point. 

ATO'MIC THEORY. A theory which deals with the indivisible 
particles of all substances, and comprehends three grand laws which 
form the foundation of chemical science. These are— 1, the law of 
definite proportions ; 2, the law of multiple proportions; and, 3, the law 
ol atomic or equivalent proportions. 

ATO'MIC VOLUME. The volume or measure of an equivalent or 
atomic proportion of a body, termed by M. Kopp the specific volume. 
By dividing the atomic weight by this volume, we obtain the calculated 

ATO'MIC WEIGHTS. A term connected with the theory founded 
on the supposition that matter consists of ultimate indivisible particles, 
called atoms ; that these are of the same size and shape in the same 
body, but differ in weight in different bodies; and that bodies combine 
in definite proportions, with reference to those weights, which are hence 
called atomic weights. 

ATOMI'CITY. A term of modern date introduced for the purpose 
of describing those properties of atoms which were otherwise described 
by the term '* equivalence," and of enforcing the fact that the effects 
referred to belong really to atoms. By the atomicity of an element is 
meant the number expressing the hydrogen-atoms to which one atom 
(or volume) of that element is usually equivalent Hence the follow- 
ing terms : — 

1. Mon-atomic, uni-equwalent, monad elements, the atomic weights 
of which are represented by the same numbers as their equivalent 
weights. Chlorine is the type of one-atom elements. 

A T O— A T T 69 

2. Di-atomic, bi-eqwva!ent } dyad elements, of which the number 
representing the equivalent weight is half of that which represents the 
atomic weight. Oxygen is the type of two-atom elements. 

3. Tri-atomic, ter-eqturalent, triad elements, of which the number 
representing the equivalent weight is commonly taken as identical with 
that which represents the atomic weight, though, if the equivalence 
system were rigorously carried out, the equivalent should be one-third 
of the atomic weight. Nitrogen is the type of three-atom elements. 

4. Tetr-atomic, qnadr-eouivalent % tetrad elements, of which the 
number representing the equivalent weight ought to be one-fourth 
of that which expresses the atomic weight, whereas it is usually 
represented as hair that number. Carbon is the type of four-atom 

ATCNIA (a, priv., roVot, tone). A Hippocratic word, denoting 
relaxation or want of tone in the system generally. It seems to have 
been applied to the coats of the veins, and reckoned among the four 
causes of hemorrhage occurring without a wound. The term atonic is 
now applied to a disease characterized by atoma, or want of vital energy, 
as atomic gout, &c. 

ATRA B1LIS. Nigra bUis. Black bile : a term denoting melan- 
choly or sadness : " quern nos furorem, nt\ay\o\iav illi vocant; quasi 
vero atra bili solum mens, ac non sepe vel iracundia graviore, vel 
timore, vel dolore moveatur.** — Cic. Tusc. Dis. 

Atrabilarious. Affected with melancholy, which the Ancients 
attributed to the predominance of atra bills, or black bile. The term 
atratnliary has been applied to the arteries, capsules, and veins pertain- 
ing to the kidney — called also renal arteries, &c. 

ATRE'SIA (a, priv., Tpaoo, to perforate). Imperforation, as of the 
anus, meatus auditorius, uterus, vagina, &c. The substantive atresia 
is not found in Greek writers, but the adjective irpntox occurs, both 
in an active and a passive signification. Atresia iridis is closure or 
imperforation of the pupil. See Synechia. 

ATROTHIA (a, priv., rpotpn, nourishment). Atrophy; want of 
nutrition ; a disease of the whole body, or of any particular part ; thus, 
atrophy of the heart is either a wasting of the heart, or a fatty degenera- 
tion of the muscular tissue of that organ ; atrophy of the brain is 
" diminution of brain-substance without induration or softening ;" spinal 
atrophy is a term synonymous with tabes dorsal is ; linear atrophy is 
another name for morphoea atrophica when it occurs in bands or lines 
in different parts of the body. 

ATRO'PIA. An organic alkaloid constituting the active principle 
of Atropa belladonna, or Deadly Nightshade. 

ATTE'N U ANTS (attenuare, to make thin). Diluents; medicines 
which make thin, or dilute, the fluids of the body, as opposed to 
mspissanU, or those which make thick or viscid. 

ATTENU ATIO {attenuare, to make thin). The lessen ine of weight 
or of consistency ; emaciation. The term is also applied to the process 
by which a fluid becomes of less specific gravity, as when it undergoes 
fermentation and parts with carbonic acid. Extenuaiio is a stronger 
term, and denotes the making very thin. 

ATTO'LLENS {attollere, to lift up). A muscle which draws any 
part upwards, as the attollens auriculam, or superior auris, which raises 
the ear ; also called levator or elevator. 

60 AT T— A U R 

ATTRACTION (attrahere, to draw to). A tenn denoting certain 
physical and chemical properties of matter. 

1. Attraction of Gravitation. The tendency of masses of bodies to 
one another, at all distance!. See Gravity. 

2. Capillary Attraction. The power by which a liquid rises in a fine 
tube higher than the surface of the liquid which surrounds it. 

3. Electrical Attraction. The property displayed by certain sub- 
stances of attracting certain others, on being rubbed. 

4. Magnetic Attraction. The tendency of certain bodies, chiefly 
iron, to point towards the north pole of the earth and each other. 

5. Attraction of Cohesion. The tendency of the molecules of a body 
to cohere, to form masses. It is the antagonist of affinity. 

6. Attraction of Affinity. The tendency of the atoms of certain 
bodies to combine, to form chemical compounds. See Affinity. 

7. Attraction, elective. A term denoting the apparent choice which 
bodies exhibit when under the influence of the attraction of affinity, 
the tendencies to combine being found to exist in different degrees 
between the particles of different bodies. 

ATTRAHENS AURIS {attrahere, to draw to). A muscle which 
draws the ear forwards and upwards; also called anterior auris and 
prior auriculas. 

-AT US. This termination, as also that of -Hue, denotes the presence 
of the substance indicated by the word which it terminates ; as slates, 
having wings ; aurifta, having ears, &c. 

AUDI'TIO, AUDI'TUS (audire, to hear). The former term de- 
notes the act of hearing; the latter, the sense of hearing. "Auditionee 
fictSB, quibus auditus ssspius patet, audientiam facere solent." The last 
term denotes audience, or attention given to a discourse. 

AU'RA (adpa, aura, a gentle breeze). A wafting air; a subtle, 
invisible fluid supposed to be wafted from a body ; an effluvium, 
emanation, or exhalation, as the aroma of flowers, the odour of the 
blood, &c. 

. 1. Aura electrica. Electric breeze. A term sometimes applied to 
the currents of air which proceed from a point connected with a charged 
body, such as a needle attached to the prime conductor of an electric 
machine which is being worked. 

2. Aura epileptica. A sensation of cold or pain felt in the extreme 
parts of the oody, and gradually creeping upward to the head, before an 
attack of epilepsy — a kind of ' formicatio.' 

3. Aura podagrica. A peculiar sensation creeping through the 
system in gout. 

4. Aura sanguinis. The odour exhaled bv blood newly drawn. 

5. Aura seminalis. A term connected with the theory of the mode 
of action of the semen on the ovum, according to which it was supposed 
to take place through the intervention of a peculiar emanation, ana not 
by immediate contact. 

AU'RIC ACID (aurum, gold). A name proposed by Pelletier for 
the peroxide of gold, from its property of forming salts with alkaline 
bases. Its salts are called aurates. 

AURI'CULA (dim. of auris, the ear). 1. An auricle ; the flap of 
the ear, with the auditory tube. 2. Also the name of two cavities of 
the heart which lead to the ventricles, and resemble the external ear 
of some quadrupeds. 

A U R— A V S 61 

AURICULA'RIS (auricula, the external ear). A designation of 
the muscle which extends the little finger, or the extensor minimi digiti, 
from its turning up the little finger. 

AURI'CULO-VENTRl'CULAR RING. The fibrous rin» or 
opening which communicates between the auricle and the ventricle of 
the heart. This ring is larger on the right than on the left side. 

AURI'GO (auram, gold). Orange-skin ; a term applied to an 
orange hue, diffused over the entire surface of the skin in new-born 
infanta. Sauvages terms it ephelis lutea. Also an old name for jaun- 
dice, derived from its colour. 

AURIPIGME'NTUM {aurum, gold, mgmentum, paint). Orpi- 
ment ; yellow sulphuret of arsenic, of a brilliant yellow colour. 

AURIPU'NCTURE (auris, the ear, pungere, to prick). Puncture 
of the membrana tympani of the ear. 

AU'RIS (audire, to hear). The ear, generally. Auricula is the 
flan of the ear with the auditory tube. Pinna is the flap of the ear 
only. Auritus, having large or long ears; auriiulus, dim., having 
small ears. 

AURISCA'LPIUM (auris % the ear, scalper*, to scrape). A surgi- 
cal instrument for cleansing the ear; an ear- pick. 

AU'RUM. Gold ; a yellow metal of great malleability and duc- 
tility. It is found generally native, massive, and disseminated in 
threads through a rock, or in grains in the sand of rivers. 

1. Aurum fulminant. A urate of ammonia; an explosive substance, 
produced by precipitating a solution of gold bv means of ammonia. 

2. Aurum foliatum. Aurum in libelfis. Gold-leaf, for gilding pills. 

3. Aurum in musculis. Shell-gold ; made by grinding the cuttings 
of gold-leaf with thick gum-water, and spreading the ground gold in 
pond-mussel shells. 

4. Aurum potabile. Gold dissolved and mixed with volatile oil. 

5. Aurum pulveratum. True gold-powder ; made by rubbing to- 
gether grain-gold and quicksilver, then distilling off the Quicksilver, or 
corroding it away with spirit of nitre, and heating the black powder 
which is left to redness. 

The following are Misnomers : — 

1. Aurum musitum, seu mosaicum. Mosaic gold ; a name of the 
disulphide of tin, prepared in the form of golden-yellow spangles. 

2. Aurum iophisticum. Powder-gold, or bronze-powder ; consisting 
of verdigris, tutty, borax, Ac., made into a paste with oil, and melted 
together ; used injapan work as a gold colour. 

AUSCULTATI6N [auscultare, to listen ; from the ancient ousts for 
aures, quasi aures cultare, i. e. aures colere. Or, " perhaps from an obso- 
lete verb, ausi-cuUire or aus-culare, which would come from ausi-cula, 
an old form of auricula." — Smith). Auricular exploration. The act 
of listening by the application of the ear, in the examination of disease. 
It is termed immediate, when nractised by the unassisted ear ; mediate, 
when performed by means of the stethoscope. 

I. Sounds of the Respiration. 

1. Vesicular Respiration is the natural sound of respiration produced 
in the vesicles of the lungs ; it denotes that the lungs are permeable to 
air. It is at its maximum in infanta, and is termed puerile ; at its 
minimum in the aged, and termed senile. 


2. Bronchial Respiration is the morbid sound of respiration, as heard 
in the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi ; it appears dry, and the air 
seems to be passing through a large empty space. There are several 
varieties of tnis sound. 

3. Cavernous Respiration is the morbid sound of respiration, produced 
in morbid cavities of the lungs. During expiration, the wind appears 
to be puffed into the ear of the auscultator. See Change of Pitch. 

4. Souffle, or Blowing, is a sound resembling that of the air being 
actually drawn from or propelled into the ear of the auscultator, when 
the patient speaks or coughs. The ( souffle ' is sometimes modified by 
the sensation as of a veil interposed between a cavity and the ear, and 
is then termed souffle voile, or the veiled blowing sound. 

II. Rattles, Rales, or Rhonchi. 

1. Vesicular or Crepitating Rattles are of two kinds, the moist and 
the dry. The former resembles the noise of salt thrown on the fire ; 
the latter, that made by distending a dry bladder. The moist sound 
runs into the varieties of the bronchial rattle, and, when the bubbles 
are large, is called subcrtpitation ; the dry occurs in emphysema. 

2. Bronchial Rattles are distinguished into the mucous, the sonorous, 
and the sibilant. The first resembles the rattling in the throat of the 
dying; the second, a sort of snoring sound, the tone of a base string in 
vibration, or a cooing sound; the third, a whistling sound. The 
mucous rattle, when seated in the bronchi or cavities, is termed caver- 
nous, or gurgling. 

III. Sounds of the Voice. 

1. Bronchophony is the morbid resonance of the voice over the bronchi 
in condensation of the lung. It traverses the tube of the stethoscope, 
and is very similar to pectoriloquism. In thin persons it resembles 

2. Laryngophmy. The sound of the voice as it passes to the ear 
through the tube of the stethoscope, when placed over the larynx or 

3. Pectoriloquism is distinguished from bronchophny by its cavernous 
and circumscribed character. The voice comes directly from the chest 
to the ear, as if it were formed within the lungs. It may be perfect or 

4. JEgophony is a sound resembling the bleating of a goat, or a 
snuffling human voice. It seems as if an echo of the voice, of an acute, 
harsh, and silvery character, were heard at the surface of the lungs, 
rarely entering, and scarcely ever traversing, the tube of the stetho- 
scope. It is the sound of voice, vibrating through a thin layer of 

IV. Sounds of Cough. 

1. Tubal Cough is s resonance of the concussionproduced by cough- 
ing over the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi. There is the obvious 
sen wit ion of an internal canal. It denotes that the air is not allowed 
to enter the cells of the lungs. 

2. Cavernous Cough is the resonance of the concussion produced by 
coughing over a cavity. It is attended by cavernous rattle. 

3. Metallic Tinkling resembles the sound of a metallic vessel, or 
glass, struck by a pin. It is heard iu respiration, but especially when 


the patient speaks or coughs ; it it sometimes heard in cough, when 
inaudible in the respiration or in the voice. 

4. Amphoric Resonance is a sound like that heard on blowing into a 
decanter. It is heard under the same circumstances as the previous 

V. Sounds of tie Heart. ' 

1. Cri du cuir neuf. The sound resembling the creaking of the 
leather of a new saddle. This sound has been supposed to be produced 
by the friction of the heart against the pericardium, when one or both 
have lost their polish from the effusion of solid lymph with little or 
no serum. 

2. Bruit de souMct. A sound of the heart resembling the puffing of 
a small pair of bellows, as employed to blow the fire. This sound 
usually takes the place of the natural one ; sometimes the two are con- 
joined ; it may take place during the first and second sound, or only 
during one of these. 

3. Bruit de trie. A grating sound of the heart, resembling that pro- 
duced by the action of a saw upon wood. 

4. Bruit de rape. A grating sound of the heart, like that produced 
by the action of a file or rasp. There is every intermediate gradation, 
from the smoothness of the bellows-sound to the roughest sounds pro- 
duced by a large-toothed saw. 

5. Frimissement cataire of Laennec, or bruissement of Corvisart. A 
peculiar thrill or tremor, perceived bv the finger when applied to the 
heart or artery where it exists, resembling that communicated to the 
hand by the purring of a oat. 

6. Bruit musculoire. The muscular sound, always heard during 
muscular contraction, and peculiarly distinct in patients shivering from 
cold, or when the muscles are put upon the stretch. 

VI. Sounds of the Arteries. 

1. Bruit de soufflet intermittent. An intermittent blowing sound, 
occasioned by contraction of the calibre of an artery, from tumor, &c. 
It is sufficient to compress the artery with the stethoscope to produce 
this noise. 

2. Bruit de soufflet continu. A continuous blowing and snoring 
sound, resembling the blowing noise of the bellows of a forge. The 
bruit de d table, or sound of the humming-top, is a variety of this 
soufflet. Sometimes a kind of tune of the arteries is heard, resem- 
bling the bumming of certain insects ; this is called sifflement moduli, 
am ckant dee arteres. The bruit de momche is a buzzing sound like that 
of a fly. 

VII. Sounds of Pregnancy. 

1. Bruit placentaire. A sound of the placenta, produced, according 
to Bouillaud, by compression of one of the large vessels of the abdomen 
by the gravid uterus. It is analogous to the intermittent blowing sound 
of the arteries. 

2. Double pulsation of the heart of the foetus. A tolerably exact idea 
of this noise will be obtained by listening to the tic-tac of a watch 
placed under a pillow upon which the head rests. It occurs at the 
middle of the period of gestation. 

64 A U T-A X I 

AUTOCHTHONOUS {avroyflw, sprung from the land itself). 
A term applied to a thrombus or dot of coagulated blood formed in the 
organs of circulation. See Thrombosis. 

AUTO'GENOUS (avro*, one*i self, ylvofiai, to be produced). A 
term applied by Prof. Owen to part* or processes which are developed 
from independent centres. Thus, the autogenous parts of a vertebra 
are its elements, as distinguished from its exogenous parts, or its 

Autogenous "soldering." A process of constructing chambers of 
leaden plates by fusing their edges without solder, which would be 
rapidly corroded by acid vapours. The term is a misnomer. 

AUTOMATIC MOTIONS {airrovarot, of his own accord). Those 
muscular actions which are not dependent on the mind, and which are 
either persistent, or take place periodically with a regular rhythm, and 
are dependent on normal causes seated in the nerves or the central 
organs of the nervous system. 

AUTOPHONOMA'NIA (a irro<p6vo*, a self-murderer, fiavia, mad- 
ness). A form of mania leading to the attempt to commit suicide. 

AUTOPLA8TY Cairo*, one's self, *Acf<r<n», to form). A general 
term for those surgical operations in which an injured part of the body 
is repaired by means of the healthy parts in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the lesion, as in rhinoplasty, cheiloplasty, blepharoplasty, &c. 
See Heteroplasty. 

AUTO'rSIA {ahtotyia, from atrrd*e, one's self, owTofiat, to see). 
Literally, seeing with " one's own eyes ;" a term curiously applied to 
post-mortem examination, or inspection of the body after death. 

AVA or KAVA-KAVA. The root of Piper methysticum, used 
by the Pacific islanders for intoxicating purposes, and recently employed 
in Europe as a remedy in gonorrhoea, &c. 

AVE\NA. Oats ; the grains of the Avena saliva, or common oat. 
The decorticated grains are known as groats ; when decorticated and 
ground to powder, as prepared groats. When dried in a kiln, and then 
coarsely ground, they form oatmeal, or avena farina. 

AVOGA'DRO'S LAW. A law which asserts that equal volumes 
of different gases, at the same pressure and temperature, contain an 
equal number of molecules. 

AX'ILLA (ala, a wing). 1. The arm-pit ; the space between the 
side of the chest and the shoulder. Hence the term axillary, applied 
to parts belonging to the axilla, or arm-pit. 2. In botany, the term 
axilla is applied to buds which are developed in the angle formed 
by a leaf-stalk and the stem ; the normal position of every bud is 
axillary in this sense ; buds otherwise developed are termed extra- 

A'XIS. Vertebra dentata. A designation of the second cervical 
vertebra, from its presenting a tooth-like process, on which, as on an 
axis, the atlas, or first vertebra, turns. Also a designation of the 
modiolus, or central, conical, bony nucleus of the cochlea. 

A'XIS, CCE'LIAC. The first single trunk given off by the abdo- 
minal aorta. 

A'XIS-CY'LINDER. The name given by Purkinie to the central 
filament or axis-fibre of a nerve, or primitive band of Remak. 

A'XIS, THYROID. A short trunk arising from the front of the 
subclavian artery, close to the inner border of the anterior scalenus. 

A X U-B AD 65 

AXU'NGIA (so called from its beine used to grease wheels — ab axe 
rotarum quae unguuntur). Axunge, hog s lard, or the Adept praparaius 
of the Pharmacopeia. 

AXU'NGIA ARTICULA'RIS. U«guen articulate. Names of the 
peculiar lubricating fluid which facilitates the motions of the joints, 
commonly called synovia. 

AXU'NGIA CA'STORIS. Pinguedo Cast oris. The secretion 
found in the oil- toes near the rectum of the Castor Fiber, or Beaver. 

A'ZOTE («,priv., gun, life). A constituent part of the atmosphere, 
so called from its being incapable, alone, of supporting life. This gas 
is also called nitrogen, from its being the basis of nitric acid. 

Azotic and Azotous acid. Other names for nitric and nitrous acid, 
respectively, azote and nitrogen being the same gas. 

AZOTU'RIA (azote, and ouptui, to make water). A variety of 
chronic diuresis, in which a greater quantity of urea is excreted in the 
urine than in the healthy state. See Anazoturia. 

A'ZYGOS (a, priv., £i/yot,a yoke). A term applied to parts which 
are single, not in pairs, as to a process of the sphenoid bone, a vein of 
the thorax, and a muscle of the uvula. 


BA'CCA. A berry, consisting, in a restricted sense, of seeds em- 
bedded in pulp ; as a rule, indehiscent ; inferior ; the outer portion of 
the pericarp being thin-skinned, as in ribes, &c. The term, however, 
comprises the uva, the pepo, and the amphisarca. 

BA'CCHI A (Bacchus, the god of wine). A goblet or drinking-ves- 
sel ; a term applied to gutta rosacea, as indicative of a cause — a cause 
distinctly stated by Plenck, in hit gutta rosacea amopoteron (oiyoirorn- 
p»v, wiue-bibbers). See Acne. 

BACK-STROKE OF THE HEART. A popular expression for 
the diastole or dilatation, as distinguished from the systole or contraction, 
of the ventricles of the heart. 

BACTE'RIA {fiuKTnpiov, a rod). Rod-like infusoria, said to be 
the smallest and least organized of all living beings. The term is 
sometimes used generally for the whole group of organisms designated 
by botanists as schizomycetes. See Mikrozymes. 
' BacUri-kamia (al/ua, bloodV An infected state of the blood owing 
to the presence of bacteria in that fluid. 

BA'CULUS. Literally, a stick; and hence the term has been ap- 
plied to a lozenge, shaped into a little short roll, like a stick. Bacillum 
is a diminutive, signifying a small stick. 

BADEN, MINERAL WATERS OF (Austria). Sulphurous 
waters, flowing from eleven springs into fifteen reservoirs or baths, at 
the rate of 80,640 cubic feet every twenty-four hours. The tempera- 
ture of the hottest sprinj? is 99°, that of the coolest 86° Fahr. 

BADEN, MINERAL WATERS OF (Switzerland). Thermal 
springs, containing carbonic acid gas, marine salt, Glauber's salt, 
caiNmateof lime, and magnesia. The highest temperature is 107° 


66 B A D—B A I, 

seventeen in number, impregnated with salt, alum, and sulphur. 
Their temperature ranges from 115° to 153° Fahr. 

BAKER'S ITCH. Psoriasis pistoria. The vulgar name of the 
Lichen agrius, a species of scale, occurring on the back of the hand of 
bakers, from the contact of flour. 

BAKER'S SALT. A name given to the sub-carbonate of ammonia, 
or smelling salts, from its being used by bakers, as a substitute for 
yeast, in the manufacture of some of the finer kinds of bread. 

BA'LANCEMENT. Compensation. A law of teratogeny, by which, 
according to Geoffrey St Hilaire, excessive development of one organ 
is supposed to be balanced or compensated by defective development of 
another, and vice versa. 

BALANITIS (/8a\aww, glans). Gonorrhoea externa vel pr&putia- 
lis. Inflammation of the surface of the glans penis and inside of the 
prepuce, with profuse purulent discharge and excoriation. Some writers 
term the disease balanitis when the glans only is affected, and baJano- 
posthitis (see Posthitis), when complicated with inflammation of the 
lining of the prepure. See Vulvitis. 

BALAU'STA (ilaXavo-riov, the flower of the wild pomegranate). 
A spurious fruit, consisting of many-seeded achaenia, arranged in two 
circlet, and blended with a fleshy disc, as in Punica. Sec Pomum. 

BALBU'TIES. Stammering. This is not a classical word, but in 
pure Latin bulbus denotes one who lisps, or is incapable of pronouncing 
certain letters ; blasus one who stammers, or has an impediment in his 
speech. See Bambalia. 

BALDNESS. Loss of hair. When the loss is absolute, it is called 
alopekia; when circumscribed, area, tinea decalvans, &c. See these 

BALDWIN'S PHOSPHORUS. The fused nitrate of lime. This 
salt is so termed from its property of emitting a beautiful white light 
in the dark, when kept in a stoppered vial, after exposure for some 
time to the direct rays of the sun. 

BALI'STA (8aKKu> t to cast). A sling. The astragalus was for- 
merly called os oalislce, from its being cast by the Ancients from their 
slings. There are also the terms ballisia and ballistra. 

BALL-AND-SOCKET JOINT. Enartkrosis. A species of 
movable articulation, in which the spheroidal surface furnished by 
one bone plays in a cup furnished by another, as in the hip-joint See 

BALLI'SMUS (/9aX.Xfga>, to trip or caper). A jumping about. A 
term which has been generally applied to those forms of palsy which 
are attended with fits of leaping or running. 

BALLOO'N. A chemical instrument or receiver, of a spherical 
form, for condensing vapours from retorts. 

BA'LLOTTEMENT (hallotter, French, to toss or bandy a ball at 
tennis). The repercussion or falling back of the foetus, after being 
raised by an impulse of the finger or nand, and so made to float in the 
liquor amnii. 

BALL SODA. Black ash. A mixture of carbonate of soda and 
oxy sulphide of calcium. 

BALM (/9o\<rajiov, balsamum). 1. An aromatic labiate plant 
named Melissa officinalis. 2. The resinous and odoriferous or aromatic 

B A L-B AN 67 

sap or juice of certain trees. 3. Any fragrant or valuable ointment. 
4. Anything which soothes or mitigate* pain. 

BALM OF GILEAD. The prince of balsams, or True Balsam of 
Mecca; the resinous juice obtained by incisions into the Baltamo- 
dendron Gileadense, a small tree found only in part of India and in 
Arabia about Mecca. It was sold in Rome for double its weight in silver. 

BALNEOTHERAPEI'A. A hybrid term for balaneiotherapeia 
(fimkanlov, a bath, Oipawim, medical treatment), denoting the 
treatment of disease by means of baths. 

BA'LNEUM (balineum, from paXavsiov, a bath). A bathing- 
chamber ; a bath. In the plural, balnea, -arum, fern., and sometimes 
balnea, -orum, neut Italian, bagno ; French, bain. See Bath. 

1. Balneum and balineum were terms used for the water- bath, which a 
matter of a family had in his bouse ; balnem and balinea, for public 
bathing- places. All referred to baths artificially heated. 

2. Balneum tiocum. A dry bath. This term denotes the application 
of dry heated substances, as hot air, sand, ashes, salt, &c, to the skin to 
promote sweating. But the term balneum is inapplicable to such, since 
Celsus evidently confines it to a water-bath, while, under the head of 
"Siccus color,' he includes arena calida, the laconicum, and the 

3. Balneum frigidum. A cold bath. But the term is obviously 
incorrect, as balneum always denotes a hot-water bath. Equally in- 
correct is the term balneum vaporis. Celsus regards calidus vapor as 
one kind of " siccus color." See Thermal. 

BALSA'MICA. Balsamics ; a term generally applied to substances 
of a smooth and oily consistence, possessing emollient, sweet, and 
generally aromatic qualities. Dr. Cullen mentions them under the 
joint titles of balsamvca et resinosa, considering that turpentine is the 
basis of all balsams. See Balsamum. 

BA'LSAMUM (fiaktrauov, the balsam- tree). Balsam; a technical 
term used to express a native compound of ethereal or essential oils 
with resin and benzoic acid. Those compounds which have no benzoic 
acid are miscalled balsams, being in fact true turpentines,** the so-called 
copaiba balsam, Hungarian balsam, &c. * 

BAMBA'LlA. Stammering; a kind of St Vitus's dance, confined 
to the vocal organs. Its varieties are hesitation and stuttering. The 
term is not classical, and can hardly depend, for its derivation, upon 
fInHpal**, to lisp or stammer. See Balbuties. 

BANDAGE. A roller, compress, or apparatus of linen or flannel, 
for binding parts of the body. It is simple or compound. 1. The 
simple bandage is termed equal, when the turns are applied circularly 
above one another ; unequal, when the turns are not accurately so 
applied. When each turn is covered one-third only, the bandage con- 
stitutes the doloire of the French ; if the edges touch slightly only, it 
u the mousse; if the turns are very oblique and separated, it is called 
spiral or creeping, or the rampant of the French ; if folded one on 
the other, it is the reversed or renvenc. 2. The compound liandage con- 
sists of various kinds of bandages united together, and it has revived 
several names expressive of its figure, or of the parts to which it is 
applied, as the T bandage, the eighteen-tail bandage, the capistrum, 
4c. 3. According to their uses, bandages are termed uniting, rstaining, 
suspensory, &c. 

r <«# 

68 B A N—B A R 

BANG, BHANG, or BANGUE. Suhjee or Sidhee. An intoxi- 
cating preparation made from the larger leaves and capsules of Cannabis 
Indica, or Indian Hemp. The resinous exudation of this plant is called 

BAPTORRHCE'A (/9<«itto«, iufected, from /8airT«, to imbue, cor- 
rupt, poison, or infect, p*», to flow). A generic term proposed by 
Dr. R. G. Mayne, for the disease hitherto called Gonorrhoea^ Blen- 
norrhaa, Blennorrhagia, &c, epithets which in their application to the 
affection indicated are incorrect. It literally means an infected, or in- 
fectious flow , and this he holds to be the essential characteristic of the 
discharge from the mucous membranes of the canals, &c, implicated in 
the affection, which infectious discharge constitutes the disease itself. 

BAPTOTHE'CORRHOSA (/Sairrdc, infected or infectious, 6 **»,, 
a sheath, and so the vagina, p*», to flow). A term proposed by Dr. 
R. G. Mayne for gonorrhoea, or, as he designates it by the new term 
Baptorrhcea, in women ; literally it denotes an infectious flow from the 

BAPTURE'THRORRHCEA GSavro'v, infected or infectious, 
ovpttipa, the urethra, pit*, to flow). A term proposed by Dr. R. G. 
Mayne for gonorrhoea, or. as he designates it by the new term of 
Baptorrhaea, in men ; literally it means an infectious flaw or discharge 
from the urethra^ which he conceives is quite distinctive, for the affection 
cannot occur in the urethra of women without being also present in the 

BARBADOES LEG. CocJrin leg. Boukncmia tropica, or hyper- 
trophy of the lower extremities, characterized by great swelling and 
induration of the derma, or true skin ; termed by the Greeks Ele- 
phantiasis Arabum. The leg is the favourite scat of the disease in the 
\Vest Indies. See Elephantiasis. 

BARBA'LOIN. A term proposed for the aloin of Barbadoes aloes, 
analogous to the term nataloin, applied to the aloin of Natal aloes. 
See Aloin. 

BA'RBIERS. A vernacular Indian term of unknown dcii vat) on. 
It denotes a chronic affection, prevalent in India, and almost uni- 
versally confounded by nosologists with beriberi. 

BARI'LLA. A Spanish term for crude soda extracted from the 
ashes of the plants sal sol a and salicornia. See Kelp. 

BA'RIUM (Papvs, heavy). A metal found abundantly as carbonate 
and sulphate, and first obtained in its metallic state by Davy in 1808. 
It is named from the great density of its compounds. 

BARK OF PLANTS. The external envelope of trees and shrubs. 
It was formerly distinguished into an external cortical or cellular in- 
tegument, and an internal or fibrous portion, called liber. More 
recently, bark has been distinguished into four portions : — 

1. Epidermis. The external and cellular envelope, continuous with 
the epidermis of the leaves. This is never renewed ; the following parts 
increase by successive additions to their interior. 

2. Epi-phlawm (it/, upon, $Aotd?, bark). A cellular sufjerous por- 
tion, lying immediately under the epidermis. Cork is the epiphkeum 
of the Qucrcus suber. 

3. Meso-phlceum (/uto-oc, middle, qbXoiov, bark). A cellular portion, 
lying immediately under the epiphloeum. This portion differs from 
tne preceding in the direction of its cells. 

B A R— B AS 69 

4. Endo-phlcemn (t *&>?, within, <p\oios, bark). The liber, part of 
which is cellular, part woody. This is the bast-layer, exhibiting a 
beautiful net-work in the Daphne lagetta, or Lace-bark tree of 

BAROMACRO'METER (/9a>w, weight, fiaxpot, long, uirpov, a 
measure). An instrument for ascertaining the weight and length of 
newly-born infants. 

BA'RRY'S EXTRACTS. These extracts differ from the common 
by the evaporation being carried on in a vacuum produced by admitting 
sieam into the apparatus, which resembles a retort with its receiver. 

BARTHOLIN'S DUCT. A duct of the submaxillary gland, 
longer than the other ducts, and opening close to Wharton's duct. 

BARTHOLI'Nl'S GLANDS. Racemose mucus-glands opening on 
the surface of the mucous membrane of the external organs of genera- 
tion in the female. 

BARYPHO'NIA (papvt, heavy, <f>»i/tj, voice). Heaviness ot 
voice ; a difficulty of pronunciation ; hoarseness of voice. 

BARYTA (tfaput, heavv). Barytes. Oxide of barium ; an alka- 
line earth, the heaviest of all the earths. 

BASCULATION (batcuUr, French). A term used in examinations 
of the uterus in retroversion : the fundus is pressed upwards, the cervix 
drawn downwards; it is half the see-saw movement 

BASEL A compound body which is capable of neutralizing an acid, 
partly or entirely. An alkali is only a particular species ofoase, and 
may be defined as a base which is very soluble in water. 

BASEDOW'S DISEASE. This, which is also called Graves's 
Disease, is described under the term Goitre^ Exophthalmic, 

BASEMENT-MEMBRANE. Limitary membrane. A term ap- 
plied by Mr. Bowman to " a thin, homogeneous expansion, transparent, 
colourless, and of extreme tenuity," which he finds beneath the epi- 
thelium of mucous membranes, on the one hand, and in contact with 
the vessels of the parenchyma, on the other. It is, in fact, the boundary 
layer of all vascular tissues, and is applied also, in this sense, to the 
external face of the derma of the skin, in which case it constitutes the 
base on which the epidermis rests. See Afemttrane-basement. 

BASES, ORGANIC. Alkaloids. These names are given to a class 
of nitrogenized organic compounds, which, in their relations, are quite 
analogous to ammonia, or rather to oxide of ammonium. They must 
be distinguished from such basic oxides as oxide of ethyl, oxide of 
methyl, &c, which contain no nitrogen, and, although they form 
neutral compounds with arids, yet exist in a peculiar state in these 
compounds, which cannot be decomposed, like ordinary salts, bv double 
decomposition-, whereas the salts of the alkaloids undergo the same 
decompositions as those of ammonia. 

BASIC SALTS. Sub-salts. Salts containing more base than 
exists in the related neutral salt. See Super and Sub-salts. 

BASIC WATER. Constitutional water. A term applied in cases 
in which water appears to act the part of a base in salta, not being 
easily expelled by heat, and allowing its place to be supplied bv another 
base. Tnus, phosphoric acid ceases to be phosphoric acid, unless three 
equivalents of water to one of acid be present 

BASICITY OP ACIDS. By this term is understood the number 
of replaceable hydrogen-atoms contained in an acid ; or, <m tht o\& 

72 B A T— B E N 

4. Metal Bath. For temperatures above 360°, metal baths are em- 
ployed, as those of mercury, fusible metal, tin, or lead. Tbe tempera- 
ture may thus be raised to 600° Fahr. 

BA'TRACHUS (flarpaxot, a frog). lianula. Designations of tbe 
distended sub-maxillary duct. 

BAU'HIN, VA'LVtJLE OF. Ileocolic valve. A valve within 
the caecum, whose office is to prevent the return of the excrementitious 
matters from the caecum into the small intestine. The extremities of 
its two lips form rugae in the straight part of the caecum, called by 
Morgagni /r<r??a of the valvule of Bauhin. 

BAIJME'S FLUX. A deflagrating mixture, consisting of 90 grains 
of saltpetre, 30 of sulphur, and 30 of moderately fine sawdust. 

BAY-SALT. Chloride of sodium, or common salt, as obtained by 
solar evaporation on the shores of the Mediterranean. 

BDE'LLA (pddWw, to suck). The Greek term for the leech , or 
tbe hirttdo of the Latins. The latter is the term now used. 

BDE'LLIUM ((iiiWiov, a fragrant gum). A name applied to two 
gum-resinous substances. One of these is the Indian Internum , or false 
myrrhs procured from the Amyris commiphora; it is the bdellium of 
the Scriptures. The other is called African bdellium, and is obtained 
from the Balsamodendron Mukul of Hook. 

BDELLO'METER (Ji&Wa, a leech, h%t P ov, a measure). An 
instrument invented by Demours as a substitute for the leech, and con- 
sisting of a cupping-glass, a scarificator, and an exhausting syringe. Its 
advantage consists in its measuring the quantity of blood which is 
drawn. Kraus proposes the more significant term anti-ldella. 

BEAD-PROOF. A term denoting the strength of spirituous liquors, 
as shown by the continuance of the bubbles or beads on the surface for 
a certain time. 

BEBE'RIA. The name of a drug procured from Nectandra or 
Bebeeru bark, imported from British Guiana. 

BE'CHICA (/3?jx<Ka,from 0»j£, cough). Tussicularia ; tussiculosa. 
Cough medicines ; demulcent remedies. See Bex. 

BED-CASE. A peculiar affection in which the patient chooses to 
live in bed. It is probably a form of hysteria. 

BED-SORE. Ulcus ex cultando. A sore occasioned by constant 
pressure of a part of the body in bed. 

BE'LA. Bael ; a drug obtained from the dried half-ripe fruit of 
JEqle Marmelos, a plant of Malabar and Corotnandel. 

BELLADONNA. Deadly nightshade; an indigenous species of 
Atropia, used as a cosmetic by the ladies of Italy. The term suggests 
personal attraction. 

BE'LLOWS' SOUND. An unnatural sound of the heart, resem- 
bling that of the puffing of a small pair of bellows, as heard by the 
stethoscope. Sec Auscultation. 

BELLY. Abdomen. The cavity containing the bowels or intes- 
tines. Formerly, the abdomen was called the lower belly, the thorax 
the middle belly', and the head die upper Itclly. 

BEN, OIL OF. The expressed oil of the Ben-nut, or the Moringa 
pterygosperma, remarkable for not becoming rancid for many years. 
By saponification it yields benic acid, one of the acetic series of acids, or 
the fatty acid series. 

BENEDFCTUS (Ixnedkei-e, to bless). Benedict or blessed ; a term 

B E N— B I 73 

applied to compositions and herbs, on account of their supposed good 
Qualities; thus, antimonial wine was termed benedictum vinum, 

BENEFI'CIUM NATU'RJE. Benefice de la nature. A term by 
which the French denote the curative process of nature, when unaided 
by medicine, and which we popularly express by the term " effort of 
nature/* It is synonymous with alvi pro/luvium, or spontaneous 
diarrhcea, which relieves or removes the symptoms of disease. 

BENE'VOLENCE. A term in phrenology indicative of a dis- 
position for kindness, compassion, and other amiable qualities. It is 
common to man and the lower animals. Its organ is seated in the 
upper and middle part of the forehead, just where the hair begins to 

BENZOIC ACID. Flowers of Benjamin. A crystalline acid obtained 
from benzoin, and prepared by sublimation. See Benzoin um. 

BENZOI'NUM. Benzoin; a balsamic resin which exudes from 
incisions made into the bark of the Styrax Benzoin, or Benjamin-tree. 
Imported from Siam and Sumatra. 

BENZOLE or BENZINE. Benzoline. Bi carburet of hydrogen. 
A colourless volatile liquid obtained from coal-tar. Benzule is the base 
of benzoic acid. 

BE'RIBERI. Bad sickness of Ceylon. A form of general dropsy, 
accompanied by spasmodic rigidity of the lower limbs, &c. ; an acute 
disease occurring* in India, and commonly confounded by nosologists 
with barbiers. The name beriberi is that given by the Malabar* to this 
disease ; beri is Singalese for weakness, and, by iteration, implies great 

BERTI'N, SPONGY BONES OF. Two small, triangular, turbi- 
nated bones, sometimes found beneath the orifice of the sphenoid sinus, 
*nd first observed by Bertin. 

BERTI'NI COLU'MNjB vel SEPTA. The septa formed between 
the pyramids of the kidney, marking the original composition of the 
organ of separate lobes. 

BETA. The second letter of the Greek alphabet, employed occa- 
sionally to distinguish an ingredient of a body : beta orcein is one of the 
constituents of orchil or archil ; beta-resin, or sylvic acid, is one of the 
resins of colophony. See Alpha-orcein. 

BETEL. A famous masticatory employed in the East, consisting 
of the areca, betel, or pinang nut, the produce of the Areca Catechu, or 
Catechu palm. A portion of the nut is rolled up with a little lime in 
the leaf of the Piper betel, and the whole chewed. 

BET U LIN. Birch- camphor; a chemical resino'id substance found 
in the bark of the Betula alba, or Birch -tree. 

BE'X (0ij£, 0iyot, a cough). A Greek term used by some nosolo- 
gists instead of the Latin term tussis, or cough. See Bechica. 

BE'ZOAR (p&d-zakr, Persian, a destroyer of poison). A morbid 
concretion formed in the bodies of land animals, to which many fsneiful 
virtues were formerly ascribed. See El logic Acid. 

Bezoardics. A name given to a class of alexipharmic medicines, 
from the imputed properties of the bezoar. 

BI-. Two. A particle found in composition only. The older form 
was dui, as dui-dens for bi-dens. In chemical terms this prefix denotes 
two equivalents of the first-mentioned ingredient to one of the other, 

74 BI 

ae 6t-cbromate of potash, i. e. two equivalent* of chromic acid to one of 
potash. Compare ZW-. 

1. Bi-auricutaie (auricula, an auricle). 1. Having two auricles, as 
the heart of mammalia, birds, and reptiles. 2. Having two auriclc-likc 
projections, as the base of certain leaves. 

2. Bi basic soli*. A class of oxygen -acid salts, which, in the language 
of the acid theory, contain two equivalents of base to one of acid, as the 
tartras potass* et soda, or Roche! le salt. 

3. Bi-capsular (capsula, a little case). A designation of certain peri- 
carps which consist each of two capsules, or seed-cases, in each flower. 

4. Bi-carbonate. A salt containing a double proportion, or two 
equivalents, of carbonic acid to one of base. 

5. Bi-carinate (carina, a keel). Having two keel-like projections, 
as the upper palea of grasses. 

6. Bi-ceps (caput, a head). Two-headed, or having 'two distinct 
origins, as applied to a muscle of the thigh and of the arm. The in- 
terossei muscles are termed bicipites, from having each two heads. 

7. Bi-concave (concavus. hollowed out). Concave or hollowed out 
on both sides ; a term applied to a vertebra. 

8. Bi-congreyate (congregatus. collected together). Bigeminate, or 
arranged in two pairs, as the leaflets of mimosa unguis cati. 

9. Bi-conjugate (conjugatus, yoked together). Twice paired, as 
when a petiole forks twice, formiug two pairs of forking*. 

10. Bicomis (cornu, a horn). A term applied to the os hyoi'des, 
which has two processes of horns ; and, formerly, to muscles which 
have two insertions. 

11. Bi-crenate (crena, a notch). Doubly crenate; when the crenate 
toothings of leaves are themselves crenate. 

12. Bi-cuspidati (cuspis, a spear). Having two tubercles ; as applied 
to the first two pairs of molars in each jaw. 

13. Bi-dentate (dens, a tooth ). Two-toothed: having two tooth-like 
processes, ss applied to the fruit or achenia of bidens. 

14. Bi-ennial (annus, a year). Enduring throughout two years, and 
then perishing ; plants which bear leaves only the first year, leaves, 
flowers, and fruit the second year, and then die. 

15. Bi-farious (bifarius, two-fold). A term applied to leaves ar- 
ranged in two rows, not necessarily opposite to each oilier; in this 
particular, the term is different from distichous. Also, a stem or branch 
is said to be bifariomly hairy, when the hairs between any two joints 
appear on the front and back, and in the adjoining internode on the 
right and left sides. 

16. Bifoliolatc (foliolum, a leaflet). When two folioles or leaflets 
are developed at the same point at the end of the petiole, as in zygophyl- 
lum fabago. The term is synonymous with conjugate, 

17. Bi-forine (biforus for biforis, having two doors, from foris, a 
door). A minute oval sac found in the green pulpy part of the leaves 
of some plants; so called from its discharging its contents by an open- 
ing at each extremity. 

18. Bi-furcate (furca, a fork). Forked, as applied to the inflorescence 
of stellaria, and synonymous with dicftotomous. 

19. Bi-furcation (furca, a fork). The division of a vessel, or of a 
nerve, into two branches, as that of a two-pronged fork. 

20 Bi-gaster (yaffvtjo, the belly). Two-bellied, as applied to 
muscles; a hybrid term synonymous with Li-venter and di-gostricut. 

BI 75 

21. Bi-peminaie (geminatus, doubled). A term applied to •.decom- 
pound item or leaf, in which the bifurcation it repeated at the ends 
of the petioles resulting from a 6 ret bifurcation. 

22. Bi-kermiut (hernia, tpvot, a branch). Having a scrotal hernia on 
each side. 

23. Bi-juaous Qugum, a pair or yoke). Bijugate. In two pairs, as 
applied to the leaflets of a pinnate leaf. 

24. Bi-labiate (labium, a lip). Two-lipped, as applied to certain 
corollas. The term labiate is generally used, and is sufficiently de- 

25. Bi-lamellated (lamella, a small plate of metal). Formed of two 
small plates, as the stigma of mimulus and other plants. 

26. Bi-laieral. Two-tided; pertaining to the two sides of a central 
axis, as in the bilateral symmetry of animals. 

27. Bi-lobatc (lobus, a lobe). Having two lobes resembling the tips 
of rare, as applied to the leaves of Bauhinia, &c. 

28. Bi-locular floculus, a cell). Two-celled; divided into two 
cells; a term applied, in botany, to the anther, to certain capsules, 

29. Bi-mana (man us, a hand). Two-handed, as characteristic of 
man, the only mammal that possesses two perfect hands. 

30. Bi-na/e (natus, born). Growing in pairs ; a term synonymous 
with bi-fbliolate, as applied to leaves. 

31. Uin-oculus (oculus, the eye). Having two eyes; an uncouth 
designation of a bandage for securing the dressings on both eyes. The 
term binocular vision relates to impressions made upon both retinae, 
which are combined into sinule vision. 

32. Bin-oxide ; sesquiaride. Names applied by Thenard to oxides 
which are capable of combining with acids, and contain, respectively, 
twice and once and a half as much oxygen as the protoxides of the 
same metal. He avoids the use of the word " deutoxide," and limits 
the application of u peroxide " to those oxides which do not combine 
with acids. 

33. Bi-palmate. Having a palmate arrangement on secondary peti- 
oles which are palmately arranged on the primary petiole. 

34. Bi-partiie (bipartitus, divided into two parts). Divided into 
two ports, as applied to the segments of a leaf. 

35. Bi-pinnate (pinna, the fin of a fish). Doubly pinnate ; a term 
employed, in botany, when the leaflets of a pinnate leaf themselves 
become pinnate, as in fumaria officinalis. A bi-pinnatifitl leaf is a 
pinnatifiu leaf having its segments pinnatifid. See Pinnate. 

36. Bi-serrate (serratns, . saw-snaped). Doubly sawed ; as ap- 
plied to the margins of leaves, when the serrations are themselves 

37. Bi- serial (series, a row). Arranged in two series, or rows ; a 
term synonymous with bi/arious. 

38. Bi-ternate (terni, three apiece). Doubly tcrnate ; a term ap- 
plied, in botany, when three secondary petioles proceed from the com- 
mon petiole, and each bears three leaflets, as in fumaria bulbosa, 

39. Bi-valred (valves, folding-doors). Two-valved, as the shell of 
the oyster, a legume, &c. 

40. Bi-venter (venter, the belly). The name of muscles which have 
two bellies, as the occipi to- frontalis; The term is synonymous m\ta 

76 B I B—B I O 

BIBITO'RIUS (bibere, to drink). A former name of the rectus 
interims oculi muscle, from its drawing the eye inward towards the 
nose, and thus directing it into the cup in drinking. 

BILE-PIGMENT. This has received many names. Cholochrome 
has been applied to the colouring matter of bile and all its varieties. 
Cholophaine denotes the brown colouring matter *, cholochloine, the 

BILHARZIA HjEMATOBIA. DistomahBmatobitim. A sterel- 
minthous parasitic worm, found in the portal and venous blood. 

BI'LIARY DUCTS (l/ilis, bile). These are the hepatic, the cystic, 
and the ductus communis choledochus, the first connected with the 
liver, the second with the gall-bladder, the third being the common 
excretory duct of tl»e liver and gall-bladder. 

BI'LIS. Bile, gall, or choler; the secretion of the liver. Bile is 
distinguished as hepatic, which flows immediately from the liver; and 
cystic, or that contained in the gall-bladder. According to Dr. Mac- 
leod, bile is distinguished as u true, or hepatic (cystic), and factitious, or 
enteric ;" the former is a true secretion of the liver, the latter a vicarious 
secretion of the intestines. See Icterus. 

BINARY COMBINATION. A term connected with the chemica 
theory that combination takes place between the atoms of bodies only. 
When only one combination of any two elementary bodies exists, it is 
assumed, unless the contrary can be proved, that its elements are united 
atom to atom singly. Combinations of this sort were termed by Dalton 
Itinary. But if several compounds can be obtained from the same ele- 
ments, they combine, as ho supposed, in proportions expressed by some 
simple multiple of the number of atoms, presenting ternary and (quater- 
nary combinations. 

BINARY COMPOUND. A compound of two elements, or of an 
element and a compound performing the function of an element, or of 
two compounds each of which performs the function of an element. 
See Salt. 

BINI DIGITI. Two fingers. " In speaking of the numbers of things 
of which there are two or more sets, it is much less elegant to use the 
simple numerals than the distributives. Thus we should say with 
propriety, * seni deni dentes,* sixteen teeth ; * quini digiti, 1 Jive fin- 
iters; but not 4 bina labra,* two tips, or * bini oculi.' two eyes; 
these, if unclassical, are at least poetical. " — Horm subsecivce. 

BINO'CULAR VISION {Mm oculi, a pair of eyes). The fatuity 
of using the two eyes harmoniously. Without this faculty a person 
cannot appreciate the effects of the ordinary stereoscope. 

BIODY'N AMICS (0uk, life, 6v va fin ,'force). The doctrine of the 
vital activity or forces. 

BIOGE'NESIS 09*'o«, life, *y fount, production). A term denoting 
the hypothesis that living matter always arises by the agency of pre- 
existing living matter. " Omne vivum ex vivo," no life without ante- 
cedent life. See Abioyenesis. 

BIO'LOGY OSi'ov, life, Aoyov, an account). Another term for 
physiology, or the study of living beings, comprising the kindred 
sciences of zoology and botany. 

This term is now also applied to a theory based on the assumption 
that there is a lift-force^ called either magnetic or odylic force, which 
obeys laws analogous to those of magnetism, and through which one 

B I O— B h A 77 

individual may by manipulation, or by a simple action of bit will or 
mind, under certain conditions, control the mental states and actions 
of another individual. — Dana. 

BIO'LYSIS (0<o«, life, \v<rit, a loosing). The destruction of life. 
Hence the term biolytic is applied by S<*hulz to those agents which have 
a disorganizing tendency, and lessen or destroy strength, as acids, salts, 
metallic substances, and narcotics. See Morp/ioiysis. 

BIOPHAGOUS (/9<o«, life, Qaytl*, to eat). Life-eating; a term 
applied to a mode of nutrition of plants, depending on the absorption of 
living organisms, as in the case of insectivorous plants. See Necro- 
phagous nnd Plasmophagous. 

BI'OPLASM (/Sure, life, -rXaVfia/any thing formed or moulded). An- 
other name for " germinal matter," or the rudimentary material of 
nutrition and growth in animal and vegetable tissues. See Protoplasma. 

BISMUTH. Tin-plance. A pinkish-white crystalline metal, usually 
found in tin-mines. The butter of bismuth is the chloride ; the /lowers, 
the sublimed oxide; the maoisteru, the nitrate of the teroxide. 

Bl'STOURY (bislouri, French). A small curved knife for surgical 
operations, so called, it is said, from the town of Pistori, where there 
was a celebrated factory of these instruments, which were accordingly 
named qlatiii Pistorensts % Pistori swords. 

BITTER PRINCIPLE. A general term applied to an intensely 
bitter substance, procured by digesting nitric acid on silk, indigo, &c. ; 
also t o qu inia, quassia, salicina, &c. 

BITTERN. The mother water, or uncrystallizable residue left after 
muriate of soda has been separated from sea-water by crystallization. 
It owes its bitterness to sulphate and muriate of magnesia. It contains 

BITU'MEN (iriTi/Ma, it«tu«, pine). A mineral pitch, supposed to 
be formed in the earth by the decomposition of animal and vegetable 
substances. In its most fluid state it constitutes naphtha ; when of the 
consistence of oil, it becomes petroleum ; at the next stage of induration 
it becomes elastic bitumen ; then maltha ; and so on until it becomes a 
compact mass, and is then called asphaltum. 

BLACK ASH. Bail-soda. A mixture of carbonate of soda and 
oxysulphide of calcium. 

BLACK BLOOD. A common term for venous blood, derived from 
its intensely purple hue, and as distinguished from the scarlet blood, 
commonly known as arterial. 

BLACK DEATH. An Oriental plague, which occurred in Italy 
in 1340, characterized by inflammatory boils and black spots of the skin, 
indicating putrid decomposition. In Italy it was called la mortaleya 
grande, the great mortality. 

i The New Black Death, or Black Plague, which appeared in Dublin 
in 1866, somewhat resembled the Black Plague of the fourteenth 
century. Dr. Stokes suggests, as an appropriate name for the disease, 
malignant purpuric fever. It has also been designated cerebrospinal 
typhus, black fever, &c. 

BLACK DISEASE. This, and Hack jaundice, are English terms 
for the morbus niyer of the Latins and the melana of the Greeks. 

BLACK DROP. Acetum opii. Opium boiled with aromatics in 
verjuice of the wild crab, to which sugar is added, and the whole then 
fermented. One drop is considered equal to two or three dvo^i ot 

78 B L A-B L M 

laudanum. The morphine salt contained in the " black drop " is said 
to be the citrate. 

BLACK FLUX. A mixture of finely-divided carbon with carbo- 
nate of potash, used for the reduction of metals on a small scale. It 
differs from white flux only in the proportion of the ingredients. 

BLACK, IVOIIY. Ebur ustum, or animal charcoal ; procured 
from charred ivory shavings ; generally termed blue- black. 

BLACK, LAMP. FuTigo lampadum. A form of charcoal, pro- 
cured by burning resinous bodies, as the refuse of pitch, in furnaces. 

BLACK LEAD. Plumbago, or graphite ; a carburet of iron. It is 
named from its leaden appearance, for it contains no lead. 

BLACK LEO. A form of purpura, which occurs amongst the 
lumbermen on the Ottawa or Grand River of Canada. It is contracted 
by the use of pork packed in nitrate of potash. 

BLACK LION. A name given to a sloughing syphilitic ulcer, 
from which the British soldiers suffered severely in Portugal. 

BLACK MEASLES. A rare form of measles, 'described by Willan 
under the name Rubeola nigra, and characterized by a purplish and 
livid appearance of the efflorescence. 

BLACK RUST. A disease of wheat, in which a black, moist 
matter is deposited in the 'fissure of the grain. See Brown Rust. 

BLACK SALTS. The name given in America to wood-ashes, after 
they have been lixiviated, and become black. 

BLACK TURPKTH. Another name for the protoxide of mercury, 
commonly called the gray, ash, or black oxide. 

BLACK VOMIT. Melana omenta. Substances of a black ap- 
pearance rejected in certain forms of disease, as in yellow fever, &c. 

BLACK WASH. A lotion prepared by the decomposition of 
calomel in lime-water. 

BLACK WATER. This and walerbrash are English terms for 
pyrosis. Also, a disease of sheep. 

BLA'DDER, IRRITABLE. A state of the bladder in wbich there 
is no inflammatory action, but in which the symptoms resemble those 
of cvstitis. 

BLA'DDER, U'RINARY. Vesica urinaria. The reservoir which 
contains the urine. 

1. Columnar bladder. A term applied in cases in which there is an 
unusual development of the muscular fasciculi of the bladder, giving an 
appearance of persistent prominences or columns. 

2. Trwonal space of the bladder. A smooth triangular surface on the 
inside of the bladder, in the middle of its fundus, where the mucous 
membrane is destitute of rugae. 

3. Neck of the bladder. The orifice of the urethra ; it is crescenti- 
form, and embraces a small tubercle, called uvula vesica, formed by the 
projection of the mucous membrane. 

4. Fundus of the bladder. All that part of its internal surface which 
corresponds to the inferior region of its external surface. 

BLA'DDER Y FEVER. Bullosa febris. Vesicular fever, in which 
the skin is covered with bulla, or blisters. See Pemphigus. 

BLjE'SITAS (Uastts, one who stammers). Misenunciation ; a spe- 
cies of pscllismus, in which articulate sounds arc freely but inaccurately 
enunciated ; in which soft consonants are substituted for the hard, as 
s for s, d for t, &c. 


BLAIN. A blister; a pustule; an orbicular elevation of the 
cuticle, containing a watery fluid. 

BLANCHl'METER {blanch, and pvrpSv. a measure). An unclas- 
sical name of an instrument for measuring the bleaching power of 
chloride of lime and potash. 

BLA'STEMA (£A no-Taw, to bud). Cyto-blastema. A term ap- 
plied to the rudimental mass of an organ in a state of formation. Ac- 
cording to Schwann, it consists partly of a fluid, partly of granules 
which spontaneously change into the nuclei of cells and into cells, and 
partly, also, of such nucleated cells already formed. 

BLASTODERM (0Aa<rrdvw, to germinate, Mpua, the skin). 
Cicatricula. Another name for the membrana germinativa, or the 
membrane which lies over the uppermost portion of the yolk of the egg, 
and is covered by the membrana vitellina. 

Blastodermic vesicle. The membrane which immediately envelopes 
the volk of the egg, and is subsequently called the vesicula umbilicalis. 

BLEACH I NG. The chemical process of whitening linen or woollen 
stuffs. 1. Linen is bleached by the old process, by exposure to air and 
moisture ; by the new process, by means of chlorine or solution of 
chloride of lime. 2. Woollen stufft are bleached by exposure to the 
vapour of sulphurous acid. 

BLEACHING POWDER. Calx chlorata. Chloride of limo, 
formerly called oxymuriate of lime, supposed to be a compound of 
hypochlorite of lime with chloride of calcium, in the proportions of one 
equivalent of each. In solution it is employed as a disinfectant. 

Bleaching liquid, eau de Javelle, or oxymuriatic alkaline water, is the 
above compound obtained in solution, by transmitting a stream of 
chlorine gas through hydrate of lime suspended in water. 

BLEAR-EYE. Blearedness. A chronic catarrhal inflammation of 
the eyelids. See Lippitudo. 

BLEB. Pempkir. A bulla, vesicle, or bladdery tumor of the skin, 
distended by a fluid. 8ee Pemphigus, 

BLENDE (blenden, German, to dazzle). Black-jack. Sulphide of 
zinc, named in allusion to the brilliancy of its crystals. 

BLENNOPHTHA'LMIA (£ Acuta, mucus, 6<p9a\*6*, the eye). A 
mucopurulent discharge from the eye ; purulent conjunctivitis. 

BLENNORRHA'GIA (0AiW, mucus, My*vfii, to burst forth). 
An excessive discharge of mucus from the urethra or vagina. 

BLENNORRHEA (/3A«V*a, mucus, pim, to flow). A discharge of 
mucus from the urethra; a term synonymous with gonorrhoea. This 
term, as well as Uennonhagia, is used to denote purulent or gonorrhoea! 
ophthalmia. See Baptorrhma. 

BLENNO'SES (/9A«Vva, mucus). The name given by Alibcrt to 
affections of the mucous membranes. 

BLETHARA (0At>apo*, the eyelid). Plural of blepharon, the 
eyelid. Hence the following terms : — 

1. Blepharitis. Inflammation of the eyelids; purulent ophthalmia ; 
synonvmous with blrphar-ophthalmia or -ophthalmitis. 
' 2. b/ephar-adenitis (d£fjy, a gland ; adenitis, inflammation of a 
gland). Inflammation of the glands of the eyelids. 

3. Blepkaro-hUnnorrhcea. Gonorrhoea! ophthalmia: occasioned by 
the direct application of gonorrhoea! or leuconhccal matter to the 

80 B L E— B L O 

4. Blephar-cnkosis (oyiraxrtc, a puffing out). Tumor of the cellular 
tissue of the eyelid ; it may be solid, pulpy, molicerous, or gelatinous. 

5. Blenhar-ophthalmia. Ophthalmia tarsi. Inflammation of the 
palpebral conjunctiva and edge of the eyelids. 8ee Psor ophthalmia. 

6. Blepharopl&sty Cirhaaaut, to form;. The operation for forming a 
new or artificial eyelid. See Plasty. 

7. Blepharoplcgia fwAqyif, a stroke). Paralysis of one or more of 
the muscles of the eyelid ; also called ophthalmoplegia. 

8. Blepharo-ptSsis (jwtukm, a falling down). A falling of the upper 
eyelid ; i nihility to raise the upper eyelid, from relaxation of the 
integuments, or paralysis of the levator palpebra?. 

9. Blepharospdsmus f<nra<rpdc, a spasm). Spasm of the eyelid ; 
spasmodic action of the levator muscle— one of the causes of lagoph- 
thalmus or hare-eye. 

BLE'TTING. A term applied to that state of decomposition of 
ripe fruits, iu which spots, or blets, appear upon them. 

BLIGHT. A slight palsy, induced by sudden cold or damp, limited 
to one side of the face. The nerves which lose their power are branches 
of the portio dura, or the respiratory of Bell. 

BLIGHT IN THE EYE. Blood-shot eye ; the extravasation of 
blood between the outermost coats of the eye-ball, from the bursting of 
a vessel. 

BLIND PILES. CcBca hwmorrkoides. Piles which are unaccom- 
panied by any discharge. 

BLIND SrOT. A term applied to that point of the retina at which 
the optic nerve enters ; it is absolutely blind. 

BLISTER. A term applied to a vesicating substance, as emplastrura 
cantharidis ; and to a reside or bleb, a vesicula or bulla. See Em- 

Flying Blisters. Vesicatoires volants. A mode of treatment em- 
ployed by the continental practitioners, for the purpose of ensuring a 
more diffusive counter-irritation. According to this plan, the blister 
remains only till it produces a rultefacient effect ; a second blister is 
then applied to some other part, and so on in succession. 

BLOOD (Uod, Saxon). Sanguis. The well-known fluid, which 
circulates through the tubes called, from their function, blood-vessels. 
Blood contains albumen in three states of modification, viz., albumen, 
properly so called, fibrin, and red particles. See Cruor. 

BLOOD-CORPU'SCLES (corpusculum, a little body). The 
minute, flattened, disc-like bodies, of a red colour, constituting the 
heaviest part of the solid matter of the blood. 

BLOOD-CRYSTALS. Crystals which, under certain circum- 
stances, separate from the outer shell of the red blood-corpuscles, in 
man as prisms, in other animals in other forms. 

BLOOD-PL A'SM A (-rXcfo/ucr, anything formed or moulded). 
Another name for the liquor sanguinis, or the colourless fluid portion ot 
the blood, in which the red particles float during life. 

BLOOD-PROPER FLUID. A term applied by Dr. Williams to 
a distiuct kind of nutrient fluid, which exists in invertebrate animals, 
which is always contained in definitely organized, or walled, blood- 
vessels, and which has a determinate circulatory movement See Chylo- 
Aaueous Fluid. 

BLOOD-STROKE. Cottp de sang. An instantaneous and total 

B L 0— B O L 81 

congestion of the brain, without any escape of blood from the 

BLOODY FLUX. Another name for dysentery, from the blood y 
nature of the intestinal discharge*. 

BLOODY SWEAT. Ep&drons eruenta. A morbid, red dis- 
coloration of the perspiration, depending probably for its peculiar tint 
upon the colouring principle of the blood. See tiamidront. 

BLOW-PIPE. A small conical tube, bent at one end, so as to 
be easily introduced into the flame of a candle or lamp, for the pur- 
pose of directing a stream of flame, by blowing through it, upon an object. 

Oxy-kydrogen blow-pipe. An apparatus tor producing intense heat, 
by supplying a stream of hydrogen with pure oxygen, so that the two 
gases issue together in the form of a jet from the nozzle of the blow- 

BLUE DISEASE. Blue jaundice of the Ancients; a disease in 
which the complexion is tinged with blue or venous blood. See 

BLUE GUM. A term applied to a blue or purplish line running 
along the edges of the gums just where they meet the teeth, indicating 
the introduction of lead into the system for a long time. 

BLUE POT. Another term for a black-lead crucible, made of a 
mixture of coarse plumbago and clay. 

BLUE, SAXON. Sulphate of indigo ; a solution of indigo in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid. 

BLUE STONE, or BLUE VITRIOL. Blue copperas; the sul- 
phate of copper, prepared by oxidation of the sulphuret. 

BLUE, THEN ARD'S. CobaJt-ultramarine. Hydrate of alumina, 
phosphate of cobalt, and peroxide of mercury. 

BLUE, TURNBULL*S. Ferrocyanide of iron ; a beautiful blue 
precipitate, thrown down on adding red prussiate of potash to a pro to- 
salt of iron. 

BLUE VERDITER. An impure carbonate of copper, said to be 
prepared by decomposing nitrate of copper by means of cnalk. 

BOIL. Furuncultu. The popular name of a small tumor, which 
suppurates imperfectly, and contains a central core or slough of mortifled 
cutaneous tissue. A blind boil is one which neither suppurates nor 
sloughs, but gradually and slowly subsides, the contents, 11 any, being 
absorbed ; this may be called the indolent boil. 

BOILING POINT. That degree in the scale of the thermometer, 
at which ebullition is produced under the medium pressure of the atmo- 
sphere. Thus, 212° F. is the boiling point of water, when the baro- 
meter stands at 30 inches ; at 31 inches, it is 21376; at 29, it is only 
21019 ; in a common vacuum, it is 70°. 

BOLE (0«\ot, a clod of earth). A general term for a massive 
argillaceous mineral, as Armenian bole, mountain soap, &c. Formerly, 
boles were made into various forms, stamped with specified signs, and 
termed terra sigiUaUe. 

BOLETUS IGNIA'RIUS. A fungus employed, under the name 
of Amadou or German Under, for stopping haemorrhage from wounds. 
From being incorrectly referred to the genus Agaricus, it has been 
termed agaric, a word often used synonymously with styptic. 

BOLO'GNIAN PHOSPHORU8. A substance produced by heat- 
ing sulphate of baryta with carbonaceous matter, and possessing tYit 

82 BO L— B O S 

property of being luminous in the dark for some time after exposure to 
the direct rays of the sun. 

BOLUS (/9u»\oc, a bole or lump). A form of medicine larger than 
a pill, but capable of being swallowed as a pill. 

BO'MBUS (/3o/u/9ov, the humming of bees). A sense of beating in 
the ears; a species of bourdonnement, consisting of a dull, heavy, inter- 
mitting sound. 

BONE. Os, oss is. The principal portion of the skeleton of an 
animal, consisting of about one-third of animal substance, which is 
almost entirely reducible to gelatine by boiling, and two-thirds ot 
earthy and alkaline salts. See Skeleton. 

BONE-BLACK. A black, carbonaceous substance manufactured by 
calcining bones in close vessels. It is also called ivory-black, animal- 
black, and animal-charcoal. 

BONE-E A RTH. Phosphate of lime ; the earthy basis of the bones 
of animals ; the residuum after the calcination of bone. 

BONE-PHOSPHATE OF LIME. Calcis phosphas praicipitatum. 
Triphosphate of lime ; the earthy matter of bones, teeth, and horns ; 
employed for obtaining phosphorus and phosphate of soda. 

BONE-SPIRIT. Bone-liquor. A brown, ammoniacal liquor, con- 
sisting of carbonate of ammonia dissolved in water, and obtained in 
the process of manufacturing animal charcoal from bones. Bone-oil is 
a black, tar-like fluid, produced in the same process. 

BOOMAH NUTS. The fruits o( Pycnocoma macrophylla, imported 
from Natal under the name of galls, from their resemblance to Aleppo 
galls in shape and size. 

BORA'CIC ACID. Boric acid ; hydrogen borate. A hydrated oxide 
of boron, occasionally spoken of as Homberg's sedative salt. See Borax. 

BO'RATE. A salt formed by combination of boracic acid with a 
base. The only important one is borax, or the bi -borate of soda, perhaps 
the chrysocolla of Pliny. 

BO'RAX {baurach, Arab.}. Soda biboras ; sodium anhydroborate. 
A native bi-borate of soda, chiefly found in an impure state, and then 
called tincal, or crude borax, a saline incrustation in the beds of certain 
small lakes in Thibet. When the refined salt is deprived of its water 
of crystallization by fusion, it forms a vitreous transparent substance, 
called glass of borax \ or vitreous boracic acid. Borax was known by 
the Ancients, who called it chrysocolla, or gold-glue. 

BORBORY'GMUSOSop/Sopuy/Ko'*, Hipp., a rumblingin the bowels). 
The rumbling noise occasioned by flatus in the bowels, frequently 
occurring, during health, in nervous subjects. 

BORN ALIVE. A term applied to those newly-born infants only 
who exhibit other acts of life than that of respiration ; this is, indeed, 
according to English law, a sign of life, but not of live birth— not of 
being " wholly born alive." 

BO'RON. A non-metallic element closely allied to silicon, and 
found in boracic acid, whence it derives its name. It may he ob- 
tained in three states, viz., the amorphous, tin olive-green powder ; the 
graphitoid, corresponding to the black-lead variety of carbon ; and 
the adamantine, or crystallized, also called diamond of boron, 

BORURET. A compound of boron with a simple body. 

BOSO'PRIC ACID. Cow-dung acid; a strong colourless acid, 
procured from fresh cow-dung, of great efficacy in purifying mordanted 

B T— B OW 83 

cotton in the cow-dung bath. A better term would be boukopric, from 
fiovt. an ox, Kowpov, dung. 

BOTA L, FOR A M EN OF. The foramen ovale of the foetal heart, 
first noticed publicly by Leonard Botal, of Piedmont 

BOTANY (/Sordvi;, a plant). The science which treats of the 
Vegetable Kingdom : 1. Structural Botany relates to the laws of 
vegetable structure, internal or external, independently of the presence 
of a vital principle. 2. Physiological Botany relates to the history of 
vegetable life, the functions of the various organs of plants, their 
changes in disease or health, &c. 3. Descriptive Botany relates to the 
description and nomenclature of plants. 4. Systematic Botany relates 
t«> the principles upon which plants are connected with, and distinguished 
from, one another. 

BOTHRE'NCHYMA ($66 po^, a pit, iyxw*, enchyma). A name 
applied, in botany, to the pitted tissue or dotted ducts of former writers, 
the appearance of these tubes being occasioned by the presence of little 
pits sunk in their walls. It is either articulated or continuous. 

BOTHRIOCETHALUS LATUS (tioOpiov, a pit, K«f>«Atf, the 
head). The broad Tape-worm; a sterelminthous parasite, found in 
the intestines. Bothriocephalus cordatus is another species, found in tho 
intestines. See Vermes. 

BOTTLES, 500 or 1,000 GRAIN. Under this name are sold 
bottles for ascertaining the specific gravities of liquids. The bottles 
are so adjusted that they contain a known weight of water at 60° F., 
usually 500 or 1,000 grains, and are supplied with counterpoise or tare 
for the bottle or stopper. 

BOTULI'NIC ACID (botulus, a sausage). A peculiar fatty acid, 
produced by decomposing sausages, and supposed to be the cause of 
their deleterious qualities. 

BOU- {fiov). A Greek particle often used in composition to express 
something Atge *nd monstrous, as in ootriimia or bulimia, oouphthalmia 
or buphthalmia ; but doubtless it is merely a form of 0ov?, an ox, just 
as we often find compounds of Yxxov, a horse, as horse-radish, horse- 
chestnut, horse-laugh, &c. 

BOU'GIE. Literally, a wax-taper. Bougies are cylindrical instru- 
ments, generally made of slips of linen, spread with wax or plaster, and 
rolled up with the waxed or plaster side outermost, on a hot glazed tile, 
and shaped. These instruments are intended to be introduced into the 
canals of the urethra, the rectum, the oesophagus, &c., for the purpose 
of dilating them. Metallic bougies are also emploved. 

BOURDON N EM ENT. The name given by 'the French to the 
several varieties of imaginary sounds, termed syrigmus, or ringing 
in the ears; susurrus, or whizzing sounds; and bombus, or beating 

BOUTtRELET. A French term denoting a border, and hence ap- 
plied to the fibrocartilaginous border which surrounds certain articular 
cavities, as the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the acetabulum, by 
which the depth of these cavities is augmented. 

BOVI'NA FAMES (bovinus, pertaining to oxen, fames, hunger). 
Bulimia. Ox-appetite; voracious appetite. 

BOWEL. An en trail or intestine ; a term chiefly used in the plural 
number. The word is said to be derived from the Latin boteUus, &\m. 
of botulus, a sausage, orijpnaH/ intestine. 

o 2 

84 BO Y— B R E 

BOYLE'S FUMING LIQUOR. Hydro -sulphuret of ammonia, 
or volatile liver of sulphur. See Fuming Liquor. 

BRACHE'RIUM [brachium, the arm). A term used by some 
Latin writers for a truss, or bandage, for hernia. 

BRA'CHIA CE'REBRI (/trachium, an arm, cerebrum, the brain). 
The name of two processes of the brain : the brachium anterius pastes 
from the nates on each side obliquely outwards into the thalamus 
opticus, and the brachium posterius passes from the testis (one of the 
tubercula quadrigemina) with the same destination. 

BRACHIA'LGLA (0f>uxto»s the arm, aKyos. pain). Pain of the 
arm ; neuralgia of the arm. The term brachionalgia might be substi- 
tuted with Advantage for the present designation 

BRACHILU'VIUM {brachium, the arm, larare, to wash). An arm- 
baih. Other topical baths are indicated by the analogous terms coxse- 
luvium, manuluvium, and pediluvium. 

BRA'CHIUM (bracJiium, an arm). The arm ; the part from the 
shoulder to the elbow. The part from the elbow to the wrist is termed 
lacertus. Thus, " subjuncta facertis brachia." — Ovid, 

BRACHY-CETHALOU8 (/9pa X u«, short, *«<f>aXii, the head). 
Having a skull whose transverse diameter, from parietal to parietal 
bone, exceeds the antero-postcrior diameter. 

BRA'CTEA. A Latin term, denoting a thin leaf or plate of any 
metal. It is applied, in botany, to all those modifications of leaves 
which are found upon the inflorescence, and are situated between the 
true leaves and the calyx of the flower. They compose the involucrum 
of Composite, the glumes of Gram in esc, the spathe of Arum, &c. 

BRADY-SPERMATl'SMUS (ftc^u*, slow, atripfia, semen). 
Seminal mis-emission, in which the discharge of semen is retarded from 
organic weakness. 

BRAIN. Encephalon. A collective term for those portions of the 
nervous system, exclusive of the nerves themselves, which are con- 
tained within the cranium, and include the cerebrum, the cerebellum, 
and the medulla oblongata. They consist of a cortical, cincritioua, or 
gray substance, which covers the brain in general, and a medullary, or 
while substance, being the mass contained within the former. 

BRAIN-SAND. A gritty matter found in the pineal gland and 
other parts of the brain, consisting of phosphate and carbonate of lime, 
and phosphate of magnesia and ammonia, with some organic matter. 

BRANDY (Branturein, burnt wine). The alcoholic or spirituous 
portion of wine, separated from the aqueous part, the colouring matter, 
&c., hy distillation. 

BR ANT WEI N. The coarsest sort of spirit used in Germany, 
manufactured principally from potatoes, but occasionally from rye. 

BRASS. JEs, oris of the Romans. An alloy of copper and zinc. 
Common brass consists of three parts of copper and one of zinc. 

BRASS-FOUNDERS' AGUE. A peculiar form of [intermittent 
fever which affects brass-founders and other workmen exposed to the 
fumes of deflagrating zinc. 

BREAST. I. The upper and fore part of the body, situate between 
the neck and the abdomen. 2. The protuberant gland situate in front 
of the thorax in the femnle, for the secretion of milk. 

BR K AST-PANG. The vernacular name for Angina pectoris. 

BREGMA, BRECHMOS, or BRECHMA (#>«x«, to moisten; 

B R E— B R O 85 

because this part of the bone is longest in hardening). Fontanel. The 
two spaces left in the head of the infant where the. frontal and the 
occipital bones respectively join the parietal. It is distinguished as 
anterior and posterior. Sec Cranium. 

BRESLAU FEVER. An epidemic which broke oat in the Prus- 
sian army at Breslau, in the middle of the last century, and which has 
been named by Saavages tritawphya Vratislaviensis. 

BRKV1SSIMUS OCULI (super), of Orevis, short). A synonym 
of the obliquus inferior, as being the shortest muscle of the eye. 

BRICKLAYERS* ITCH. A species of Lichen agrius, local tetter, 
or impetigo, produced on the hands of bricklayers by the contact of 
lime. See Lichen. 

BRIDLE-STRICTURE. Packthread stricture. A narrow and 
sharp annular stricture, consisting of bands stretching across the urethra. 

BRIDLES. The vernacular term for the tough and irregular bands 
which sometimes stretch across a cicatrix. 

BRIGHrS DISEASE. Albuminuria. " A generic term including 
several forms of acute and chronic disease of the kidney, usually asso- 
ciated with albumen in the urine, and frequently with dropsy, and with 
various secondary diseases resulting from deterioration of the blood/* — 
Num. of Dis. 

BRIM OF THE PELVIS. The oval ring which parts the cavity 
of the pelvis from the cavity of the abdomen. The Outlet of the Pelvis 
is a lower circle, composed by the arch of the pubes and the sciatic liga- 

BRIMSTON E. A name for sulphur. The sublimed sulphur of the 
Pharmacopoeia is termed flowers of brimstone % or of sulphur. 

BRISTOL HOT-WfeLL. A calcareous spring at Bristol, almost 
purely thermal, slightly acidulated. 

BRITISH GUM. Dextrin. Starch reduced to a gum-like state by 
the action of dilute acids, diastase, or heat 

BRITISH HERB-TOBACCO. The basis of this is Coltsfoot. 
This appears to have had a very ancient origin, for the same plant was 
smoked through a reed in the days of Dioscorides, for the purpose of 
promoting expectoration, and was called by him prjyiov, from 0ij£, 
tuasis ; whence " Tussilago." 

BRITISH OIL. Camphor, rectified spirits of wine, sweet oil, 
and oil of hartshorn, boiled together. This name is also given to 
the Oleum petra vulgare, or common oil ofpetre, a variety of petroleum. 

BRO'DIUM. A term synonymous, in pharmacy, with jmctdum, or 
broth, the liquor in which anything is boiled ; as brodtum satis, a decoc- 
tion of salt. 

BRO / MA (0i0po»<TKu>, to cat of a thing). Food ; aliment ; anything 
that is masticated. Hence, bromatoloyy denotes a description of, or 
treatise on, food. 

BRO'MAL. A colourless oily liquid, formed by the action of bro- 
mine on alcohol. It is analogous to chloral. 

BRO'MICA. A class of pharmaceutical remedies, consisting of 
bromine and its compounds. 

BRO'MIDES. Salts formed by the combination of bromine with 
salifiable bases, as bromide of potassium. 

BROMIDRO'SIS (d P G>no*,a stench, t3pc»c, sweat). Odor hircinus. 
Fetid perspiration. The term is used synonymously w\& oimidront, 

86 BKO 

but it should be remembered that 00711; is a good as well as a bad smell, 
whereas fipwuo* is never anything but a stench. 

BRO'MISM. A disease occasioned by the excessive use of the bro- 
mides of potassium and of ammonium. 

BRCMOFORM. A volatile, heavy, liquid compound, obtained 
by distilling a mixture of bromide of lime with alcohol and water. 

BRO'MUM (/9pu»/uof, a stench). Bromine. A deep-red coloured 
liquid, non-metallic element, formerly called muride; an ingredient of 
sea-water, of several salt-springs, of the ashes of sea-weeds, and of those 
of Janihina violacea, and other animals. It combines with oxygen, and 
forms bromic acid ; and with hydrogen, forming htfdro-bromic acid. 

BRO'MURET. A combination of bromic acid with iodine, phos- 
phorus, sulphur, &c. 

BRO'NCHl (0p6y\o*, the wind-pipe), the two tubes into which 
the trachea divides, opposite the third dorsal vertebra ; the rujht bron- 
ckus, larger than the left, passing off nearly at a right angle to the upyx r 
part of the corresponding lung ; the left bronchus descending obliquely, 
aud passing beneath the arch of the aorta, to the left lung. There are no 
such singular nouns as bronchia and bronchi us. 

BRONCHIAL RESPIRATION. A morbid sound produced by 
the passage of the air in respiiation, and indicating, to the auscultator, 
condensation of the lung. See Auscultation. 

BRO'NCHIAL SOUND. A natural sound produced by the pas- 
sage of the air in respiration, and heard, through the stethoscope, near 
the upper part of the sternum, and between the scapulae. 

BRO'NCHIAL TUBES AND CELLS (froyx"* the wind-pipe). 
The bronchial tubes are the dirhotomous divisions and subdivisions of 
the two bronchi, which t;«ke place as these enter the lungs. The termina- 
tions of the bronchial tubes within the lungs are called the bronchial 
cells, or air-cells, which have sacculated walls. 

BRONCHIECTASIS (/3/ooyx©«. » bronchus, S*cTa<™, extension). 
Preternatural extension of a bronchus, from disease. 

BRONCHI'TIS (/fyo'yx°*» tne wind-pipe, and the termination -itis, 
denoting inflammation). Pulmonary Catarrh. Inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. See Catarrh. 

Plastic bronchitis (ir\cr<r<r«, to mould). BroncJiial polypi. A form 
of bronchitis characterized by expectoration of branched fibrinous casts 
of exudation-matter, moulded in bronchial tubes of the third or fourth 

BRO'NCHOCELE (/3po'yx°«, the wind-pipe, KJ\n, a tumor). 
Cynanche thyroidea ; thyrophraxia. A permanent enlargement of the 
thyroid gland endemic in certain mountainous districts, but not limited 
to them. It is termed in Switzerland goitre, and in this country 
Derbyshire- neck. 

Bronchocele erophthalmica. Exophthalmic bronchocelc or goitre. 
" Enlargement, with vascular tumescence, of the thyroid gland, accom- 
panied by protrusion of the eyeballs, anaemia, and palpitation." — Nom. 

BRONCHO-HJEMORRHA'CfIA (fip6y X oi, the wind-pipe, ai- 
fioppayia, haemorrhage). Exhalation of blood from the lining membrane 
of the bronchial tubes, commonly called bronchial haemorrhage. See 

BRONCHOLEtoMlTIS {pp6y X o* y the wind-pipe, Up/ia, a mem- 

BRO— BUB 87 

brane, and -tfw, ft termination denoting inflammation). A membrane- 
like inflammation of the bronchial tubes. See Diphtherite. 

BRONCHOPHONY (/3poyx<>«, the wind-pipe, <pw»fi, voice). The 
resonance of the voice over the bronchi, as heard on auscultation. See 

BRONCHORRHCE'A (fipoyx ** thc wind-pipe, p««, to flow). 
Bronchial flux ; a svnonym of humoral asthma. 

BRONCHOTOM Y (0poy X <>c. the wind-pipe, -rotf, section). In- 
cision into the larynx or trachea, for the purpose of extracting a foreign 
body, or of permitting the passage of air into the lungs. When practised 
on the larynx, the operation is called laryngotomy ; when on the 
trachea, tracheotomy ; when on both, tracheo-laryngotomy. 

BRONZE. An alloy of copper, 8 or 10 per cent of tin, and other 
metals, used for making statues, &c. 

BRONZE-SKIN DISEASE. A designation of Addison" '« Disease, 
derived from the bronze-like discoloration of the skin. 

BROW-AGUE. Rheumatic pain, felt generally just above the eye- 
brow, and usually of intermittent character. It is distinguished from 
tic douloureux by the seat of the pain, which, in the latter case, is 
generally beneath the eye. 

BROWNIAN MOTION. A motion of minute particles observed 
by Robert Brown, the botanist, in drops of dew, and attributed at first 
to rudimentary life, but afterwards referred to currents occasioned by 
inequalities of temperature and evaporation. 

BROWN RUST. A disease of wheat, in which a dry, brown powder 
is substituted for the farina of the grain. See Black Hust. 

BRU'CIA. Vomicina. A substance procured from the bark and 
seeds of nux vomica, and from St. Ignatius's bean. It is said to be a 
compound of strychnia and resin, and not a peculiar alkaloid. The 
name is derived from that of James Bruce, a Scot. 

BRUIT. The French term for a sound, applied to various sounds 
heard on percussion and auscultation. See Auscultation. 

BRU'NNER'S GLANDS. Small, flattened, granular bodies of the 
mucous membrane of the small intestine, visible to the naked eye, dis- 
tributed singly in the membrane, and most numerous in the upper part 
of the small intestine. These glands, sometimes erroneously termed 
"solitaiy," were described by Peyer as being as numerous as the "stars 
of heaven." Von Brunn compared them collectively to a second 
pancreas ; and after him they have been named Brunners Glands, or 
Duodenal Glands. See Peyer s Glands. 

BRUNO'NI AN THEORY. A theory maintained by John Brown, 
of Scotland. According to this, life is sustained by the normal action 
of external agents upon the system; disease is the result of the 
excessive or deficient action of these agents upon the system ; and the 
remedy, in the one case, is alcohol, in the other, opium. 

BRY'GMUS {fipvyno*, from /fyvx w > to K 0440 witn tDe teeth). 
Brygina. Gnashing or grating with the teeth. 

BRY'OGEN (p ( >voi>, a moss, yivvaw, to produce). Anophvte. A 
subdivision of cryptogams, including mosses and liverworts. By some 
writers they are included under Acrogens, and by others the two 
subdivisions are included under the term Cosmogens. See Cryptogamia. 

BU'BO (/3ov0<ii/, the groin, a swelling in the groin). Aaenophvmi, 
inguinale, A consecutive symptom of syphilis, consisting of a %Nteu\ii^ 

88 BUB— BUF 

of tbe lymphatic glands, particularly those of the groin and axilla. It 
ii termed sympathetic, when arising from the mere irritation of a local 
disorder; venereal, when arising from the absorption of the syphilitic 
Tiros ; and constitutional, as the pestilential — a symptom of the plague — 
or scrofulous swellings of the inguinal and axillary glands. 

1. Primary bubo. A bubo which occurs from direct absorption of 
the syphilitic virus, without the previous formation of a chancre. This 
is the oubon (femblce of the French. 

2. Creeping bubo. A term applied to a bubo which has a tendency 
to creep or spread over the neighbouring integument, and is character- 
ized by a peculiar semicircular or horse-shoe shape. 

8. Amygdaloid indolent bufto. A bubo which forms simultaneously 
with induration in cases of infecting chancre, and in which suppuration 
occurs only from some accidental complication. 

4. Virulent or inoculable bubo. A bubo formed by absorption ot 
virus from a soft or a phagedenic chancre. The gland suppurates, the 
pus is inoculable. 

BUBONOCELE ($ovfiut». fiovfiwvot, the groin, kiJ\»/, a tumor). 
Inguinal hernia; hernia in which a part of the bowel passes through 
the abdominal ring. 

BU'CCA. The hollow inner part of the cheek. This term refers to 
the same part of the face as gena, but regards it as capable of being 
inflated and of collapsing at different times. 

1. Buccal. A term applied to a branch of the internal maxillary 
artery, to certain branches of the facial vein, and to a branch of the 
inferior maxillary nerve. 

2. Buccal glands. The name of numerous follicles situated beneath 
the mucous laver of the cheek and the pharynx. 

BUCClNA v TOR (jbuccina, a trumpet). 'The trumpeter's muscle ; a 
muscle of the cheek, so called from its use in blowing the trumpet. It 
is also named alveolo-labialis. 

BUCCO-LABIA'LIS. The name given by Chaussier to a nerve 
of variable origin, being sometimes a continuation of the exterior 
fasciculus of the portio minor; at other times arising from the inte- 
rior fasciculus, or from the deep temporal, though generally from the 
inferior maxillary. 

BUCHU. A drug prepared from the leaves of several species of 
Barosma. imported from the Cape of Good Hope. See Barosma. 

BUCNE'MIA (/Sou, a Greek augmentative, *i/t}u»j, the leg). Bou- 
knemia. Literally, bulky or tumid leg. See Barhadoes leg. 

BUDE-LIGHT, ATMOSPHERIC. A flame produced by meaus 
of coal-gas, the brilliancy of which is increased by a current of atmo- 
spheric air ingeniously introduced, according to the plan of Mr. Golds- 
worthy Gurney, of Bude, in Cornwall, the inventor of the oxy- hydrogen 
light, which is used with the microscope of that name. 

The present Bude-light is a gas flame, with two, three, or more con- 
centric burners, with chimneys supplied with common air, and a reflect- 
ing apparatus of peculiar construction. 

BUFFER-ACCIDENTS. A term applied to accidents resulting 
from the carelessness of railway officials, who, trying to pass between 
carriages in motion, are caught and squeezed between the ouffers. 

BUFFY COAT. The buff-coloured fibrin which appears on the 
surface of the crassamentum of blood drawn in certain states of disease. 

B U L_B U B 69 

BU'LAM FEVER. A name given to Yellow Fever, from iti fatal 
visitations on. tbe Guinea coast and its adjoining islands. 

BULB OF THE URETHRA. The posterior bulb-Mke commence- 
ment of tbe corpus spongiosum penis; hence, the included urethra is 
called the bulbous portion. 

BULBI'LLUS (dim. otbulbus, a bulb). A bulbil, a small rounded 
body resembling a small bulb, and consisting of thickened scales, often 
consolidated together. Bulbils occur in the axils of the leaves of some 

BULBO CAVERNO'SUS. Accelerator urina. The name of a 
muscle situated beneath the bulb of the urethra, and covering part of 
the corpus spongiosum. Chaussier termed it hulf*o-ureihrali*. 

BU'LBUS. A bulb ; a scaly leaf-bud, which developes roots from its 
base, and a stem from its centre. When the outer scales arc thin, and 
cohere in the form of a thiu envelope, as in the onion, this is the tunicated 
bulb. When the outer scales are uistinct and fleshy, as in the lily, this 
is called the naked bulb. There can be no such tiling as a solia bulb. 
8ee Cormus. 

BU'LBUS AO'RTJE. The bulb of the aorta ; an enlargement at 
the commencement of the aorta, caused by three dilatations of the walls 
of the vessel, the sinus aoriici {sinus valsalva), and corresponding with 
tbe three semilunar valves. 

BU'LBUS ARTERIOSUS. The name of the anterior of the three 
cavities of the heart in all vertebrata, as exhibited in the early period of 
its development. 

BU'LBUS OLFACTO'RIUS. That portion of the olfactory nerve, 
which expands into a bulb-Yike form, and rests upon the cribriform 
lamella of the ethmoid bone. 

BU'LBUS RHACHI'DICUS (pa X i*, thespineV The spine bulb ; a 
designation of the medulla oblongata, or upper enlarged portion of the 
spinal cord. 

BU'LBUS VE'NjE JUGULAHIS. A dilatation at the com- 
mencement of the external ju^uiar vein. 

BULI'MIA (tfov, an intensive particle, from /3ous, an ox, and \uiof, 

hunger). Boulimia. Ox-appetite; voracious appetite; also termed 

adepkagia, bupeina, cynorexia, fames ounina, or dog-appetite, &c. It 

is analogous to polydipsia, or the insatiable desire of arinking. See 


BU'LITHUM (0ovt, an ox, XiOot, a stone). A bezoar or stone 
found in the kidneys, the gall, or urinary bladder of the ox. 

BU'LLA. A water-bubble or bleb ; " a large portion of the cuticle 
detached from the skin by the interposition of a transparent watery 
fluid.** Under the general term bulla, or blebs, are comprised vesicles 
of a larger size than those designated by the term vesical a. The 
varieties stevemphigus, rupia, and herpes. 

BU'NIOlD (ftovvtov, a turnip, aloof, likeness). The designation of 
a variety of cancer, in which the morbid product resembles a turnip. 

BUT* ION (fioOptop, a turnip). An enlargement of the bursa at the 
inside of the ball of the great toe ; or the formation of a new serous sac 
on the inner and posterior part of the metatarsal bone. 

BUPHTHAXMIA (0o£v, an ox, o>0aA/uor, eye) Bouphthalmia. 
Ox-eye ; dropsy of tbe eye ; the first stage of hydrophthalmia. 

BU'RANHEIM. Ouaranheim. An extract of the bark of the 

90 B U R— B U T 

Chryeopbyllum Burnnheim, a Brazilian tree. The bark was introduced, 
a few years ago, into France, under the name of moneaia, or monesia- 
bark. It contains an acrid principle analogous to saponine, called 

BURETTE (Fr., a cruet). A graduated glass tube with a email 
aperture and a stop-cock, for dividing a given portion of any liquid into 
100 or 1000 equal parts. See Measurement, Units of. 

BU'RGUNDY PITCH. Pit Burgundioa. Impure resin prepared 
from turpentine. It was first prepared in Burgundy from the Pinus 
Abies, or Spruce Fir. 

BURNETT'S DISINFECTING LIQUID. A solution of chloride 
of zinc, first used by Sir William Burnett for preserving timber from 
dry rot, and afterwards as an antiseptic and deodorizer. 

BURNS and SCALDS. Injuries produced by the action of exces- 
sive heat on the body, producing either inflammation of a part, or 
charring and disorganization of its tissue. See Ambustio. 

BURNT EAR. A disease in corn in which the grain is destroyed, 
covered with a black powder, and, as it were, burnt up. It differs from 
smut in being external to the grain. The parasite is termed Uredo 

BURNT HOLES. This, white blisters, and eating hive, are popular 
names applied, in several counties of Ireland, to Pemphigus gangraeno- 
sus, or Sordid Blane. See Pemphigus. 

BU'RSjE MUCO'S^ {bursa, a sac). Small closed sacs interposed 
between surfaces which move upon each other so as to cause friction, 
frequently associated with the articulations, analogous in structure to 
synovial membrane, and secreting a similar synovial fluid. 

BU'RSiE TUMOR. Bursal tumor. A solid tumor, the result of 
old enlargement of a bursa. 

BURSA'LIS (bursa, a sac). Marsupialis. Former designations ot 
the obturator internus muscle. 

BURSO'LOGY (fivptra, bursa, \6yo* % a description). A descrip- 
tion of the bursas mucosas. 

BUTTER (povrvpov, butyrum, from /3o»5c, a cow, rvpo*, coagulum). 
A substance procured from the cream of milk by churning. Butter, 
milk is the thin and sour milk separated from the cream by churning. 
The term butter is applied in pharmacy to butter-like substances, as those 
of antimony, bismuth, &c, meaning the ctilorides. 

BUTTER OF CACAO. An oUy, concrete, white matter, obtained 
from the Cacao, or cocoa nut, of which chocolate is made. It is ex- 
tensively used for suppositories. 

BUTTON-SUTURE. The name given by Dr. Bozeman to his 
mode of closing vaginal fistula by means of a thin leaden plate, called 
" the button." This suture is also employed in the treatment of hare- 

BUTYL (flovrvpov, butter, i/Xtj, matter). Anorganic radical con- 
tained in a numerous family of compounds. Butulic alcohol is obtained 
by fractional distillation of fusel oil, from the oil of beet-root, or from 
molasses after distillation of ethylic spirit. 

BUTYRIC ACID. An oily, limpid liquid, one of the volatile acids 
of butter. By distillation, it yields a substance called butyrone. 

BUTYRIC ETHER. Bulyrate of oxide of ethyl. An ether formed 
by distilling alcohol and butyric acid with sulphuric acid. 

C A C— C A L 91 


C. All terms of Greek origin usually beginning with C, exclusive 
of those beginning with Ch, are here enclosed in brackets, to indicate 
that they ought to he spelled with K. See Pre/ace, par. 1. 

[CAC-, CACO-1 K AK-, KAKO- («afro't, bud). Terms compounded 
with this word will be found in their proper place under the letter K. 
The reader is referred to some observations on this subject in the Pre- 
face to this volume, par. 1. 

CACA'O. Cocoa ; the bruised seeds of the Theobroma cacao, a 
sterculiaceous plant. The seeds reduced to a paste, mixed with sugar 
and flavoured with vanilla, constitute chocolate. More than half the 
subfttance of the cacao-seed is made up of cacao-butter, a fatty matter 
consisting of oleine and stearine. 

CADA/VER (cadere, to fall). A corpse or dead body. Hence the 
term cadaverous or Hippocratic face, expressive of great exhaustion. 

CADMIUM. Klaproihium; Melinum. A bluish-white metal found 
in several of the ores of zinc ; so named from cadtniafossilis, a former 
name of the common ore of zinc. 

CADU'CA (cadere, to fall). Sub. membrana. The deciduous mem- 
brane ; so called from its being cast of from the uterus. 

C/E'CITAS (cacuSy blind). A general term for blindness. The 
term is of rare occurrence in classical literature. 

C.&C1TIS. An uncl&ssical term for inflammation of the caecum or 
of its appendix. See Typhlitis, 

CAS'CUM {coats, blind). The word intestinum being understood, 
the term denotes the caput coli or blind intestine ; a cul-de-sac, about 
two inches and a half in length, situated at the commencement of the 
large intestine. 

CjE'SARIAN SECTION. Hysterotomia. The operation for ex- 
tracting the fa»tus from the uterus, by means of an incision made 
through the parietcs of the abdomen. This operation, it is said, first 
save the name Casar to the Roman family. Persons so born were 
formerly called Cctsones — a caso matris utero. 

CjE'SIUM (camus, bluish-gray; sky-coloured, with specks of gray). 
A rare alkaline metal discovered, in 1860, in mineral springs, and named 
from the blue lines it exhibits in spectrum- analysis. Casta is its 

CALABAR BEAN. Faba Calabarica, The bean of Physostifjma 
renenosum, a leguminous plant, yielding a poisonous principle called 

CALAMl'NA {calamus, a reed). Calamine; native impure 
carbonate of zinc, a pulverulent mineral, named from its tendency to 
form masses resembling a bundle of reeds. 

CA'LAMUS SCRIPTCRIUS. Literally, a writing-yen. A 
groove upon the anterior wall, or floor, of the fourth ventricle. Its 
pen-like appearance is produced by the divergence of the posterior 
median columns; the feather is represented by the lines transversa;. At 
the point of the pen is a small cavity, lined with gray substance, and 
called the Ventricle of A rantius. 

CALCA'iNEUM (cak, the heel). A rare form for calx. The os 
calcis, or beel- bone ; the largest of the tarsal bones. 

92 CAL 

CAT.CES. A former namo for oxides, in consequence of tbeir 
earthy character, resembling that of calx or lime. See Calx. 

CALCIFICATION (calx, a lime-stone, fieri, to become). 1. The 
deposition in the coats of arteries, and in fibrous tumors, of gritty, 
earthy, and saline matters, incorrectly termed osseous : in the former 
case it may be laminar, annular, or tubular, 2. The formation of a 
substance containing much lime, as of the teeth. 

CALCI'GENOUS METALS (x<EX'& ralx, a lime-stone, ytwaw, 
to produce). Metals, the oxides of which were teimed by the ancient 
chemists calces ; as distinguished from the terrigenous and the kali- 
yenous metals. 

CALCl'GEROUS CE)LLS (calx, a lime-stoue, gerere, to carry). 
A name &iven to the bone-cells and tubuli. from the opinion that they 
are the principal seat of the calcareous matter of bone. 

CALCINATION (calx, quicklime). A term formerly applied to 
express the oxidation of a metal effected by the action of the air ; the 
oxide thus formed was denominated a calx, from its being rarthy like 
lime. The term is now generally applied whenever any solid matter 
has been subjected to heat, so as to be convertible into a state of 
powder ; carbonate of lime is reduced to lime by calcination, or the 
expulsion of carbonic acid. 

CA'LCIUM (calx, quicklime). The metallic basis of lime, dis- 
covered by Davy, in 1808, by the action of voltaic electricity. 

Calcium light. An intense light produced by the incandescence of a 
ball of lime in the oxy-hvdroffen flame. 

CALCULATION. Number. A term in phrenology indicative of 
the faculty of arithmetic, and of whatever relates to number or calcula- 
tion. In those in whom the power is strongly developed, the external 
angle of the eye-brow is either much depressed or elevated, the organ 
of this faculty being situated beneath that part of the brow. 

CA'LCULUS (dim. of calx, a lime- or chalk-stoue). A solid or 
unorganized concretion found in various parts of the human body, and 
commonly called stone, or gravel. It occurs most frequently in the 
organs which act as reservoirs, and in the excretory canals, as hiliary 
calculus, urinary calculus, &c. It is apt to be formed in the kidnev, in 
the circumstances of those constitutional derangements which have 
been denominated calculous diatheses, of which the principal are : — 

1. The Lithic Diathesis, characterized by yellow, red or lateritious, 
or pink deposits of lithate of ammonia; or by the formation of red 
irravel, or crystals of uric or lithic acid. 

2. The Phosphatio Diathesis, characterized by the formation of white 
gravel, or crystals of phosphate of magnesia and ammonia ; or by the 
white sediment of the mixed phosphates of magnesia and ammonia, and 
of lime. 

a. A morphous Sediments. — These are pulverulent, and may consist, 
1, of uric acid, which is of a yellow or brick-dust colour, like the 
ordinary sediment of cooled urine; 2, of phosphate of lime, mixed with 
phosphate of ammonia and magnesia* and a considerable quantity of 
mucus ; and 3, of the mucus of tfte bladder, which, having no earthy 
salts, becomes of a greenish yellow on drying, and the urine is always 

0. Crystalline Deposits, or Gravel These substances usually con- 

sist of, 1, acid urate of ammonia in the form of small, shining, red or 

CAL 93 

yellow, pointed, crystalliue groupt; 2, of oxalate of lime, in pale yellow 
or green crystals ; or, 3, of phosphate of ammonia and maguesia. 

y. Varieties of Calculus. — Urinary Calculi hare usually a nucleus in 
the centre, consisting of one substance, which afterwards alternates with 
unequal layers of other, and in some cases of all, the principles of 
urinary calculi. Many calculi consist of the same substance in suc- 
cessive layers. The varieties of calculus may be thus arranged : — 

1. The LUhie or Uric Acid, or the light brown. — This acid is the 
most constant constituent of urinary calculus. 

2. The Triple Phosphate of Magnesia and Ammonia, or the white. 
— This is never found quite alone in calculi ; but is often one of their 
chief constituents. 

3. The Mired Phosphates of Magnesia and Ammonia, and of Lime. 
—This variety, next to uric acid, constitutes the most common material 
of calculus. From its ready fusibility before the blow-pipe, it is termed 
the fusible calculus. 

4. The Oxalate of Lime. — This is, apparently, a frequent constituent 
ticularly in children. The stone has usually an uneven 
surface, resembling the mulberry, and is hence called the mulberry 


5. The Alternating. — The nucleus is most frequently lithic acid, 
rarely the phosphates; these, on the contrary, generally form upon 
some nucleus, and are seldom covered by other depositions. 

6. The Xanthic Oxide. — Discovered by Dr. Marcet, and so named 
from its forming a lemon-coloured compound, when acted upon by nitric 

7. The Fibrinous. — Discovered by Dr. Marcet, and so termed from 
its resemblance to fibre. 

CALEFA'CIENTS (calefacere, to make warm). Substances which 
excite warmth in the parts to which they are applied, as mustard, &c. 

CALENTURE (calere, to be hot). A violent fever attended with 
delirium, caused by the heat of the tropical sun at sea, under the 
influence of which the sufferer is induced to throw himself into the 

CA'LICES (pi. of calix, calicis, a cup). A term applied to pro- 
cesses of the infundibula of the kidney, embracing the papilla) and 
forming a separate pouch around each. 

C A LI 'GO. Fog or mist A disease of the eye, imparting dimness, 
cloudiness, obscurity. In former times, this opacity, as well as ptery- 
gium, was denominated a u web of the eye." The term is applied, 
figuratively, to the mind—" mentis coca calioo" See Achlys. 

[CALISTHE'NIC] («ra\o«, beautiful, <r0«W, strength). Another 
term for gymnastic, as applied to bodily exercises practised for the im- 
provement of health and strength. As suggestive of beauty and strength, 
xt is preferable to the term gymnastic, which reminds us of the custom 
of the Greeks, who stripped themselves naked before engaging in bodily 

CALLOSITY {callosus, thick-skinned, from callus, hard, thick 
tkin). A hardness of the skin occasioned by pressure or friction; a 
corn ; the hard cicatrix of ulcers. See Clavus and Tylosis. 

CAO.LU8 (callus. eaUum, hardened skin). CaUosity. This term 
denotes hardened skin, especially of the feet and hands, but it is allied, 
in old works on surgery, to the new material which constitutes the \>qr& 


94 CAL 

of union in fractured bone. The temporary deposit is called provisional 
callus; that which is permanently left, is called affinitive callus. The 
term colli is also applied to the nodes of gout 

CA'LOMEL (ica\6*, beautiful, fii\a* % black). u Beautiful black." 
Mercurous chloride. The sub-chloride, formerly sub-muriate, of 

CALOR. A moderate or natural heat. Color fervens denotes 
boiline heat, or 21*2° Fahr. ; Color lenis, gentle heat, between 90° and 
100° Fahr. See Fervor. 

CALOR MCRDICANS. Literally, & biting heat; a term applied 
to a dangerous symptom in typhus, in which there is a biting and pun- 
gent heat upon the skin, leaving a smarting sensation on the fingers for 
several minutes after touching it. 

C A LORE SCENCE {color, heat). A term introduced by Professor 
Tyndall to designate the transmutation of the ultra-red or invisible 
heat-rays of the spectrum of the electric light into rays of higher refran- 
gibility, that is, into visible rays, by causing them to impinge upon a 
plate of platinum, which they raise to a white heat See Fluores- 

CALO'RIC (calor, heat). This term, in philosophical language, 
denotes the cause of the sensation of heat — a fluid, or condition diffused 
through all bodies. 

1. Sensible or free caloric is that which produces the sensation of heat, 
or affects the thermometer; all caloric is sensible, if it be considered in 
reference to bodies of which ihe form is permanent 

2. InsensUde caloric, formerly supposed to be latent or combined, is 
that portion whidh passes into bodies during a change of form, without 
elevating their temperature ; as into ice at 32°, as it becomes water, 
and is termed caloric of fluidity ; or into water at 212°, as it passes into 
vapour, and is termed caloric of vaporization. 

3. Specific caloric is the (uneoual) quantity of caloric required by 
similar quantities of different bodies to beat them equally. The specific 
caloric of water is 23 times as great as that of mercury ; thus, if equal 
weights of the former at 40°, and of the latter at 16*0°, be mixed to- 
gether, the resulting temperature is 45°. This quality of bodies is 
called their capacity for caloric. 

4. Absolute caloric denotes the total amount of heat in bodies. 
" When we speak of capacity, we mean a power inherent in the heated 
body; by absolute caloric we mean an unknown principle which is 
retained in the body by the possession of this power ; and by temperature 
we consider the unknown principle as producing certain effects upon the 
thermometer." — Dr. Crawford. 

5. Evolution of caloric denotes the escape of caloric on a change of 
capacities in bodies, from greater to less, as in combustion, on mixing 
water with sulphuric acid, or alcohol, &c. 

6. Absorption of caloric is the reverse of the former, as in the melt- 
ing of ice, tne evaporation of water or other fluids, &c. 

7. Diffusion of caloric denotes the modes by which its equilibrium is 
effected ; viz., by conduction, radiation, and convection : — 

a. Conduction of caloric, or its passage through bodies : those which 
allow it a free passage through their substance, as metals, arc termed 
good conductors; those of a different quality, bad conductors. 

fi. Radiation of caloric, or its emission from the surface of all bodies 

CAL 95 

equally in all directions, in the form of radii or rays ; these, on falling 
upon other bodies, are either reflected, absorbed, or transmitted. 

y. Convection of caloric, or the conveying of caloric ; as when a portion 
of air, passing through and near a fire, has become heated, and has con- 
veyed up the chimney the temperature acquired from the fire. The 
convection of heat, philosophically considered, is in reality a modifica- 
tion of the conduction of heat; while the latter may be viewed as an 
extreme case of radiation. 

8. The effects of caloric are Expansion, or augmentation of bulk ; 
Lujuefactum, or change from the solid to the liquid form ; and Vapori- 
zation, or the passing of a liquid or solid into an aeriform state. 

CALORI'DE (color, heat). A term applied to the state of a body 
with reference to its capacity for combined heat : thus, as the oxide of 
chromium possesses more combined heat when in the soluble titan in 
the insoluble state, the former is viewed as the higher caloride, and the 
body in question may have different proportions of this as well as of any 
other constituent. 

CALORIFA'CIENT (color, heat, facere, to make). A term applied 
to substances supposed to generate heat in the animal system, as fat, 
starch, and other non-azotized articles of food. These are termed by 
Lie big 44 elements of respiration/ 1 See Nitrogenized Foods. 

CALORIMETER (color, heat, pirpiw, to measure). A hybrid 
designation of an apparatus for measuring the absolute amount of heat 
contained in bodies. Three methods are employed in calorimetry : — 

1, by measuring the heat by the quantity of ice which a body liquefies; 

2, by calculating the heat by means of mixtures ; 3, by observing tho 
rate at which heated bodies cool. See Thermometry. 

[CA'LOTYPKJ koXo's, beautiful, n-turox, type). Talhotypc. The 
process by which Mr. Henry Fox Talbot prepared sun-pictures or nega- 
tive photographs upon paper coated with chloride of silver. 

CALVA'RIA {calva, the bald scalp; calvus, bald). The skull, of 
man and beasts. Calvarium is a term sometimes used in this sense, 
but this is not its primary meaning. Calvaria curia denotes the con- 
genital malformation of the cranium. 

CALVl'TIUM (calvus, bold). Baldness. The term calviHes is 
occasionally used in the same sense. It is synonymous with Alopekia 
senilis, or the baldness of old age. 

CALX. (This term, when masculine, denotes the heel ; when femi- 
nine, a chalk-stone, or lime.) Lime. An alkaline earth, with some 
impurities, obtained by calcining chalk or limestone so as to expel car- 
bonic acid. See Calcination. 

1. Calx viva. Quicklime ; unslaked or uncombined lime ; obtained 
by heating masses of limestone to redness in a limekiln. 

2. Calx extincta. Colds hydras. Slaked lime, or the hydrate of 
lime ; procured by adding water to calx viva, or quicklime, which then 
swells, cracks, and subsequently falls to powder. 

CALYCIFLCR^ (calyx, a flower-cup, /Ion, a flower). Plants 
which have their flowers furnished with botn a calyx and a corolla, the 
latter consisting of distinct petals, and their stamens perigynous. 

[CALYTTRA] (KaXOtrrpa, a veil). Literally, a veil or hood. A 
term applied to a membranous covering, which envelopes the urn-like 
capsule of mosses, and is eventually ruptured and falls off; to Ita 
upper and separable portion of the calyx of Eschscholtzia, &c. 

f H VL 

96 C A L-C A N 

CAXYX (calyx, *aX«£, a cup). The flower-c*p, or external enve- 
lope of the floral apparatus. Its separate pieces are called sepals: when 
these are distinct from one another, the calyx is termed potvsepalous ; 
when they cohere, gamo- sepal ous, or, incorrectly, mono-sepawus. The 
calyx is said to be superior, when it is situated above the ovary ; inferior, 
whrn placed below it 

CA'MBIUM. Formative fluid. A viscid juice abounding in spring 
between the bark and wood of trees, and supposed to be closely con- 
nected with the development of woody fibre. 

CAMBO'GIA. Gamboge. A gum-resin obtained from Garcinia 
MortVa, a Guttiferous plant of Siam. 

CA'MERA. Literally, a chamber ; an arched or vaulted roof. A 
term applied to each of the chambers of the eye. 

CAMPER'S LIGAMENT. Ligamentum triangulare; perineale. 
Another name for the deep perineal fascia, a thin laver of aponeurosis 
stretched across the anterior portion of the outlet of the pelvis. 

CA'MPHINE. Camphene. A tpirit for burning in lamps, said to 
consist of oil of turpentine combined with a species of naphtha. 

CA'MPHORA. Camphor. A concrete volatile oil obtained from 
the wood of Camphora officinarum ; imported from China and Siam. 

CAMP-MEASLES. A form of measles said to be produced among 
soldiers from sleeping on damp or mouldy wheat-straw. 

[CAMPYLOSPETtMOUSl (komituAo*, curved, rasp/to* seed). 
A term applied to seeds which have their edges curved inward, so as to 
form a groove ; alio to certain fruits of umbelliferous plants. 

[CAMPYLOTROPOU8] {icafiiruXot, curved, Tp«V«, to turn). 
A term applied to the ovule of plants, when its axis, instead of remain- 
ing rectilinear, is curved down upon itself, the base of the nucleus con- 
tinuing to be contiguous to the hilum, as in Caryophyllaceous plants. 
The term camptotropous (Ka^iwrds, curved) is sometimes used to 
denote complete curvature. 

CANADA BALSAM. A turpentine produced by Abies balsamea. 
It is not a bnlsam, since it contains no volatile acid. 

CANALl'CULI (dim. of canal is, a canal). The name given by 
Morgagni to some (large) lacunae, which secrete mucus in the canal of 
the urethra ; also a designation of the numerous ramifications proceeding 
from the Incuna? of bone. 

CANA'LIS (canna, a reed). A canal, groove, or channel ; a part 
hollowed out in the form of a reed. A hollow instrument used by 
surgeons as a splint 

1. Canalis arteriosus. A blood-vessel which unites the pulmonary 
artery and aorta in the foetus. 

2. Canalis venostts. A canal which conveys the blood from the vena 
porta of the liver to the ascending vena cava in the foetus. 

3. Canal ofFontatia. A minute vascular canal situated within the 
ciliary ligament, and so named from Felix Fontana, an anatomist of 
Tuscany, its discoverer. It is also termed the ciliary canal. 

4. Canals of Havers. Branching and inosculating canals which tra- 
verse the basis substance of bone, in all directions, giving passage to 
vessels and nerves. 

5. Canal ofNuck. A process of the peritoneum extending, in the 
young subject, for a short distance along the spermatic canal ; i lis 

sometimes pervious in the adult. 

CAN 97 

HL A triangular canal situated immediately around 

of the crystalline lens, formed by the membrana 
and named after John Louis Petit, a celebrated 

its discoverer. When distended with air, or size-in- 

» a plaited appearance, and has hence been called by 


ftvims. Aqueduct of Sylvius, or the Her a tertio ad 

sjm, leading backward beneath the posterior comoiis- 

i the base of the corpora quadrigemina to the upper 

i ventricle of the brain. 

A Latin plural noun, without a singular number, 
v, or window made with cross-bars of wood, iron, 
a balustrade. Hence the term cancellous is applied 
rue t tire of bones ; and hence the term cancellated is 
ng which is cross-barred, or marked by lines crossing 
le term cancelli is a diminutive of cancer, cancrt, 
d connected with the Greek juyirXif, of the same 

At. a crab). Carcinoma. Malignant disease. A 
r of the development of peculiar cells, called cancer- 

1 by a liquid, called " cancerous J«ice, M contained in 
ew or previously existing tissue. The term is derived 
* spreading of the veins. 

iaturt of Diseases, Cancer is defined as " a deposit or 
i to spread indefinitely into the surrounding structures, 
of the lymphatics of the part affected, and to reproduce 
arts of the body." The seven following articles aro 
fomenclature of Diseases : — 

r. Carcinoma durum or Scirrhus. " Cancer chanc- 
iest of the primary tumor, and by a tendency to 
neighbouring soft structures. When ulcerated, the 
deep, uneven, and bounded by a thick, everted, hard 

or soft cancer. Carcinoma medullosum vcl molle. 

nrized by a smoothly-lobcd surface, soft irregular con- 

ictilarity, and usually rapid growth and reproduction. 

it protrudes in large masses, which bleed copiously. 

wtodci and Enkephaloid. 

tncer. Carcinoma epitheliosum ; Epithelioma ; Can- 

' characterized by its occurrence chiefly in parts 

1 with epithelium, and by the resemblance of its cells 


tncer. Carcinoma nigrum; Melanosis. "A cancer 

the presence of pigment." 

er. Caicinonia osteoides. "A tumor usually com • 

met, consisting almost entirely of bone, and followed 

t in the glands and viscera." 

tr. Carcinoma villosum. " Cancer in mucous mem- 

rred by a villous growth. 

tr. Carcinoma alveolare ; Morbus colloides. Alveolar 

growth, a great part of which is formed of transparent 

tsnee." — Norn, of Die. 

mcer. A term applied by Muiler to cancer unen 



96 CAN 

portions of it have been changed into a yellow tubercular-looking mass, 
mingled with the seat of the tumor, presenting a reticulated appearance. 
By Lebert this was termed phynuUoid cancer. 

9. The Textures of Cancer were further designated by Baylc as 
chondroid, or cartilaginiform ; hyaloid, vitriform or glassy ; larinoid, 
lardiform or fatty ; bunioid, napiform or turnip-like ; eiikephaloid t cere- 
briform or brain-like; compound, mired, and superficUU cancerous. 
See Carcinoma, 

CANCER (BANDAGE). A crab; a bandage resembling a crab 
in the number of its legs, aud called the split-cloth of eight tails. 

CANCER-CELL. A cell characterized by its larjje nucleus, bright 
nucleolus, and the irregular form of the cell itself — found iu many 
malignant tumors. Sec Cancer. 

CANCER SCROTI. Chimney sweeper s cancer. An affection of 
the scrotum, said to be occasioned by the irritation of soot. The disease 
is probably, in general, epithelioma, sometimes cancer. See Soot- 

CA'NCROID (cancer, and «Ioos, likeness). Cheloid. Cancri/itrm. 
This term, and semi-malignant, are applied to tumors which have some, 
but not all, of the vital characteristics of cancerous growths ; and to 
tumors which, like the fibroplastic, resemble cancer in their coarse 
appearance, though not in their real structure. See Kelts. 

The term Cancroid should be rejected from medical terminology, as 
it not only is hybrid, but may be conveniently replaced by the Greek 
cheloid or karkinoid, or the Latin cancriform. 

CANCRUM ORIS. Gangrenous stomatitis. A sloughing pha- 
gedenic ulceration, occurring in the mouth of ill-fed children. 

CANINE APPETITE. Fames canina. Voracity; insatiable de- 
sire for food. See Bulimia. 

CANINE TEETH (canis, a dog). Cusjndati. Eye-teeth ; the four 
which immediately adjoin the inci*ors. See Dens. 

CANPNUS (canis, a dog). A name given to the levator anquli 
oris, from its arising above the canini, or dog-teeth. Compare tnci- 

CANPTIES (canus, hoary). Trichosis poliosis. Whiteness or 
grayncss of the hair. The degrees arc designated as "snowy" or an 
opaque white, and " silvery " or clear and transparent. The kinds are 
congenital, accidental, and senile. Cani denotes gray hairs, capilli 
being understood ; this term is used only in relation to men, whereas 
canities is said of men and horses. 

CANNABIS SATIVA. Cannabis Indica. Indian hemp, an 
Urticaccous plant, yielding a poisonous substance called cannabin, ahd 
other substances called churrus, gunjah, bang, &c. See Haschish. 

CA'NNULA (dim. of carina, a reed). A small tube, made of metal 
or other substances, generally applied to that of the trochar, &c. 

CA'NTHARIS VFJSICATO'RIA (cantharis, a beetle). The 
Blister-Beetle or Spanish Fly ; a coleopterous insect, found on species 
of Oleacea and Capri/oliacea ; rare in England ; collected chiefly in 
Hungary. Cantharidin is a crystalline substance constituting the active 
principle of cantharides. 

[C A'NTHUS] («cai/0oc, the angle of the cyeV The angle or com- 
missure of the eye-lids ; the inner canthus is tnat nearer to the nose ; 
the other is called the outer or lesser canthus. 

C A N— C A P 99 

CA'NTON'S PHO'SPHORUS. A snbstance made by exposing 
calcined oyster-shells and sulphur to a red heat. On exposure to light, 
it acquires the property of shining in the dark. 

CAOUTCHOUC. India-rubber. A highly-elastic resinous sub- 
stance, obtained from the milky sap of Siphonia eiastica and other 
arboraceous plants. It is a hydrocarbon. 

Faraday to indicate a difference in the powers or capacities which 
various dielectrics possess for transmitting statical inductive influence 
across them. 

CA'PILLARIES (capiUus, a hair). Capillary vessels; hair-like 
vessels ; a network of microscopic vessels, varying from jjfooth to j^th 
of an inch in diameter, intermediate in situation between the arteri 
and the veins, distributed through almost every part of the body, and 
constituting the medium through which all the phenomena of nutrition 
and secretion are performed. 

CA'PILLARY ATTRACTION (capillus, a hair). CajnUarity. 
The attraction by which a liquid rises in a capillary tube higher than 
the surface of the liquid into which it is dipped. The cause of the 
ascent of sap in plants. 

CA'PILLARY FISSURE (capillus, a hair). CapUlaiio. Avery 
minute crack in the skull ; a Aatr-like crack. 

CA'PILLARY TUBES (capillus, a hair). Minute tubes, the 
diameter of which is less than the twentieth part of an inch. 

CA'PILLUS (quasi capitis pilus). The hair of the head, sometimes 
of the beard, while crinis is any hair, when set in order or plaited. 
Specific terms are cilium, the eye-lash ; pilus, the hair of the head ; 
etneinnus, a curl of hair ; casaries, a man's head of hair ; coma, a head 
of hair, dressed or not ; villus, the shaggy hair of beasts ; seta, a 
bristle ; pappus, the down on the cheek ; vibrissa, the hair of the 
nostril, &c. 

CAPl'STRUM (caput, the head). Literally, a halter, a muzzle. 
The single split-cloth bandage, so called from its being used to support 
the lowcrjaw like a halter. 

C ATITILU VI UM (caput, capitis, the head, lavare, to wash). The 
head-bath ; a bath for the head. Sec Bath. 

CAPITULA SAKTORI'NI (capitulum, a little head). Cornicula 
laiyngis. Two small pyriform fibro- cartilages, forming prolongations 
at the upper part of the arytenoid cartilages. 

CAPITULUM (dim. of caput, a head). A little head; a form of 
inflorescence in which numerous flowers are seated on a depressed 
axis, as in the Compoaitxc. It is also termed anthodium, calathium, 

[CA'PNOMOR] (kmcpov, smoke, fidlpa, part; so called from its 
being one of the ingredients of smoke). A colourless, limpid oil, 
occurring along with creosote in the heavy oil of tar. It is the only 
ingredient in tar which can dissolve caoutchouc. 

CAPRE'OLUS. A tendril of plants which is in connexion with the 
stem alone, as of the passion-flower and vine. See Cirrus. 

Herodotus. The two processes arc essentially different. 

H 2 

100 C A P— C A R 

CATROIC ACID (caper, a goat). An oily liquid existing in cows* 
and goats* butter, but generally prepared from cocoa-nut oil and other 
fatty matter*. See Hexyl. 

CA'PR Y L. The radical of a series of compounds, including caprvlic 
acid and caprylic alcohol. The latter is also called octylic {6ktw, eight), 
from being the eighth in the series of homologous alcohols. 

CATSULE (capsula, dim. of capsa, a box). Literally, a little 
chest. 1. A capsule or bag which encloses any part, as the Capsule 
of Glisson, or the cellulo-vascular membrane which envelopes the 
hepatic vessels. 2. The membrane which contains the crystalline lens. 
3. In chemistry, a small, shallow, evaporating dish, usually of 
porcelain. 4. In pharmacy, a small egg-shaped bulb or case made of 
gelatine and sugar, or of animal membrane, for administering nauseous 

1. Capsules, supra-renal. Two yellowish, triangular, and flattened 
bodies, lying over the kidneys in the foetus, in which they are as large 
as the kidneys themselves. In the adult they are two lobes. 

2. Capsular ligament. A loose bag which contains the synovia of 
the joints. This must be distinguished from the synovial membrane 
which produces this fluid. The latter is allied, by structure and func- 
tion, to the serous membranes ; the former to the fibrous. 

3. Capsulitis. Inflammation of the capsulo of the crystalline lens. 
The term is barbarous. 

CAPSULE, in Botany. A dry, superior fruit, dehiscent by valves 
for the escape of the seeds. The simple capsule comprises the follicle 
and the legume ; the compound, the pvxidium, the rhegma, and the 
ruits of papaver, campanula, and many others, from which the seeds 
fscape by various kinds of rupture of the walls of the capsule. See 

CA'PUT. The head of man and of the lower animals. It is dis- 
tinguished into the skull, or crattium^ and the face, or /acies. 

CAPUT COLL The head of the colon, the caecum, or blind in- 

CAPUT GALLINA'GINIS (woodcock's head). Vsru montanum. 
A lengthened fold of mucous membrane, situated on the inferior wall 
or floor of the prostatic portion of the urethra. 

CAPUT MORTUUM. Literally, a dead head. The inert residuum 
of a distillation, or sublimation ; a term nearly obsolete. 

CAPUT OBSTITUM (obstipus, bent to one side ; opp. to rectus). 
Literally, a stiff head ; a term for torticollis or wry-neck; a disrate 
frequently arising from unequal contraction of the muscles of the 

CA'RAMEL. A dark-brown, porous, shining mass, produced by 
heating sugar. It is used for colouring brandy, &c. 

CARBAZO'TIC ACID (carbon and azote). Picric Acid. An acid 
formed by the action of nitric acid on indigo and many other vegetable 
and animal substances. 

CARBO ANlMA'LI8(car6o, a coal, either burning or not burning). 
Animal charcoal ; bone-black. The residue of bones which have been 
exposed to a red heat without the access of air ; consisting principally 
of charcoal, and phosphate and carbonate of lime. 

CARBO LIGNl (carbo, a coal). Wood-charcoal. Wood charred 
by exposure to a red heat without access of air. 

CAR 101 

CARBO MINER AXIS (carbo, a coal). Mineral charcoal, con- 
taining various proportions of earth and iron without bitumen. 

CARBOLIC ACID. Phenic Acid. A powerful antiseptic acid ob- 
tained from coal-tar oil, constituting a great part of ordinary commercial 

CARBON (carbo, a piece of burning or charred wood ; charcoal). 
A non-metallic element, occurring under various aspects ; in its state 
of absolute purity it constitutes the diamond; it is black and quasi- 
metallic in graphite, velvety and porous in wood-cAareoai, and variously 
associated in the numerous forms of coal. • 

1. Carbon Vapor. The name of a hypothetical substance, for carbon 
has never been obtained in the insulated form of vapor. When the 
term is used in chemical language, it denotes the condition of carbon at 
it exists in carbonic add. 

2. Carbonic Acid. A gaseous compound of carbon and oxvgen, in 
the proportion of 6 parts by weight of carbon and 16 of oxygen. It exists 
in the atmosphere in the proportion of about four volumes to 1 0,000 
volumes of air. It is also the product of combustion, respiration, and 
fermentation. It was termed by Black fixed air, from its having been 
found to exist, in a fixed state, in limestone and the mild alkalies, from 
which it was expelled by heat and by the action of acids. 

3. Carbonates and Bicarbonates. Compounds of carbonic acid with 
alkalies, constituting two classes of well-defined salts. 

4. Carbtmizatvm. The blackening of a substance by the separation 
of the carbon it contains— a laboratory test of the existence of organic 
matter in a substance. ' 

5. Carburets or Carbides. Combinations of carbon with some metals 
by fusion ; thus steel i9 a carburet of iron. The term has also 
been applied to a peculiar compound of sulphur and hydrogen, the 
carburet of sulphur, also termed sulphurct of carbon and alcohol of 

o. Curburetted Hydrofien. A colourless, inflammable gas, abun- 
dantly formed in nature in stagnant pools, wherever vegetables are un- 
dergoing the process of putrefaction ; it also forms the greater part of 
the gas obtained from coal. This gas was formerly called heavy in- 
JUimmaJJe air. See Olefiant Gas. 

CARBON-flS'MIA (carbon, and alua, blood). A hybrid term sug- 
gested by Dr. Cleveland as less objectionable than the terms asphyxia 
and apnaa, for expressing the circulation of non-arterialized or car- 
bonized blood in the arteries, and its ultimate stagnation in the pul- 
monary capillaries, retulting in suffocation. 

CAftBU'NCULUS (dim. of carbo, a piece of burning or charred 
coal). Anthrax. A carbuncle; a " multiple furuncle ;" severe inflam- 
mation of a portion of skin and subjacent tissue, with infiltration of 
unhealthy lymph and sloughing. 

CARBURA'TION. The process of conferring luminosity upon a 
combustible non -luminous gas. or inflammability, coupled with lu- 
minosity, upon a non-combustible and negative gas, by means of the 
vapours of hydrocarbons, which, when ignited, burn with exceedingly 
luminous flames. 

CA'RCERULUS (dim. of career, a prison). A dry, compound 
fruit, breaking up longitudinally into indehisccnt cocci, as iu ttQY*»Vx»&* 
borago, &c. Bee Schxxocarp, 

102 CAR 

[CARCINO'MA] (KapKivvpa i.g.Kapmvo*, cancer, a crabV The 
Greek term for a malignant ulcer supposed to resemble a crab, but now 
applied to many changes of structure, differing widely in their physical 
characters. It comprises the species skirrhoma and kepltaloma. See 

CARDAMO'MUM. Cardamoms. The dried capsules of the Malabar 
Cardamom, EUUaria Cardamomum. When required for use, the peri - 
earpial coats should be rejected. 

[CA'RDIA] Uapiia, the heartV The orifice leading into the 
stomach, so called from being near the heart. 

1. Kardi-algia (£\yov, pain). Ardor ventriculi. Literally, heart- 
ache ; but employed to denote pain of the stomach, and hence synony- 
mous with gastralgia, gastrodynia, cardiaca passio, &c. See Stomacli- 

2. Karditis, or My o- karditis. Inflammation of the fleshy substance 
of the card i a or heart. 

3. Kardiogmus. A term used to denote a species of aneurysm, called 
by some aneurysma pracordiorum, and by others polypus cordis. Hip- 
pocrates used the term as synonymous with kardialgia. 

[CA'RDIAC] (Kap&La, the heart). Relating to the heart. The 
terms cardiac (kardiac) and distal are applied to the situations in 
which the ligature is employed in operations for aneurysm — the former 
denoting the situation above, the latter below, the aneury smal sac. See 

CA'RIES. This term denotes rottenness or decay. By some sur- 
geons it is applied to ulceration of bone ; by others, to a species of dis- 
integration of osseous tissue ; by a third clans, to the various changes 
consequent on the chronic suppuration of the cancellous structure; and, 
lastly, to a disease of bone characterized by increased vascularity, soften- 
ing and ultimate disintegration of the osseous tissue. 

CARI'NA. Literally, a keel. A term applied to the two lower 
petals of a papilionaceous corolla, which cohere by their lower margins 
in the form of a keel. 

CARMI'NATIVE (carmen, a song or charm). A remedy for dis- 
pelling flatulence or allaving internal pain — as by a charm. 

CARNEJE COLUMNS (cameus, fleshy). Fleshy columns ; the 
muscular fasciculi within the cavities of the heart. 

CARNI FICA'Tl ON (caro, camw, flesh, fieri, to become). A term 
improperly used to designate common hepatization, but applied by 
Laennec to that state of the lungs, in pleurisy, complicated with slight 
pneumonia, in which the lungs nave lost the granulated surface charac- 
teristic of hepatization, and are converted into a substance resembling, 
both in appearance and consistence, muscular ficsh which has been 
beaten to make it tender. 

CA'RO, CA'RNIS. Flesh ; tho fibrous substance composing muscle. 
Carnine is a base found in u Extractum carnis." 

[CARO'TIC] (tapaoTiKOf, stupefying, soporific, from «apou>, to 
induce sleep). A term indicative of a state oj stupor, and closely con- 
nected with the term ex trot id. 

[CAROTID] (tcapotr'tits, the carotids, from Kapow, to induce 
sleep). The name of two large arteries of the neck ; so called from an 
idea that the compression of them, or, contrariwise, an increased flow of 
Wood through tnem, would induce coma. They subdivide into the 

CAR 103 

external carotid, or artery of the head, and the internal carotid, or prin- 
cipal arterr of the brain. 

[CARPEXLUM] («afnroV fruit). A technical term applied, in 
botany, to a leaf in a particular state of modification, constituting the 
pistiL The blade of the leaf forma the ovary ; the elongated midrib, 
the style; aod the apex of the midrib, the stigma. The edge of 
the carpel which corresponds to the midrib of die leaf, constitutes 
the dorsal suture ; that of the united margins, the ventral. See 

[CARPHOLO'GIA] (*a><f>o*, the nap of clothes, \iym, to pluck). 
Floccitatio. A picking of the bed-clothes, supposed to be an indication 
of approaching dissolution. The term denotes a seeking for little ob- 
jects, and is applied to a symptom of intoxication from belladonna, in 
which the affected person imagines he sees insects all around him, 
small birds continually flyiug before him, and madly excites himself in 
their pursuit. 

[CARPOTOGY] (*apn-6<, fruit, Xoyo*, description). That branch 
of botany which treats of the structure ot fruits. See Fruit. 

[CA'RPOPHORE] (*apiroc, fruit, <*>«>«, to bear). A fruit-bearer ; 
a term applied to the central, Aliform, and generally bipartite column 
or ojtis from which the pericarps, or carpels, are suspended in certain 
plants, as the Umbelliferae. 

[CA'RPUS] (*ap-ros). The wrist ; consisting of the ossa carpi, 
or carpal bones ; they are eight in number, and form two rows. 

CA'RRAGEEX-MOSS. The Chondrus crispus, an algaceous plant, 
extensively used in Ireland as an article of food, and now sold in Lon- 
don as a substitute for Iceland moss. 

Carrageenin. The mucilaginous matter, called by some writers 
vegetable jelly, by others pectin, yielded by the Chondrus crispus, or 
Irish moss. 

CARRA'RA WATER. Carbonated Lime-water. A patent beve- 
rage, consisting of an aerated solution of bicarbonate of lime. The title 
of" Carrara " has been applied on account of the Carrara marble being 
the source whence the purest lime is obtained, and of its being employed 
in the manufacture of this water. 

CA'RROX OIL. Linimentum Calcis. Liniment of lime ; prepared 
from equal parts of linseed oil and lime-water. 

CARTHU'SIAX POWDER. P>udre des Chartreux. Pulvis 
Carthusianorum. A designation of the Kermes mineral, or amorphous 
tersulphurct of antimony, from its successful employment by a Carthu- 
sian friar, named Simon. • 

CARTILAGE {cartilage). Gristle: a transparent basis-sub- 
stance, containing minute cells. It is attached to bones, ami 
must be distinguished from the ligaments of joints and tendons of 

CARTILAGI'NIFICATION (carrt/o0o, cartilage, fieri, to become). 
The stage of osteo-genesis in which cartilage is developed. 

CARU'NCULA (dim. of caro, flesh). A little piece of flesh. 
Hence — 

1. Caruncula lacrymalis [laeryma. a tear). The small, red, glandular 
body situated in the inner angle of the eye ; a sort of rudiment of the 
third eyelid, which is to be found in many animals. % 

2. Caruncula mammillaris. A papilla of gray matter em\>eOAsa \a 

104 C A R-C A S 

the anterior lobe of the brain, giving origin to the middle root of the 
olfactory nerve. 

3. Caruncula sublingualis. A papilla situated beside the fhenuni 
linguae, at the apex of which is the termination of Wharton's duct. 

4. Caruncula myrtiformcs [myrtus, a myrtle, forma, likeness). The 
myrtle-like granulations observed around the orifice of the vagina, 
occasioned by rupture of the hymen. 

5. The term caruncula was formerly applied to tumors within the 
urethra, consisting of vascular excrescences or of small polypi. 

[CA'RUSl (teapot, heavy sleep). Profound sleep, or lethargy. Thii 
affection is distinguished from coma by the absence of the return of 
distinct consciousness, though some indication of feeling still remains, 
on the application of stimulants. In coma, neither sensation nor 
feeling can be excited. 

[CARYOPHY'LLUM] (Kapvov, a nut, <pv\\o», a leaf). Clove; 
the dried, unexpanded flower-bud of Caryoplit/llus aromaticus, or Clove- 
tree, a Myrtaceous plant cultivated in Penang, Bencoolen, and 
Amboyna. The corolla forms a ball between the four teeth of the 
calyx, and this, with the lengthened tube of the calyx, resembles a 
nail, or clou of the French ; hence the English term clove. 

[CARYO'PSIS] (ko/.uop, a nut, SuVis, likeness). A one-celled, 
dry, superior, indehiscent fruit, in which the pericarp adheres to the 
seed, as in Graminacea. See Achanium. 

CASEATION (caseus, cheese). One of the retrogressive changes 
which occur in tubercle, characterized by cheese-like consistence, and 
followed by cretification and softening. 

CA'SEIN (caseus, cheese). Caseum. An organic substance occurring 
in milk in the soluble form, resembling albumen, and forming the prin- 
cipal constituent of cheese. Casein occui-s also in certain leguminous 
seeds, and is hence sometimes called legumin. See Albuminoid Group 

CASSA'VA. A fecula, separated from the juice of the root of 
Janmha Manihot, and exposed to heat ; a principal article of diet in 
South America. The same substance, differently prepared and gra- 
nulated, constitutes tapioca. 

C ASSE'RI AN GANGLION. A large semi-lunar ganglion, formed 
by the fifth nerve, and immediately dividing into the ophthalmic, 
superior maxillary, and inferior maxillary nerves. It was named from 
Julius Casserius of Padua. 

CA'STOR OIL. A viscid, yellowish oil extracted from the seeds of 
Ricinus Communis. The term is said to be a corruption of " castus oil/* 
the plant producing it having formerly been called ""Agnus castus," from 
its supposed efficacy in assuaging the natural heat of the body, and 
soothing the passions. 

[CASTO'REUM] (Kaaropiov, castor, from Kaa-rwp, the beaver). 
Castor; the dried preputial follicles and their secretions, obtained from 
the Castor Fiber, or Denver, separated from the shorter and smaller oil- 
sacs which are frequently attached to them. From the Hudson's Bay 

Castorin. Castoreum Camphor; a crystalline, fatty substance, found 
in castoreum. By boiling with nitric acid, it is converted into castoric 
acid. It appears to be allied to chofesterin. 

CASTRATION (castrare, to cut, to emasculate). Emasculation. 
The operation of removing the testes. 

C A S— C A U 105 

CASTS, RENAL (renes, the kidneys). Morbid products appearing 
in the form of cylindrical casts of the minute tubes of the kidneys, 
formed in various stages of Albuminuria, or granular disease of the 
kidney, commonly called " Bright' s Disease. 1 * The casts are thus 
classified by Dr. Bennett: — 

1. Exudative casts, consisting of the coagulated exudation or fibrin 
which is poured into the tubes during the inflammatory stage. 

2. Desquamative casts, consisting of masses of the epithelium lining 
the tubes, and occurring in all stages of the disease. 

3. Fatty casts, consisting of patches of epithelium as in the last 
variety, but which havo undergone a fatty transformation by the 
accumulation of a greater or smaller number of fatty granules in its cells. 

4. Wary casts, presenting an extremely diaphanous and structure- 
less substance. They are frequently associated with the last two 

The Casts have been named, according to their composition, by Dr. 
George Johnson, epithelial casts, large and 6tnall waxy casts, granular 
casts, oily casts, bloody casts, and purulent casts. 

CAT'S PURR. Fremissement cataire. A characteristic sound of 
the heart, heard by means of the stethoscope. See Auscultation. 

[CATA-, CATH-1 KATA-, KATH- (Kara, *ao"). A Greek pre- 
position, signifying down, against, into, &c. ; in composition it has nn 
intensive signification, and denotes thoroughly. As about twenty words 
employed in medicine and the allied sciences are compounded of this 
preposition, they have accordingly been transferred to their appropriate 
place under the letter K. The reader is referred, for explanation, to 
the Preface of the present edition, par. 1. 

C ATE'CHU. A dry, brown, astringent extract obtained from Acacia 
catechu ; also called Terra Japonica, Cutch, Gambir, &c. 

CATKIN (dim. of cat). The trivial name of an inflorescence 
resembling a cat's tail, as of the willow, birch, poplar, &c. See 

CATLING. A sharp-pointed, double-edged knife, chiefly used in 
amputation of limbs, for dividing the interosseous ligaments. 

CAUDA EQUI'NA. Hippuris, or horse's tail ; the final division 
of the spinal marrow, so called from the disposition of the roots of the 
lumbar and sacral nerves elongated by the growth of the spine. 

CAU'DEX. The trunk of a tree. In botanical language, the stem, 
or ascending axis of growth, is termed caudex ascendens ; the* root, or 
descending axis, caudex descendens. The term is applied to trees 
only. Catdis is the term for the stalk or stem of a herb. 

CAUL. A part of the amnion or membrane enveloping the foetus 
which sometimes is found around the child's head at its birth. The 
term is probably derived from cowl. 

C AULIFLO W ER EXCRESCENCE. A cancerous disease of the 
os uteri, resembling in appearance the head of the cauliflower, and sup- 
posed by Gooch to be enkephalosis. See Epithelioma. 

CAUSA'LITY. A term in phrenology, indicative of the reflective 
faculty which traces the relation of cause and effect, and investigates tho 
processes of induction. Its organ is seated at the upper part of the 
forehead, on each side of Comparison, and their coincident development 
gives the peculiar fulness of the front of the head, which we associate 
with a powerful reasoning intellect 

106 CAU— CAV 

[CAUSIS, CAUMA] (*<*/», to burn). The former term denotes 
the act of burning ; the latter, a burn. The former is synonymous with 
cautery; the latter expresses a hole burnt by cautery. Cauma also 
denotes burning heat, as of the body in fever. See Inusiio, Inustwn. 

[CAUSTIC] (*auo-Ti»c<K, capable of burning, from *coto>, kuvktw, to 
burn). A substance which destroys parts by chemically decomposing 
tbem. as the concentrated mineral acids, nitrate of silver or lunar 
caustic, hydrate of sodium or caustic soda, hydrate of potassium or 
caustic potash. Causticum aoerrimum is the old name for the last and 
strongest of these caustics. 

1. Caustics, coagulating and fluidifying. By the term " coagulating** 
caustics, Miahle denotes those which, by combining with the tissues of 
the body, form insoluble compounds, as the mineral acids, the nitrates 
of silver and mercury, &c. ; by "fluidifying" caustics, Miahle denotes 
those which are equivalent to the liquefacients of Pereirn, as the solu- 
tions of potash, of soda, of ammonia, &c. 

2. Caustic Arrows. Small arrows composed of one part of chloride 
of zinc with one or two parts of flour, for insertion into tumors. 

3. Causticity. The quality or property which characterizes caustic 
bodies, as pungency, corrosiveness, &c. 

[CAUSUS] (gain), *du<ru>, to burn). A variety of malignant remit- 
tent, thus denominated by Hippocrates from its extreme heat (the epi- 
demic fever of the Levant). It has been termed by Inter writers febris 
or dens i ardent or burning remittent. Causus endemiul is a name given 
to Yellow Fever. 

CAUTERIZATION, OBJECTIVE. The employment, by the 
French, of radiant heat from a red-hot iron or burning coal as a cau- 
tery to check haemorrhages, and to promote the reduction of prolapsus 
of the rectum and uterus, and of hernia. 

CA'UTERY (*a/<tf, Kauaco, to burn). The application of caustics. 
By the term actual cautery is meant the application of the white-hot 
iron ; potential or virtual cautery denotes the application of the usual 
caustic substances ; galvanic cautery consists in the application of a 
platinum wire, introduced cold, and heated to redness by the galvanic 

CAUTIOUSNESS. A term in phrenology indicative, in man and 
the lower animals, of fear and circumspection. It leads a man to 
"doubt, say but, and continually exclaim take care." Its organ is 
situated on the upper lateral and posterior part of the head, between 
Destructivcness and Self-esteem. 

CA'VA VE'NA. The name given to two veins — the superior, formed 
by the junction of the two venae innominate; and the inferior, formed 
by the union of the two common iliac veins. 

CA'VERNOUS {caverna, from cavus, hollow). The name of a 
ganglion in the head, of two sinuses of the sphenoid bone, &c. The 
term is also applied to the respiration, when attended by a loud tubal 
noise, arising from a cavity of the lungs. See Change of 'Pilch. 

CAVITA'RIA (cavitas, a cavity). By the terms "cavitaircs" and 
" parenchymateux," Cuvier divided the Entozoa, or worms which arc 
produced within living beings, into two classes, the former being cha- 
racterized by the presence, the latter by the absence, of an abdominal 
cavity and distinct intestinal canal. Instead of the French terms, 
Professor Owen has introduced the Greek compounds Sterelmintlta, 

C A V— C E L 


or solid worm*, and Ccdelmintha, or hollow worms, the former corre- 
sponding with the " parenchymateux," the latter with the " cavitaircs," 
of Cuvier. See Entozoa, 

CAVITIES OF BONES. The following table presents the various 
kinds of cavities found on the surface of bones : — 

v r Cotyloid, when they are hemispherical. 

I Glenoid, when broad and shallow. 
/ Articular, are called < Trochlea, when grooved like pulleys. 
' I Facet, when they are nearly plain. 

I Alveoli, when they are conical. 
Of Recep- ( Fossa, when the entrance is wider than 
' lion, these < the bottom. 

are ( Sinuses, when it is narrower. 

Of Inser- t Impressions, when they are wide, irregu- 
tion, these -< lar, and shallow, 
are {Fissures, when extended in length. 






j Non- 
\xtc called 

Of Trans- 

Grooves for Hie passage of tendons. 

sion which >• ^ rooves -» gutters, or channels, when they 
are called 1 corre spond to arteries or veins. 

-Notches, when superficial, and formed in 
the edges of bones. 
Foramina, or holes, when they pass 
entirely through a thin bone. 

1 Canals, or aqueducts, when their passage 
is of great extent, or when formed by 
the superposition of several holes. 
Clefts, or scissures, if they are longitudinal 
and very narrow. 
Of Nutri- /The medulla of the long hones. 
tion; they J The spongy tissue of the short bones, and 
transmit j of the extremities of the long bones. 
, vessels for I The compact tissue. — Knox* Cloquet. 

CAYENNE PEPPER GRAINS. A designation of the crystalline 
grains found in deposits of uric acid in the urine. 

CEB A DI'LLA. The seeds of the Asagraa officinalis, a plant of the 
order Melunthacece. The seeds are also called sabadilla and cevadilia; 
but more properly cebadilla (from the Spanish cebada, barley), on account 
of the supposed resemblance of the inflorescence of the plant to that of 
hordeum. They yield veratria. 

[-CELE] (jcqAff, a tumor). A termination denoting generally a 
tumor, but particulaily that of hernia, as in bubono-ce/e, inguinal hernia ; 
omphalo-oe/e, hernia of the bowels at the umbilicus, &c. 

[CELL-MULTIPLICATION. Cytogenesis. The power possessed 
by cells, in many cases, of producing other cells. 

1. Endogenous Cell-multivlication. In this process new cells are 
produced within a parent-cell by the separation of the cell-contents into 
a greater or less number of distinct masses, each of which may become 
ultimately enclosed in a proper cell -wall, as in the fecundated ovum. 

2. Gemmiparous CeU-multiplicatum. In this process new ce\\s ture 

.08 C E L— C E N 

formed by little buds or outward processes, which are thrown out by a 
parent-cell, as in the yeast-plant. 

3. Fissiparous Cell-multiplication. In this process a parent-cell 
divides by cleavage or fission into two or more pnrta, earn of which 
becomes a perfect or independent cell. This is perhaps only a modifi- 
cation of the endogenous process. 

CELL-THEORY (ceUuta, a little cell). A theory by which all the 
vegetable and animal tissues arc derived from the union and metamor- 
phosis of primitive embryonic cells. Some of the lowest forms of life 
present a single cell, as the germinal vesicle of the egg and the red- 
snow plant. 

CE'LLULA (dim. of cella). A little cell or cavity, as those of the 
hyaloid membrane, those composing the cellular tissue of plants, &c. 

CELLULAR MEMBRANE, or TISSUE (cellula, a little cell). 
The filmy meshes which connect the minute component parts of most 
of the structures of the body. The term is synonymous with connective, 
reticular, and ar&tlar tissue. 

CELLULA'RES (cellufa, a little cell). Cellular plants; those 
which have no flowers or spiral vessels ; they are also called Cryptoga- 
mous and Acotvledonous plants. Compare Vascularrs. 

CELLULITIS VKNENA'TA (cellula, a little cell). Diffuse cellu- 
lar inflammation. Dissection-wound ; inflammation of the cellular 
tissue, produced by the absorption of a poison contained in certain cases 
of dead bodies, or by bites of venomous reptiles. Cellulitis is a bar- 
barous term. 

CE'LLULOID. The designation of an explosive substance described 
as a mixture of gun-cotton and camphor. 

CE'LLULOSE (ce/fo/a, a little cell). Tell ceUulosa. 1. A term 
applied to the cellular or vesicular mntter found in the nervous centres. 
It consists essentially of vesicles or cells, containing nuclei and nucleoli. 
2. The term is also applied to the material which forms the walls or 
sides of the vegetable cells. 

CEMENTATION. A process by which the properties of a body 
arc changed, on being surrounded with the powder of other bodies, and 
exposed to a high temperature, as in the conversion of iron into steel, 
by cementation with charcoal. 

CEME'NTUM (camentum, a rough stone, as it comes from the 
quarry). Substantia ostoidea. Crusta petrosa. The bony substance 
which forms a thin coating over the root of the tooth, from the termi- 
nation of the enamel to the opening in the apex of the fang. It is also 
called tooth-lxme, from its similarity in structure to true bone. 

[CENO'SIS] (Ke'voxric, an emptying). Kenosis. Evacuation ; ina- 
nition, as opposed to repletion. 

CENTRI FUGAL {centrum, the centre, fwtere, to avoid). Leaving 
the centre ; a term applied to that kind of inflorewence, in which the 
central flowers of the axis open first. This is also called definite inflo- 
rescence, because the axis is terminated by a flower, and does not elongate. 
See Centripetal. 

CENTRl'PETAL {centrum, the centre, petere, to seek). Approach- 
ing the centre ; a term applied to that kind of inflorescence, in which 
the marginal flowers of the axis open first. This is also called indefi- 
nite inflorescence, because the axis goes on elongating after the first flower 
opens. See Centrifugal. 

C E N— C B R 109 

CE'NTRUM. A centre ; the common centre of the two arches of 
a vertebra, commonly called the " body " of the vertebra. It is the 
homologae of the " basi-oocipital bone/ or the " basilar process of the 
occipital bone.** See Vertebra. 

1. Centrum ovale mama. The appearance of a large centre of white 
substance, surrounded by a thin stratum of gray, presented when both 
hemispheres of the brain are cut down nearly to a level with the corpus 

2. Centrum ovale minus. The appearance of a centre of white sub- 
stance, surrounded by a narrow border of gray, observed on removing 
the upper part of one hemisphere of the brain. 

3. Centrum tendinosum. The tendinous centre of the diaphragm. 

(CEPHALE'J KEPHALE (#c««/>aAtj, the head). Terms com- 
pounded with this word will be found in their proper place under the 
letter K. See Preface, par. 1. 

CERA. Wax; a resinous substance, secreted from the ventral 
scales of the Apis mcllijica, or Honey-bee; also a product of vegetables, 
as of the Mwrica cerifera, the Wax -myrtle, or Bay berry. 

[CERAS-,CERATO-]KERAS-, K ERATO-. Terms compounded 
with this word will be found in their appropriate place under the letter 
K. See Preface ; oar. 1. 

CERATUM (ceratum = Knpwrov, a wax-plaster). A cerate, or 
composition of lard and white wax, of a consistence intermediate 
between that of plaster and that of ointment. 

[CERCHNUS] (kcpyvoc, roughness of surface, especially of the 
throat). Hoarseness ; wheezing ; a dense snd impeded sound, produced 
below the larynx ; a symptom common to asthma and dyspnoea. 

CEREBE'LLUM (dim. of cerebrum). The little brain ; the postcro- 
interior part of the enkephalon, situated behind the larger brain, or cere- 
brum. It presides over the co-ordination of the voluntary movements. 
See Cerebrum. 

CEREBRAL SURPRISE. The name given by Trousseau to the 
stupor which follows convulsions in children, due, possibly, to the want 
of properly aerated blood. 

CEREBRA'LGIA (cerebrum, the brain; a\yov, painV An un- 
classiral term, by which some modern French writers designate neural- 
gia of the brain. See Myelaltfia. 

CEREBRATION, UNCONSCIOUS {cerebrum, the brain). A 
term applied by Dr. Carpenter to the mental phenomena otherwise 
referred to " latent thought/* and " preconscious activity of the soul/* 
and comprising the o[k* rati one of Memory, Fancy, and Understanding, 
as faculties exercised by the Unconscious Brain. 

CEREBR1C ACID {cerebrum, the brain). One of the peculiar 
acids found in the fatty matter of the brain ; it was formerly called 
cerebrm. The other acid is termed the oleopkftsphoric. 

CEREBRI'TIS (cerebrum, the brain). Enkephalins ; inflammatio 
cerebri. Inflammation of the brain. ** Inflammation of the brain-sub- 
stance, with or without implication of the membranes, usually partial, 
and in many cases dependent on local injury, or foreign deposit." — 
Norn, of Die. 

CEREBRO-SPINAL FEVER. Febris (xrtbro- spinalis. "A 
malignant epidemic fever attended by painful contraction of the mus- 
cles of the neck, and retraction of the bead."— AW. ofDit. It it *\%o 

110 CER— CET 

termed malignant purpuric fever, and epidemic cerebro-spinal menin- 

81 CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID. Sub-arachnoidean fluid. A limpid, 
serous secretion, filling the spaces between the arachnoid membrane 
and the brain, regulating the pressure upon the cerebro-spinal mass. 

CEREBRO-SPINAL SYSTEM. That portion of the nervous 
apparatus which consists of the cerebrospinal axis (composed of the 
brain and spinal cord), and the cerebral and spinal nerves^ which are 
connected with the axis. See Sympathetic St/stem. ' 

• CEREBROSPINAL! A. Ccrebro-spinals ; a class of neurotic 
agents which exercise a special influence over one or more of the func- 
tions of the brain and spinal cord and their respective nerves. Those 
affecting the mental faculties are called phrenica ; those affecting sensa- 
tion, asthetica ; those affecting the voluntary or reflex-spinal motions, 
kinetica ; those affecting sleep, hypnica. 

CE'REBRUM. This term denotes the ve«scl which holds the 
brains, i. e. the skull ; hence the " brains." The term is, however, 
restricted to the chief portion of the brain, occupying the whole upper 
cavity of the skull. It is the seat of the reasoning faculties and the 
will. See Cerdtcllum. 

CEREYTSIA or CERVl'SIA. Zvthum. A Gallic word, denoting 
malt-liquor ; beer and ale : a fermented decoction of malt and hops. 
Theophrastus termed it wine of barley. 

Cerfvisia ferment urn. Beer-yeast ; the ferment obtained in brewing 
beer, from the albuminous principles contained in the malt. It consists of 
vesicles, capable of generating other vesicles, and is regarded by Turpin 
as a new plant, which he called torula cerevisia. Thus, fermentation 
is an effect of vitality. 

CE'RIUM. A rare metal found associated in nature with the metals 
lanthanum and didymium, and first discovered in the mineral ceritc. 

[CERO'MA] {Kripwfia, anything made of wax; a kind of ulcer). 
The name given by Dr. Craigie to adipose tumor of the brain, from 
its waxy appearance. By Andral it is termed fatty production ; by 
Hebreart, lardaceous degeneration, 

CERU'AJ EN (rem, wax). A urium sordes. The yellow, waxy secre- 
tion of the ear, furnished by the ceruminous glands. 

C E R U 'SSA. Ceruse, or carbonate of lead ; the white -lead of painters, 
used by them to give the property called body. Cerussa acciata is 
sugar of lead, or saccharum Saturni ; the super-acetate of lead. Cerussa 
cilrina is massicot, or the yellow oxide of lead. 

CERVIX. 1. The neck ; the hinder part of the neck ; the forepart 
is called collum. The plural form cervices is elegantly used for cervix. 
Cicero has 4t abscindcre ccrvicibus caput," to cut off the head from the 
shoulders. 2. The term cervix is also applied to the neck of the bladdei 
and of the uterus. 

[CESTOl'DEA] (iftffTos, ccstus, a band, *73os, form). The name 
of the second order in Zeder's system of the Entozoa, or Intestinal 
Worms, comprising the Tape- worms. See Entozoa. 

CETA'CEUM. Spermaceti. Nearly pure cctin, obtained, mixed 
with oil, from the head of the Physeter macrocephalus y or Sperm Whale, 
inhabiting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is separated from the oil 
by filtration and pressure, and afterwards purified. 

CETRA'RIA ISLA'NDICA. Lichen Islandicus. Iceland Liver- 

CET-CHA 111 

wort, or Mom ; a lichen procured mostly from Norway and Iceland. 
The term is said to be derived from the Latin cetra, a short Spanish 
shield, in reference to its flat form and coriaceous quality. 

CETYL («9to«, a whale, 0\»i, the material of anything). The 
supposed radical of a series of compounds derived from spermaceti. See 

CEYLON MOSS. The Fucus amylaceus, an Algaceous plant, 
sometimes used as a substitute for farinaceous foods. 

CHABERTS OIL. An oil prepared by mixing three parts of oil 
of turpentine with one of DippcFs oil, and distilling three parts. 

CHA'LASIS (xaAaffit, a letting loose). The name given by 
Sauvages to the porcine species of scrofula ; the equine species he de- 
nominated scrofula farctmen. Aristotle uses the term chalaza for a 
pimple or tubercle, especially in the case of swine. 

CHALA'ZA (xoXa^a, hail, sleet). A small brown spot, observed 
at the apex of some seeds, as of the Orange, formed by the union of 
certain vessels proceeding from the hilum. It marks the place of 
attachment of the raphe, 

CHALA'ZION (xaXagioir, dim. of x^ a l a ^ hail, sleet). Grando. 
A small, hard, transparent, sebacious, encysted tumor of the eyelid, 
resembling a hailstone. It is called, in Latin, grando ; and, from its 
being supposed to be the indurated remains of a stye, it has been termed 
hordeolum induratum. 

CHALK-STONES. Gouty concretions, resembling half-dried 
mortar, found under the skin, about the joints chiefly of the fingers and 
toes, and consisting of urate of soda. 

CHALY 'BE AtE WATERS. Ferruginous voters. Mineral waters, 
whose active principle is iron. There are two kinds : the carbonated, 
containing carbonate of the protoxide of iron, and the sulphated, con- 
taining sulphate of iron. Some of the latter contain sulphate of alumina, 
and are called aluminous sulphated chalybeate*. When a large propor- 
tion of free carbonic acid is present, the spring is called acidulo- 

CHA'LYBS (Chalybes, a people who dug iron out of the earth). A 
kind of hard iron, or steel. Hence the term chalybeate is applied to 
waters which are impregnated with iron or steel. 

ChaJybis rubitjo. Rust of iron ; the prepared subcarbonato of iron. 

CHAMBERS OF THE EYE. These are the anterior, or the 
•pace intervening between the cornea in front and the iris and pupil 
behind, and the posteriory bounded by the posterior surface of the iris 
and pupil in front, and by the ciliary processes, zonula ciliaris, and 
lens oenind. The chambers are occupied by the aqueous humor. 

CHAME'LEON MINERAL. A combination of black oxide of 
manganese aw* potash, which gives a green colour to water, passes 
gradually througn all the shades of the prism, and at last becomes 

CHANCRE (chancre, Fr., a sort of ulcer). Bv this term is now 
denoted true syphilis, Hunterian chancre ; hard, indurated, or infecting 
sore. See Syphilis. 

CHANCROID ULCER. Soft chancre. A highly contagious, 
suppurating ulcer, arising from direct inoculation by the venereal 

Sison. It is also termed local syphilis, or non-infecting sort. Sec 

112 C HA— CHE 

CHANGE OP PITCH. A percussion-sign of cliange of pitch of 
the tympanitic note yielded by a circumscribed spot of the thorax with 
change of posture of the patient. 

1. WintricJts change ofpitcli is occasionally observed over pulmonary 
cavities, according as the mouth, or the mouth and nostrils, are open or 

2. Biermers change of pitch depends upon the alteration in the length 
of the longer diameter or a cavity (with fluid and gaseous contents), by 
alteration of the posture of the patient. 

3. Gerhard? s change of pitch differs from Biermer's only in respect of 
the circumscribed area over which it is elicited. 

CHAPS. The popular name for the clefts of the skin, occasioned 
by Erythema, as they occur on the hand or the nipple ; also in alphos 
and psoriasis. [To chap is, to open longitudinally, and is applied 
particularly wheu cold breaks the continuity of the skin, and pro- 
duces gaps or openings in it. The mouth opens, and is called the 

(JHARBON. A French term for a coal ; then, for a blast or mildew 
in corn ; and thirdly, for " malignant pustule." 

CHARCOAL. The residue of animal, vegetable, and many mineral 
substances, when heated to redness in close vessels. There are several 
varieties of charcoal, termed gas-carbon, lamp-black, &c. 

CHARCOAL AIR-FILTER. A filter for deodorizing putrid 
substances, by absorbing and decomposing offensive gases. Dr. Sten- 
house invented charcoal-respirators. Sec Fireman s Respirator. 

CHARPIE (carpere, to scrape). The French term for scraped linen, 
or lint. 

CHARTA EPISPA'STICA (x«pT'l iiri<nra<rTi#cii, paper calculated 
to draw out tumors). Blistering paper ; made of white wax, spermaceti, 
olive-oil, resin, Canada balsam, can thar idea in powder, and distilled 
water.— fir. Ph., 1867. 

CHEESY TUBERCLE. The name given to the yellow decayed 
lymph occasionally found in abscess of bone. 

CHEl'LOPLASTY (x"*°«, the lip, <r\a<rau>, to form). The 
operation for artificial lip ; the surgical operation of repairing an injury 
of this organ by appropriating to that purpose a portion of the surround- 
ing healthy substance. See Plastic Surgery. 

CIIEI'RAGRA (x"Pi the hand, ay pa, seizure). A local variety of 
regular gout attacking the hand. See Gout. 

CIIELOID TUMOR (x»|Xi), a crab's claw, fWos, likeness). 
Cheloma ; cancriform tumor. A tumor consisting of hypertrophy of 
the tissue of the true skin, intermixed with fibro-plastic matter, and 
named from its presenting a flatfish, raised patch of integument, re- 
sembling the bifid claws of the crab. See Kelis. 

CHEMIA'TRIC SCHOOL (x'iM"«, chemistry, ioo/uai, to heal). 
A school in medicine which ascribed all changes in the body to fermen- 
tation, and deduced a treatment accordingly — neutralization by acids 
and alkalies. 

CHE'MISTRY. A term of Arabic origin, signifying the know- 
ledge of the composition of bodies, and of the changes of constitution 
produced by their mutual action on one another. Inorganic chemistry 
w concerned with inorganic or mineral substances ; organic, with com- 
pounds obtained from organized beings, animal or vegetable. The 


artificial production of urea, acetic acid, and methyl, hat, however, 
rendered the term organic not strictly applicable. See Alchemy. 

1. Practical or applied chemistry treats of the processes by which the 
products of chemistry are applied to economical purposes, to their uses 
m the arts, &c., and of the conditions essential to such applications. 

2. Pure chemistry treats of the elementary constitution of bodies, of 
the laws of composition and decomposition, of mutual reaction and 
relation. Sec. 

CHEMO'SIS (xnM»<Ttc, inflammation of the eyes). (Edema sub 
conjunctiva. Effusion of serum into the areolar tissue between the 
conjunctiva and the sclerotica. 

CHEST. Thorax. An old English term, commonly traced to the 
latin cista and Greek */<ttii, which are of the same import. "When 
it is considered that the same word was anciently used for a basket, the 
appropriation of it to the human thorax will appear quite natural to 
any one who has ever seen a skeleton.'* — Forbes. 

CHEST-MEASURER (Dr. Sibeon's). An instrument, somewhat 
resembling the stethometer, for ascertaining the expansion of the chest, 
and for accurately measuring the movements of the respiration to the 
hundredth part of an inch. 

CHEVA'STER or CHEVE'STRE (ca pi strum, a halter). A 
double roller, applied to the head in cases of fracture or luxation of the 
lower jaw. 

CHIA'SMA (xiatrun, the mark or figure of Xi which was affixed to 
a word or passage to denote that it was spurious). The optic commis- 
sure ; the point ot decussation of the optic nerves. 

CHIA'STRE (xtaerroi, crossed). A bandage for stopping hae- 
morrhage from the temporal artery, and named from its being shaped 
like a cross, or the Greek letter X, chi. 

CHICKEN-POX. The popular name of Varicella, derived from 
doer (chick-pease), through the French chiche. Hence it denotes a 
small pulse, less than a pea. See Varicella. 

CHl'CORY. The dried, washed, and ground root of the Cicorium 
intyhus, an indigenous composite plant, commonly called tcild succory, 
and constituting an adulterating ingredient of coffee. 

CHIGGRE, or CHIGOE. Pulex or sarcopsylla penetrans. A 
•mall sand-flea of the West Indies, which insinuates itself into the soft 
and tender parts of the fingers and toes. 

CHILBLAIN. Pernio. A blain caused by the chill of a limited 
portion of the surface of the skin. In its early stage it is merely 
erythematous ; when broken, it is vesicated ; in the state of frost-bite, it 
is ganqrenous. 

CHILD-BED FEVER. Puerperal fever, originating in the peri- 
toneum, and often called peritoneal fever. 

CHIMNEY-SWEEPERS' CANCER. Carcinoma epitheliosum ; 
carcinoma caminos purgantium. A popular name of the Cancer Scroti, 
or Munditorum, or soot-wart ; a form of epithelial cancer, produced 
by the irritation of soot lodged in the folds of the scrotum. 

CH1NCOUGH. Probably a corruption of chine-cough. In Scot- 
land, a fit of conghing is termed kink. See Pertussis. 

CHIO'NYPHE CARTERI. A cotton fungus occurring in the 
disease called Mycetoma, Madura foot, or Fungus foot of India. It 
infests the deep tissues and bones of the hands and feet. 

1U C H L 

CHLOA'SMA (xXod£co, to bo pale-green). A fawn-coloured stain 
of the skin, owing to morbid alteration of pigment; a designation of 
pityriasis versicolor, or chequered daiidrir?. It has been termed epltelis 
icpatica and macula Itepatica, or liver-spot, from an opinion that it 
originated in disease of the liver. It is now referred to a parasitic 
fungus (sec MUcrosporon). The scat of discoloration is the rete 
mucosuni. See Melasma. 

CHLOR-, CHLORO-. Prefixes applied to designate a very large 
number of substances, chiefly organic, containing chlorine. The great 
majority of these bodies constitute what are termed substitution-'product^ 
which arc produced by the substitution of a ceitaiu number of atoms of 
chlorine for the same number of atoms of hydrogen in an organic body. 
See Substitution- Products. 

CHLO'RINE (xAwpo'c, pale-green). Chlorum. A greenish gas, 
never found uncombined, but occurring abundantly in the forms of 
chloride of sodium or common salt, and chloride of potassium. It was 
first described under the name dephlogisticated marine add, and was 
afterwards called oaymuriatic acid. Its compounds, which are not acid, 
are called cldorides (or chlorurets) t and are characterized by the same 
prefixes as the oxides. 

1. Chloral. This term, derived from the first syllable of the words 
chlorine and a/cohol, denotes a colourless oily liquid, prepared by the 
mutual action of chlorine and alcohol. Cldoralization is a general term for 
the paral v zed condition induced by the prolonged useof hydrate of chloral. 

2. Chloralum. Chlor-nlum. The hvdrated chloride of aluminium, 
a new antiseptic disinfectant. It must be distinguished from chloral. 

3. C/dor-atherine. A combination of chloroform and alcohol, dis- 
tilled with perfumes. It is employed as a substitute for chloroform, 
and its use is attended by partial unconsciousness only. 

4. Chloric acid. An acid composed of one atom of chlorine and five 
atoms of oxygen. Its salts are termed cfdorates, formerly hyper-oxy- 
muriates. Chlorites are the salts of chlorous acid. 

5. Chloric ether. Under this name two compounds have been con- 
founded. One of these results from the action of chlorine on olefiant 
gas, and is generally known as the oil of the Dutch chemists. The other 
it obtained by passing hydrochloric acid gas into alcohol to saturation, 
and distilling the product ; this is generally called hydrochloric ether. 
Under the fictitious names cldoric ether and perchloride of carbon, a 
cordial, antispasmodic medicine is employed, consisting of a solution of 
1 part of pure chloroform and 19 of rectified spirit; its proper name is 
Spiritus Lhloroformi. See JEtfier. 

b\ Chloride of Lme, or bleaching poxoder. A pulverulent material 
produced by the action of chlorine on slaked lime. This is not a 
definite compound, but the material on which the effective property 
depends is hypochlorite of lime. 

7. Chlorinated. A term applied to substances which have been 
treated with chlorine. Cldorinated lime is chloride of lime, a bleaching 
powder and disinfectant. 

8. Chloto'id. A term applied, on the electrical hypothesis, to the 
negative pole, from its exhibiting the attraction which is characteristic 
of chlorine. The positive pole is termed the zinco'id. 

9. Chtorometry (fiirpov, a measure). This term may be correctly 
applied to the estimation of chlorine generally; but it is usuully nf- 

* ■• 

C H L—C H O 115 

stricted to the specific case of estimating the effective amount of chlo- 
rine in commercial bleaching powder, or the so-called chloride of lime, 
by the Quantity of a solution of sulphate of indigo which a known 
weight of chloride can discolour or render yellow. 

CHLO'RODYNE (xXupot, green, 66u»n % pain). The name given 
to a medicine of astringent and sedative qualities, but meaning, literally, 
a green pain. A better term would be chloranodyne, though this is far 
from satisfactory in an etymological sense. 

CHLOROFORM UM (chtoro- and formyl). Chloroformyl ; methe- 
nyl chloride. Chloroform. The perchloric! e of a hypothetical base, 
termed formyl, and named chloroform, on account of the relation of its 
composition to that of formic acid. 

CHLORO'MA (x^-^pov, green). A term applied to a cancerous 
state of the skin or subcutaneous tissues, in which the tumors adhere to 
the skin and present a remarkable bluish-green tint. 

CHLO'ROPHYLL (x*«P««, green, tpvWov, a leaf). Leaf-green. 
The green colouring matter of leaves, occurring generally in a granular 
state, floating in the fluid contents of cells. See Chromule. 

CHLOROPO'LAR. A term applied, in voltaism, to the sur&ce of 
the copper presented to the acid, which has chlorous affinity. See 

CHLORO'SIS (xKeopos, pale-green). Cachectic antenna. Pallor 
lutetu foeminarum. Green-sickness ; an affection in which the blood 
is impaired, the countenance pallid, and, as a further consequence, the 
estamenia are suppressed. It is a peculiar form of anaemia, affecting young 
women about the period of pubertv. It is also called chloro-anmmia. 

CHLO'ROUS POLE. A term founded on the theory that the par- 
ticles of matter are susceptible of polarity. Hence, that pole of a par- 
ticle of zinc or hydrochloric acid, which has the attraction or affinity 
which is characteristic of chlorine, or chlorous attraction, is called the 
chlorous pole. See Zincous Pole. 

CHLO'ROZONE. A new disinfecting agent, consisting of chlorine 
and ozone. 

CHO'ANjE NA'RIUM (xo^n, a funnel). The posterior nares; 
the two large openings at the upper and front part of the pharynx. 

CHOKE-DAMP. Carbonic acid, also called di-aride of carbon, or 
carbonic anhydride. In an impure state it is the irrespirable air of 
coal-pits, wells, and mines. Compare Fire-damp. 

CHOLjE'MIA (xo\>i, bile, al/ua, blood). A poisoning of the blood 
by the absorption of" enteric " bile, occasioned by acholia, just as ure- 
mic poisoning is occasioned by anuria. 

CHOLE' (x<>M) . Bile. The peculiar secretion of the liver. 

1. Choi-agoguts (a-y»yov, an expeller). A term formerly applied 
to purgatives which cause the discharge of bile into the alimentary 
canal. They have been called cholotics or bilitict. 

2. Chole-dochus ductus (dt'xo/uai, to receive). The common bile- 
duct. See Biliary Duett. 

3. Cholo-lithic (Xtttov, a stone). A term applied to a gall-stone, or 
concretion found in the gall-bladder or bile-ducts. 

CHOLE1C ACID (\o\n, bile). BUie acid. A fatty acid, which, 
in combination with soda, constitutes the principal part of bile. 

CHOLERA MALIGNA. Serous cholera; spasmodic cholera; 
Asiatic cholera. " An epidemic disease, characterized by vomiting and 

I 2 

116 C H 

purgings with evacuations like rice-water, accompanied by cramps, and 
resulting in suppression of urine and collapse." — Nom. of Dis. 

1. Etymology. The term is usually derived from X ^* D ^ e ? or it 
may be from x°^*f ,fl > a water-trough, precisely according to Dr. Forbes, 
"as we have seen the word diabetes transferred, by metonymy, from an 
instrument to the disease. Others derive the term from \o\at f an in- 
testine, and piu>, to flow, quasi bowel-flux, in place of hile-flux." 

2. Cholerine. This term is sometimes applied to the cholera-poison ; 
sometimes to the milder forms of the disease ; sometimes to the pre- 
cursory symptoms, or first stage of epidemic cholera. 

3. English Cholera. Castro-enteritis mucosa. The English or 
European form of cholera is accompanied by bile ; the Indian is with- 
out bile or urine. 

4. Algide Cholera. This term is sometimes applied to malignant or 
Asiatic cholera, in reference to the diminution of animal heat which is 
one of the signs of the disorder. 

5. Cholera, "revitalized;" CJiolera, "invading." By the former 
term, Bryden denotes cholera which establishes itself for a time in 

S laces outside the endemic area, spreads from these epidemically, and 
ies out. By the latter term, he denotes cholera which results only 
from the invasion of the cholera-wave from the endemic area. 

Dr. Macleod to the state of the blood in the portal system — the former 
denoting blood that is " flowing with bile," or " in which bile flows ;" 
the latter, blood over-charged with biliary constituents, in consequence 
of suspended or insufficient action of the liver. The term "hyper- 
hepaiized" on the other hand, will serve to signify an opposite condi- 
tion, in which the system may be supposed, by excessive action, to be 
drained, as it were, of its biliarv constituents. See Acholia. 

CHOLESTEATOMA {\o\ii, bile, oriao, fat). A variety of fatty 
tumor, apparently consisting of crystalline fat inclosed in meshes of 
cellular tissue. 

CHOLESTER^'MIA (cholesterin, and aUa, blood). Blood- 
poisoning, owing to the non-elimination of cholesterin by the liver. See 

CHOLE'STERIN (xo\ii, bile, <rTep«o's, solid). A crystallizable, 
spermaceti -like substance contained in the bile, the blood, brain, &c. 
Cholepyrrhin (irvppos, red) is the colouring matter of human bile. 
Cholesteric acid is a substance produced by heating nitric acid with 

CHO'NDROS (xo'vfyo*)* The primary meaning of this word is 
corn, grain, groat, or any small roundish mass. The second sense, that 
of gristle or cartilage, is explained by the white viscous appearance of 
this substance, which somewhat resembles groats when washed. It is an 
opaque elastic substance capable of being reduced to gelatine by boiling. 

1. Chondrin. a. A modification of animal gelatine, first found by 
M 'tiller in a bony tumor, and afterwards obtained from permanent car- 
tilages, &c. /3. The substance of the cartilages of the ribs. 

2. Chondro-glossus. A muscle running from the cartilaginous join- 
ing of the body and horn of the os hyoides to the tongue. See Hyo- 

3. Chondro-id f eldof , likeness). Cartilaginiform ; a designation of a 
variety of cancer, in which the morbid product resembles cartilage. By 

C H O— C H R 117 

the term xoptpw&ne, scil. <!hr o4>u<rtc, is denoted a cartilaginous offshoot, 
applied to the cartilage of a false rib. 

4. Chondro-logy (Ao«yos, discourse). A description of cartilages. 

5. Chondro-ma. The name given by Hooper and Craigie' to scirrhous 
or fibro-cartilaginous tumor of the brain. 

6. Syn-chonarosis. An articulation in which cartilage is employed 
to keep the bones together. 

CHORDA, pi. Chorda (xopdij). A cord ; a tendon ; a filament of 
nerve, &c Chorda tympani is a filament of the vidian nerve which 
enters the tympanum, and regulates the secreting function of the sub- 
maxillary gland ; chorda tenainea arc the tendinous strings which con- 
nect the cornea column a of the heart to the auricular valves ; chorda 
ventriculi is a designation of the gastric plexus of the par vagum ; 
chordavocales are the vocal chords, orthe thyroarytenoid ligaments; and 
chorda Willitii are the small fibres crossing the sinuses of the dura mater. 

1. Chorda ductus arteriosi. The ligamentum arteriosum, the remains 
of the ductus arteriosus of the foetus. 

2. Chorda longitudinales. Chords; Lane i si i ; two slightly elevated 
longitudinal bands bounding the raphe of the corpus callosum on either 

CHORDA'PSUS {xofii'h » cord or gut, fix™, to twist). A kind 
of violent spasmodic colic, in which the large intestines seem, as it 
were, twisted into knots. It is the same as ilXtov, Uius, in the small 

CHORDE'E (French, from x°P&*U a chord). Painful erection, with 
incurvation of the penis towards the scrotum, occurring in gonorrhoea, 

CHORE' A {xopiia, a dancing, from x°P°** a dance). Skdotyrbe ; 
St. Vitus" s Dance. Functional derangement of the motor nerves, re- 
sulting in irregular jerking movements, more or less interfering with 
the voluntary actions. It is the St. Weit of Germany, the dance of St. 
Guy of France, and has been called " insanity of the muscles." See 
Dance of St. John. 

Authors distinguish the common chorea of Sydenham as chorea minor, 
the dancing mania as chorea major', chorco mania or tarantismus. By 
chorea or St. Vitus'* dance, however, Sydenham's disease is now always 
meant, the tarantismus, from its rarity, being left out of the account. 

CHO'RION (yopio¥, corium, any skin or leather). The external 
membrane of the foetus in the uterus ; the after-birth. 

CHCROID (\6piov, corium, any skin or leather, tlcot, likeness). 
Resembling the chorion, and hence denoting a vascular structure. 
The term is specially applied to the dark-coloured and highly vascular 
membrane which secretes the pigmentum nigrum, and forms the inner 
lining of the sclerotica. 

1. Choroide tigrie. The name given by Desmarres to the variously- 
coloured appearance of the eye in cases of chronic choroiditis. 

2. Chorotdo-retinitis pigmentosa. A disease of the choroid and 
retina, in which these membranes are atrophied, speckled with pig- 
ment, and unnaturally adherent. 

3. Choroiditis. Inflammation of the choroid — the second, or vascular 
and pigmentary tunic of the eye-ball. 

CHRCMATO-DYSOPSIS (xP»Ma,XP«M«™t, colour, auowrot, 
hard to see). Colour-blindness ; Daltonism. This term and its con- 
geners, ckromato metableptis and chromato-pseudopsis, denote an incapa- 

118 H R— H Y 

city of distinguishing colours. When a person sees different colours 
from the real, the affection is termed chromopsis or chrupm. 

CHROMATO-GE'NESIS (xp«mo, xp<Wtov, colour, ytWtc, 
generation). The production or generation of colour. 

CHROMATO'GENOUS DISORDERS (xpw/uo, colour, y«**a«, 
to produce). Disorders characterized by discoloration of the skin. 
They correspond with the order Macula of Willan, the Epichrosis of 
Mason Good, and the Dyschroma of other writers. 

CHROMHIDRO'SIS (xp*M«, colour, '/3p»<m, a prespiring). 
Ephidrosis discolor. Coloured perspiration ; abnormal coloration of 
the perspiratory secretion. Cases are recorded of blue, green, black, and 
even yellow perspiration. 

CHRO'MIUM (x/>a>/ua, colour). A metal, so called from its re- 
markable tendency to form coloured compounds. The emerald and the 
ruby owe their colours to the presence of this element. 

CHRO'MULE (xpw/ua, colour). The name of the colouring mat- 
ter of plants. It must not be confounded with chlorophyll, which is 
restricted to the green ingredient of the cells of plants. See Endo- 

CHROfNIC DISEASES (ypovov, time). Diseases of long duration 
and comparatively slight severity, as distinguished from acute diseases 
of short duration and greater severity. 

CHRONO-THERMAL SYSTEM (xpovot, time, 6/puti, heat). 
The name given by Dr. Samuel Dickson to his mode of treating disease. 
It is founded on the relation which medicinal agents are supposed to 
exhibit to Time or Periodicity, and Temperature. 

CHRYSOTHANIC ACID (xpu<roc, gold, <poiV«, to make to 
shine). Rheic acid. The yellow, crystalline, granular matter of rhu- 
barb. In the pure or more or less impure state, it has long been known 
under the names rhabarbaric acid, rheumin, rhabarberin, and rhein. It 
is the chief constituent of" Goa Powder." 

CHRY'SOPHYLL (xpwao'v, gold, <pi5\W, a leaf). A golden- 
yellow colouring matter found in the leaves of plants. 

CHYLE ( x«^o«> juice Y The milk-like fluid absorbed by the lacteal 
vessels. The minute cells developed in the chyle are called cht/le- 
corpuscleSi and they are the analogue of the " white corpuscles " of the 
blood. Chylification is the process by which the chyle is separated from 
the chyme. The term chylo-poietic (iroi»», to make) is applied to the 
viscera and vessels which are connected with the formation of chvlc. 

CHYLO-AQUEOUS FLUID. A term applied by Dr. Williams 
to a distinct kind of nutrient fluid which exists in invertebrate animals, 
and is contained in chambers and irregular cavities and cells, commu- 
nicating invariably with the peritoneal space, and having no determinate 
circulation, but a to-and-fro movement, maintained by muscular and 
ciliarv agency. See Blood-Proper Fluid. 

CHYLU'RIA (xuXov, chvle, ovpito, to make water). Chylorrhoca 
urinalis. Chylous urine. The excretion of urine of a milky appear- 
ance, from the presence of a fatty matter in a molecular state. 

CHYME (xvpov, juice). The semi-fluid matter which pusses from 
the stomach into the duodenum. Chymifivation is the process by which 
the aliment is converted into chyme. 

CHY'MIST and CHE'MIST. Both these terms hold their ground, 
and also chymistry and chemistry. 1. Chymist and Cbymistry are con- 

C I B— C I N 119 

sidered to be derived from X M M<k» juice, and the chymic art suggests the 
expression and distillation of the juices of plants. 2. Chemist and 
Chemistry are referred to the word X»m*ia, the land of Ham or Cham, 
a general designation of Egypt, in which country the ehemie ait was first 
practised with success. 

CIBAHIA (ctbus, food). A plural Latin noun for food for man 
and the lower animals. Cibus has the same meaning. 

CIBATION (cibus, food). The act of taking food, particularly the 
more solid kinds of food, especially those prepared from wheat. The 
term dhus denotes any kind of food, hat it has also been applied to the 
chyle elaborated from food in the stomach. 

CICATRl'CULA (dim. of cicatrix, a scar). A small, round, milk- 
white spot, observed on the surface of the yolk-bag of the egg ; it is 
surrounded by one or more whitish concentric circles. It is the blas- 
toderm, or germinal membrane, from which the future being is de- 

CICATRIX (a scar of a wound). A cicatrice ; the mark left after 
the healing of a wound or ulcer. Hence, the process by which wounds 
and sores heal is called cicatrization. 

CI'LI A (pi. of cilium, an eye-lash). The eye-lashes. The term cilia is 
also applied to filament* of extreme tenuity found on the free surfaces 
of epithelial ceils ; and to microscopic hairs of a vibratile nature, abun- 
dant in the lowest forms of animals. 

1. Ciliary duett. The excretory ducts of the Meibomian glands, 
opening on the inner edge of the eye-lids. 

2. Ciliary muscles. The name by which Riolan distinguished those 
fibres of the orbicularis palpebrarum, which are next to the tarsus, or 
cartilaginous circle of th« eye-lids. 

3. Ciliary circle or ligament. Orbiculus ciliaris. A kind of grav- 
ish ring, situated between the choroid membraue, the iris; and the 

4. Ciliary canal. A minute vascular canal situated within the ciliary 
ligament, discovered by Fontana. 

5. Ciliary margin. The free extremity of the eye-lids, at the junc- 
tion of their mucous lining with the skin. 

6. Ciliary process. The reflected portion of the choroid surrounding 
the lens, and consisting of numerous little folds or plicae, arranged in a 
radiated direction. It suspends the crystalline lens in its place, forming 
• bond of union between the choroid, sclerotica, and iris. 

7. Ciliary body. The name of the ring which results from the union 
of the ciliary processes. 

CINCHO'NA. A genus of plants, several species of which yield 
Peruvian Bark. The terms Cinchona Bark and Countess's Powder are 
derived from the circumstance that the Countess of Chinchon, wife of 
the Viceroy of Peru, brought some to Europe from South America, in 
1639. Soon afterwards, the Jesuits, and particularly Cardinal de Lugo, 
carried it to Rome ; and hence it was called Jesuits 1 hark, Jesuits* poro- 
der, Palms Cardinalis de Lw/o, Pulvis Patrum, &c. It was subsequently 
employed in France by Sir Robert Talbor; and was hence called 
Talbor's powder, or the English remedy. 

I. Cinchona alkaloids. These arc quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, 
cinehonidine. and a fifth amorphous alkaloid. 

% Cinchonic, kinic, or quinio acid. An acid found in the Cinchona 

120 C I N— C I R 

barks, and also in the alburnum of Abie* communis. When heated in 
close vessels, it is decomposed, and pyrokinic acid is formed. 

3. Cinchonometry (uirpov, a measure). A term expressive of the 
methods employed for determining the proportion of the active princi- 
ples existing in a given specimen of Cinchona bark. The principal 
methods are the precipitation method and the chloroform method. 

[CINEN'CHiMA] («iifta», to move, iyxv/xa, anything poured in). 
Laticiferous tissue ; branched tubes of plants forming a net-work, and 
conveying a fluid called latex. 

CPNERE8 CLAVELLA'TI (clavtu, a wedge). Russici. Pearl- 
ash, or the Potassa impura. The name is derived from the little 
wedges or billets into which the wood was cut to make potash. 

CINERI'TIOUS (cinere*, ashes). Ash-coloured ; a term applied to 
the exterior or cortical part of the brain. The cineritious tubercle is the 
floor of the third ventricle of the brain. 

[CINE'TICA] (*ivi a>, to move). Medicinal agents which affect the 
voluntary and reflex-spinal movements. See Cerebro-Spinalia. 

CI'NGULUM. A girdle. A designation of the herpes zoster, or 
shingles, from the development of the vesicles around some part of the 
body in the form of a portion of a girdle. 

CI'NNABAR. A sulphide of mercury. It is native and factitious ; 
the former is called " ore of mercury ; the latter is the red bisul- 
phide, called vermilion, Paris red, &c. Chrome cinnabar is a very basic 
chromate of lead. Cinnabar of antimony is the mercuric sulphide. 

CIRCULATION (circulus, a circle). The flow of the blood through 
the heart, the arteries, and the veins. It is — 

1. Perfectly double in the adult; viz., that which takes place in the 
lungs, and is called pulmonic ; and that which takes place through the 
entire system, and is called systemic. 

2. Partially double in Ute foetus, the auricles communicating by the 
foramen ovale, the arteries by the ductus arteriosus — unless we con- 
sider the placental circulation as analogous with the pulmonic ; in fact, 
the blood of the foetus is circulated through the placenta, as that of the 
adult is through the lungs, and for the same purpose. 

3. Collateral circulation. The indirect supply of blood furnished, in 
cases in which the main artery of a limb has been ligatured, by the free 
inosculations of the vessels of the surrounding parts. 

CI'RCULUS WILLPSII. Circle of Willis. This consists of the 
communications established between the anterior cerebral arteries in 
front, and the internal carotids and posterior cerebral arteries behind, 
by the communicating arteries. 

1. Circulus articuli vasculosis. A term applied by W. Hunter to the 
appearance presented by the margin of the articular cartilages, where 
tne blood-vessels terminate abruptly. 

2. Circulus venosus Halleri. The incomplete circle formed by the 
veins around the base of the nipple of the female breast. 

3. Circulus tonsillaris. A plexus formed by the lingual and glosso- 
pharyngeal nerves around the tonsil. 

CIRCUMAGE'NTES (circumagere, to move round). A name 
applied to the obliqui muscles, from their supposed action of rolling the 

CIRCUMCPSION {circumcidere y to cut about). The removal of a 
circular portion of the prepuce. See Phimosis. 

C I R-C L A 121 

CIRCUMDU'CTION (ctVcvm, wound, ducere, to lead). The slight 
degree of motion which takes place between the head of a bone and its 
articular cavity, while the extremity of the limb is made to describe a 
large circle on a plane surface, as in the shoulder and hip-joints. This 
is, in fact, to describe a conical surface by rotation round an imaginary 

C1RCUMFLF/XUS (circum, about, ./fectere, to bend). A term ap- 
plied to a muscle which stretches the palate horizontally, and is hence 
termed tensor palati mollis ; and to the axillary nerve. 

CIRCUMSCI'SSILE (circumscindere, to tear all round). Divided 
all round by a transverse separation ; a term applied, in botany, to the 
kind of dehiscence which taxes place in the capsule of hyoscyomus, of 
anagallia, of lecythis, &c. 

ClRaNES, CYRONES, SYRONES. 8ynonyms of the acari 
scabiei, or itch-mites See Acarus and Sarcoptes. 

ICIRRHCSLS] (tippos, yellowish or tawny). Chronic hepatitis. 
A disease consisting of diminution and deformity of the liver, wnich is 
dense, granular, wrinkled, and frequently of a rust-brawn colour. By 
Raillie it was called common tubercle of the liver ; by Elliotson, gin-liver t 
as being induced by drunkenness; by others, granulated, lobulated, 
mammellated, or scirrhous liver, hob-nailed liver, chronic atrophy, 

Cirrhosis of the Lung. Consolidation or contraction of pulmonary 
tissue, accompanied with dilatation of bronchi. By some writers it is 
considered as interstitial pneumonitis. 

CIR'RUS (cirrus, curled hair). A tendril ; an elongated and fila- 
mentous organ of plants, which possesses the power of twisting in 
various direction*. The cirrus petiolaris is the elongated petiole of a 
pinnate leaf ; the cirrus peduncularis branches off on each side at the 
ease of the lamina into a twisting branch ; the cirrus foliaris extends 
from the point of a single leaf; the cirrus corollaris occurs in the petals 
of a flower ; the tendril, which is in connexion with the stem alone, is 
called capreolus. 

[CIR'SOID] (fft/xrot, varix, floor, likeness). A term applied to 
the dilatation of the arteries, in cases of aneurysm by anastomosis, in 
which they are tortuous, enlarged, with thin expanded coats, and active 

[CIR'SOS] (Ktpao*, varix). The Greek term for a varix or dilated 
vein. Hence the terms drso-cele (kijAij, a tumor), or varicocele, a 
varicose dilatation of the spermatic vein ; and cirs- ophthalmia, a general 
varicose affection of the blood-vessels of the eye — a local complication 
of amaurosis. 

CITRIC ACID. Hydrogen citrate. An oreanic crystalline acid 
prepared from lemon-juice, or from the juice of the fruit of Citrus Li- 
mctta, Risso, the lime. Its salts are termed citrates. 

CIVET. A substance yielded by two glands or sacs, placed, as in 
the musk-animal, in the anal pouch of both sexes of the Vtverracivctta* 
or civet-cat. 

CLAIRVOYANCE. Clear-sightedness; a peculiar mode of sen- 
sation, or second sight, connected with somnambulism, and supposed 
to be diffused over the whole surface of the body, but to be espe- 
cially seated in the epigastrium and fingers' ends. See Animal Mag- 

122 C L A-C L I 

CLARIFICATION {darus, clear,^m, to become). The process of 
clearing liquids. It is performed by subsidence of the suspended parti- 
cles, and decantation of the supernatant liquor ; by filtration, or 
straining through filters of paper, linen, sand, or charcoal ; or by 
coagulation, or the admixture of albumen, or the white of egg, and the 
subsequent action of caloric, acids, &c. 

CLARK'S PROCESS. A process for softening waters, depending 
on the neutralization of the free carbonic acid, contained in the water, 
by the addition of a certain quantity of lime. 

CLASS. A division in biology, larger than that of order, comprising 
animals which are formed upon the same fundamental plan of structure, 
but differing in the method in which the plan is executed. 

CLAUDIC ATIO (claudicare, to limp). Claudication, a halting or 
limping ; a term of rare occurrence. Claudiyo and clauditas have the 
same meaning. 

CLAUSU'RA (claudire, to shut). Literally, a fortress on the 
frontier ; and, hence, the imperforation of any canal or cavity of the 

CLAVA'TIO (davus, a nail). Gomphosis. A form of articulation, 
in which the parts are fixed like a nail oy a hammer, as the teeth in the 

CLA'VICEPS PURPUREA. Cordyceps purpurea. The namo 
given to the ascophores, or stalked bodies which grow upon the sclero- 
tium of ergot, and contain the sporidia. 

CLA'VICLE (clavicula, dim. of clavis, a key). The collar-bone ; 
a long bone shaped like the italic letter/*, but named from its resem- 
blance to an ancient key. 

CLA'VUS (a nail). 1. A corn or callosity; an increased thick- 
ness of the epidermis, resulting from hypertrophy of the papilla; of the 
derma. (See Tylosis.) 2. Protrusion of the ins through an opening 
in the cornea, in the form of a large and dark -coloured tumor. 

CLA'VUS HYSTERICUS. The hysteric nail; a fixed pain in 
the forehead, as if produced by a nail, occurring in hysteria. 

CLAY. One of the primitive earths, formerly called argil, but now 
alumina, from its being obtained in greatest purity from alum. 

CLEARING NUT. The seed of the Strychnnt Potatorum, used in 
India principally for clearing water from impurities. The pericarp is 
used by the natives as emetic. 

CLEAVAGE. The mechanical division of crystals, by which the 
inclination of their lamina is determined. Planes of cleavage are plane 
surfaces of a crystal parallel to the external ones. 

CLEAVAGE PROCESS. A term relating to the theory of Virgin- 
generation. It is explained under the term Parthenogenesis. 

[CLEIDO-M ASTOI'DEUS. ] Nutator capitis externus, vel posticus. 
The posterior portion of the sterno-cleido-mastoideus muscle. 

[CLEISA'GRA] (irXctf, the clavicle, &ypa, seizure). Gout of the 
articulation of the clavicles. 

[CLITJANUS] (*Xi/3ai>oc, an oven). A particular kind of oven 
used by the Romans. By Celsus it was probably intended to designate 
a stove placed in a common room to heat the bath. See Laconicum. 

[CLIM ACTE'RICl (kAmioktii/o, the step of a ladder). A period in 
the progression of the life of man, usually divided into periods of seven 
years, each multiple of seven being supposed to be characterized by 


■Iterations in the health tod constitution of the individual ; the ninth 
period, or 63rd year, being the grand climacteric 

1. CUmacterio disease. This term has been applied to a sudden and 
general alteration of health, occurring at a certain period of life, and 
of uncertain duration. 

2. CUmacteric teething. The production of teeth at a very late period 
of life, after the loss of the permanent teeth bj accident or natural 
decaj, commonly between the 63rd and 81st year, or the interval 
which fills up the two grand climacteric years of the Greek physiologists. 

[CLIMATE] (*XiM«, ft region). The term climate is derived from 
the old mathematical geographers, who were accustomed to draw 
imaginary lines on the earth's surface parallel to the equator, and the 
successive "climates," xAi/uara, were the traces and regions between 
these lines. At present, the term climate denotes merely the tempe- 
rature and other conditions of the atmosphere of different countries 
end districts, in reference to their effects upon the health of persons 
inhabiting them. The following compilation from the well-known 
work of Sir James Clark, comprises — 1, a brief account of the conditions 
of tie atmosphere of different countries or districts, in reference to 
their effects upon the health of persons inhabiting them ; and, 2, an 
enumeration of those diseases which are most decidedly benefited 
by change of climate, and the particular situation most suitable to each. 

I. English Climates. 

The great desiderata in this country are a mild climate and sheltered 
residence, for pulmonary and other affections, during the winter and 
eering. The districts ot England may be divided into — 

1. The South Coast. — This comprehends the tract of coast between 
Hastings and Portland Island, including the Isle of Wight. The 
superiority of the climate of this district exists chiefly during the 
months of December, January, and February. The principal places 

(1.) Undercliffi in the Isle of Wight, the most sheltered and warm- 
eat of all these places ; it affords also a good summer climate. 

(2.) Hastings^ which follows next in point of shelter and warmth, 
during the winter and spring months. 

(3.) Brighton, which, though inferior to the preceding places as a 
residence in diseases of the respiratory organs accompanied with much 
irritation, is of a drier and more bracing atmosphere. Autumn is tho 
season during which the climate of this place possesses the greatest 

2. The South- west Coast.— This reaches from the Isle of Wight 
to Corn will. The temperature of the more sheltered spots of the south 
coast of Devon, during the months of November, December, and 
January, is, on the average, about five degrees higher than that of 
London during the same period ; whereas on the south coast, the 
difference scarcely exceeds two degrees. The principal places are Tor- 
osjow, Datrlishy Sidmouth, and Exmonth : the first of these is the most 
sheltered place in our island ; Salcoml*e % the Montpellier of Huxham, 
is one of the warmest spots in this country during the winter. 

3. The Land's End. — This district is'mott suitable for the irritable 
and inflammatory habit, and lesst so for the relaxed nervous constitu- 
tion. The only places in this district deserving particular notice tro — 


(1.) Penzance, which it remarkable for the equal distribution of its 
temperature throughout the year, throughout the day and night ; in- 
deed, it is onlv excelled, in this respect, by the climate of Madeira. 
The difference between the wannest and coldest months in London is 
26° ; at Penzance, it is only 18°. The climate of the Land's End is, 
however, very humid, and, from its exposure to the northerly and 
easterly winds, colder during the spring, than Torquay or Under- 

(2.) Flushing, a small village in the vicinity of Falmouth ; its position 
differs from that of Penzance only in being somewhat protected from 
the north and east winds. 

4. The West op England. — This comprehends the places along 
the borders of the Bristol Channel and estuary of the Severn. Of 
these it is necessary only to notice — 

Clifton, which, compared with the South-west Coast, is more ex- 
citing, more bracing, and drier, but not so mild ; it is therefore better 
suited to a relaxed, languid habit, and less so for pulmonary and other 
diseases, accompanied with irritation and a tendency to inflamma- 

II. Foreign Climates. 

1. The South-west op France This comprehends the tract of 

count 17 extending from Bordeaux and Bayonne to Toulouse. The 
mean annual temperature is only about four degrees higher than that 
of the south-west of England; both are soft and rather humid, and 

re and disagree, generally speaking, with diseases of the same 
acter. The only place in this distnet which need be here noticed 
is — 

Pau, a little town remarkable for the mildness of the spring, and its 
comparative exemption from sharp, cold winds during that season ; its 
chief fault is the unsteadiness of its temperature. 

2. The South-east op France. — This includes that extensive tract 
of country which stretches along the shores of the Mediterranean, from 
Montpellier to the banks of the Var, the boundary stream between 
France and Piedmont. The climate of this district is warmer and 
drier, but more irritating and exciting than that of the South-west. It 
is also subject to sudden vicissitudes of temperature, and to frequent 
harsh, cold winds, especially the mistral, or the north-west, rendering 
the whole of this country an improper residence for patients suffering 
under, or peculiarly disposed to, inflammation or irritation of the respi- 
ratory orpanB. The principal places arc — 

(1.) Montpellier, the high and exposed situation of which renders it 
liable to all the above-mentioned objections in a remarkable degree ; it 
is well ascertained that pulmonary inflammation and phthisis are among 
the most prevailing diseases of the place. 

(2.) Marseilles, which, though less exposed than the preceding place, 
is an equally improper residence for consumptive invalids. It forms a 
good winter residence for persons likely to benefit by a dry, sharp air. 

(S.) Hyires, which possesses the mildest climate in the whole of this 
district, being sheltered to a considerable degree from the northerly 

5. Nice. — This place, situated in the same line of coast as the Provence, 
is superior to jt in several respects : it is protected from the northerly 


winds, especial! j the mistral ; but is not exempt from cold winds, espe- 
cially during the spring, and is therefore considered an unfavourable 
situation for consumption, even in its earlier stages, for bronchial dis- 
eases of the dry, irritable character, and for dyspepsia depending on an 
irritated or inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the 
stomach. This climate is found useful for languid, torpid constitutions, 
for scrofulous affections in persons of this kind of constitution, for 
chronic bronchial disease, accompanied with copious expectoration, for 
humoral asthma, &c. The summer at Nice is too hot for any class of 

4. Italy. — The climate of the south of Italy differs little in actual 
temperature from that of Provence and Nice, but it is Bofter, more 
humid, and less exciting. On the other hand, the sirocco, which is 
scarcely felt at the latter places, forms an objection to the Italian cli- 
mate, though this objection is not of much weight during the winter. 
The diseases in which the climate of Italy proves most beneficial, are 
chronic bronchitis and rheumatism. The principal places for winter 
climates are — 

(1.) Rome, which possesses one of the best climates in Italy : to the 
invalid, capable of taking exercise in the open air, it affords advantages 
over both Naples and Pisa. It is somewhat warmer in the winter, and 
drier than Pisa, though more humid than Nice and the parching cli- 
mate of Provence. 

(2.) Pisa, which resembles Rome in its general qualities, but pos- 
sesses advantages over every other place in Italy for patients who can 
bear little exposure to the air. 

(3.) Naples, which is more subject to winds, and the air of which is 
more exciting than that of Pisa or Rome. As a residence for invalids 
labouring under pulmonary irritation, or chronic rheumatism, it is in- 
ferior to both. 

5. The Mediterranean Islands. — Some parts of the coast of 
Sicily afford a pretty good winter climate; it is, however, difficult to 
obtain ra these parts the comforts and conveniences of life. Although 
exception may be made in this respect in favour of Malta, the climate 
of this island has little to recommend it to any class of invalids, least 
of all to such as suffer from pulmonary affections. 

6. Atlantic Climate. — The climate of the Northern Atlantic in 
the temperate latitudes is more steady than that of the Mediterranean, 
and imparts a similar character to the climate of its islands. The 
principal of these are — 

(I.) Madeira, the mean annual temperature of which is only about 
six degrees higher than that of the south-cast of France and Italy ; this 
temperature is, however, very differently distributed throughout the 
year, the range being far less at Madeira than in the most favoured 
spots in the South of Europe. Thus, while the winter is twelve degrees 
warmer than in Italy and France, the summer is five degvees cooler ; 
and, while the mean annual range at Madeira is only fourteen degrees, 
it is nearly double this at Pisa, Rome, Naples, and Nice. Madeira 
affords the best climate of the Atlantic Islands for consumptive cases ; 
Funchal is the most desirable for a winter residence. 

(2.) The Canary Islands, which rank next to Madeira in point of 
climate ; they are somewhat warmer, but the excess of temperature is 
not equally distributed over the whole year; for, while Santa Cruz^ltrc 


capital of Teneriffe, is seven degrees warmer than Funchal in summer, 
it is only five degrees warmer in winter. The temperature ib also 
more equable throughout the year at Madeira than at Teneriffe; the 
difference between the mean temperature of summer and winter being 
9° at the former place, while it is 12° at the latter. 

(3.) The Azores, or Western Islands, which in their external cha- 
racters resemble Madeira and the Canaries. The climate appears to be 
mild, but somewhat humid ; less warm than Madeira during the winter, 
and more oppressive during summer. 

(4.) The Bermudas, which differ little from Madeira in the mildness 
of their winter climate; they are, however, much more liable to high 
winds in the winter, extremely hot during the summer, and quite im- 
proper at this season for the residence of such invalids as are likely to 
be sent from this country. 

(5.) The Bahamas, in which the winter and spring arc considerably 
cooler than the same seasons in the West Indies, while the temperature 
of the summer and autumn is nearly the same. During the winter, 
the temperature is subject to rapid and considerable vicissitudes, and 
cold, harsh, northerly winds are not unfrequent. 

(6.) The West Indies, of which the mean annual temperature, near 
the level of the sea, is about 80°, and during the six months which 
include the winter season, the temperature is only 2° lower. The 
extreme annual range does not exceed 20°, while the mean daily range 
throughout the year is only 6°. Hence this climate is improper, 

? generally speaking, for consumptive invalids, who, nevertheless, are 
requently sent there. Calculous disorders and scrofula are extremely 
rare in the West Indies ; gout is not common, and rheumatism neither 
frequent nor severe. 

1. Pulmonary Consumption. Of the Atlantic Islands, Madeira; in 
Italy, Rome and Pisa ; and in England, Torquay and Undercliff, 
afford the best climate for consumptive cases. 

2. Chronic Bronchitis. Of the continental climates, those of Rome 
and Pisa are the most beneficial in cases attended with an irritable 
state of the affected narts without much secretion ; and that of Nice, in 
cases attended with less sensibility, a more copious expectoration, and 
a relaxed state of the system generally. Madeira has been found more 
beneficial in the former class than in the latter. In England, Torquay 
and Undercliff afford the best climates in the first class of cases, and 
Clifton in the latter, in which Brighton also is a very favourable resi- 
dence during the autumn. 

o. Asthma. For humoral asthma, Nice is the best residence ; but 
Rome is preferable when this disease is accompanied with an irritated 
state of the digestive organs, a complication which is exceedingly 

4. Chronic Rheumatism. Rome and Nice are the best residences for 
persons suffering from this complaint When the patient's constitution 
and digestive organs are irritable, the latter has been observed, gene- 
rally, to disagree, whatever may be the more prominent disease. 

5. Gout. A warm climate is found to alleviate this disease. Gout 
is of rare occurrence at Genoa, and has been remarkably relieved by 

residence in the West Indian climate. 

C L I— C L U 127 

6. Scrofula. Nice and Rome have been found to be favourable resi- 
dences; and in some cases, the climate of the West Indies has proved 
more effectual than any in Europe, viz., those of an indolent character 
with little disposition to febrile excitement 

7. Dyspepsia. The south of Europe, especially of Italy, is found 
beneficial in different forms of dyspepsia, hypochondriasis, and other 
nervous affections intimately connected with a disordered state of the 
digestive organs; all these are aggravated by a cold and humid atmo- 
sphere. Great attention to the diet is necessary in removing from a 
cold to a warm climate in this class of diseases. 

[CLINA'NTHIUM] («\<»n. a bed, <ii,0o«, flowerV Clinium. The 
receptacle of the flowers of a composite plant ; the bed, as it were, on 
which the floret* repose. 

[CLI'NICAL] (kAIimi, a bed). Belonging to the bed ; a term applied 
to lectures delivered, or to the investigation of diseases practised, at the 

[CLl'NOID] (k\ivt), a bed, fl&w, likeness). A designation of pro- 
ceases of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone, from their resemblance 
to the knobs of a bedstead. 

[CLITORIS] (xAftropt'c, of the Greeks). A small elongated 
organ of the pudendum, situated in front of the pubes, and furnished 
with a gUms of erectile tissue, and two small muscles called erectorts 

1. Clitorismus. A morbid enlargement of the clitoris. Cliioritis, or 
inflammatio penis muliebris, is inflammation of the clitoris. 

2. Clitoridectomi («kto'/utj, excision). Excision of the clitoris. 
CLITUS BLUMENBA'CHII. The slope of Blumenbach ; an 

inclined surface behind the dorsum ephippii of the sphenoid bone. 

CLOA'CA. The name of an artificial canal in Rome by which the 
sewage was conveyed into the Tiber. The term is now applied, in 
natural history, to a receptacle observed in the monotremata, in birds, 
in reptiles, and in many fishes, which receives the faeces and the urine, 
together with the semen of the male, and the ovum of the female. 

Cloaca (pi. of cloaca, a sewer). The openings, in cases of necrosis, 
in the shell of new bone, leading to the inclosed dead bone. 

[CLCNIC] («AdVo*, anv violent confused motion). A term applied 
to that kind of spasm in wnich the muscles are alternately contracted 
and relaxed, as in hiccough, epilepsy, &c. 

CLOT OF BLOOD. The coagulum, or red solid portion which 
separates from newly -drawn blood. The other portion is a clear yellow 
liquid, called serum. 

CLOVE-HITCH. The name of a particular kind of knot used in 
the treatment of dislocations. 

CLUB-FOOT. Pes contortus ; Talipes. A congenital distortion 
of the tarsal bones, arising from contraction of the extensor muscles. 
The following varieties were named by Dr. Krauss : — 

1. The Tip-foot, Horse-foot, or Pes equinus. A rigid contraction of 
the tendo Achillia, so that the patient walks on his toes, and the heel 
ia drawn upward. In this class may be included the knot-foot (pied-bot 
en dessous), when the patient walks upon the back of the foot. 

2. The Cross-foot, Club-foot inward, or Varus. The patient walks 
on the outward edge of the foot, or the outward part of the dor&u\n,\.\tt 
inner edge of the foot beinjr turned upward. 

128 C L U— C O B 

3. The Out-f>oiD-foot, Club-foot outward, or Valgus. The reverse of 
the preceding variety. The patient treads upon the inward part of the 
foot, the outer edge being turned upward. 

4. The Heel club-foot, or Talipes calcaneus, or Talus. The patient 
walks upon the heel, the anterior part of the foot being drawn up. 

5. Compound varieties of club-foot occur, as talipes equino-varus, 
equino-valgus, and caleaneo-valgus. See Talipes. 

CLUB-HAND. Manus curia, A distortion of the hand of pre- 
cisely the same nature as that of club-foot, the contraction occurring 
either in the sense of preternatural flexion, or in that of abnormal ex- 
tension, of the hand. 

[CLY'SSUSJ («c\v£c0, to rise surging, like a wave). A term 
formerly used to denote the vapour produced by the detonation of nitre 
with anv inflammable substance. 

[CLiV'STER] (kA v<rrifp, from *\v£a», to wash out). A liquid thrown 
into the intestines, per anum, by means of a syringe ; also called enema, 
lavamentum, lavement, and injection. 

[CNIDO'SIS] («i/<£c00-t?, an itching, especially such as is produced 
by the Kvidtji or nettle). Alibert*s designation of Urticaria, or Nettle- 
rash, derived from the itching and burninsr sensation, like that pro- 
duced by the nettle, which accompanies it. The Greek terms Kvtiauot, 
Ki/toTid?, and K»n<pii t are also applied by writers to pruritus, or itching 
of the skin. 

COA'GULABLE LYMPH. The fluid slowly effused, in wounds, 
afterwards becoming the bond of union, or cicatrix. See Lymph. 

COA'GULATION (cogere, contract, from con-agere, to drive 
together). A term formerly synonymous with crystallization, but now 
applied to the partial solidification of a fluid body by exposure to cold, 
or by the addition of some agent. Spontaneous coagulation denotes the 
cohesion of the particles of the blood, or some effused fluids, &c. 
Induced caayulation denotes the effect produced upon albumen by heat, 
alcohol, &c. 

COA'GULUM (cogere, con-agere, to thicken or curdle). The sub- 
stance which results from coagulation. As applied to the blood only, 
it is termed clot ; as applied to milk, it is called curd. 

COAL. A general term for various substances, characterized espe- 
cially by the presence of carbon, associated with smaller quantities of 
other matters, gaseous and mineral. The principal varieties of coal are 
lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. 

COAL-GAS. An illuminating gas obtained from coal, and con- 
sisting essentially of free hydrogen, marsh -gas, defiant gas, carbonic 
oxide, &c. 

COAPTATION (coaptatio, the act of adjusting). Setting, or the 
act of placing, the broken extremities of a bone in their natural position. 
The term coaptatio corresponds with the apfiovia of the Greeks, de- 
noting a skilful joining together. 

COARCTATIO {coarto or coarcto, to press together). Contraction, 
as of the larynx, the trachea, tendons, fasciae, muscles, &c. 

COATING. Lorication, A method employed for securing or re- 
pairing retorts used in distillation. Coatings are made of marly earth, 
kneaded with fresh horse-dung, slaked lime, and linseed oil, &c. 

CO'BALT {Cobalus, the demon of mines). A metal, found chiefly 
in combiuation with arsenic, as arsenical cobalt ; or with sulphur and 
arsenic, as gray cobalt ore. Sec Smalt and Zujfre. 

C O C— C (E L J:9 

CCfC A. Ypada. The leaf of the Erythroxylon coca, a plant in 
extensive use among the Indians of the Andes, for the purpose of pro- 
ducing intoxication and stupor. The word Coca is derived from tho 
.Armani (Indian) word khol.a, signifying ** plant," in the samo way as 
in Paraguay the indigenous tea-plant is called yerba % "the plant" par 

CCCCULU8 IN'DICUS. The fruit otAnamirta cocculus, an East 
Indian plant, of narcotic and stimulating qualities. 

CO'CCUS (kokkox, a kernel). A term applied, in botany, to a peri- 
carp of dry, elastic pieces, or cocctdes, as in Eiiphoibia. In this plant 
the cocci are three in number, and the fruit, generally called a rhegma, 
ia therefore also called a tricoccous capsule. 

CO'CCUS CA'CTl. Coccinetla. The Cochineal insect; a hemipte- 
rons insect which feeds upon the Opuntiacochinillifera. The cochineal 
of the Pharmacopoeia consists of the dried female insect reared in Mexico 
and Tcneriffe ; there are the silver and the black varieties. The term 
qraniihi is applied to very small cochineal insects and minute masses, 
resembling fragments of the larger insects. 

Coccus fucca produces gum-lac; coccus pehlah secretes the spermaceti- 
like wax of Chinese pharmacy; coccus manniparus yields honey- 

|COCCYODY'NIA] {kokkv^, coccyx, 6cvv*u pain). Coccyalyia. 
A painful affection of the coccyx and its neighbouring structures, occur- 
ring chiefly in women, and closely resembling in its symptoms the pain 
occasioned by fissure or ulcer of the anus and rectum. Coccygodynia is 
a better term. 

[CO'CCYX] (k6kkv£, a cuckoo). The lower end of the spine, *o 
called from its resemblance to the cuckoo's beak. H< nee the terms 
os coccypis, the rauda, or coccyx ; coccygcus, a muscle of the os corcy- 
gis: and coccyodynia, or pain in the region of the coccyx. 

COCHLEA. A snail, a snail-shell. A cavity of the ear, resembling 
the spiral shell of the snail. It describes two turns and a half around a 
central pillar called the modiolus. 

COCHLEA'RE {cochlea, a mail- shell). Cochlear. A spoon, so 
named from its resemblance to the shell of a snail ; a spoonful. Coch- 
leare amplum is a table-spoonful, or half a fluid ounce ; cochleare tnedi- 
oere % a dessert-spoonful, or somewhat more than two fluid drachms; and 
cochleare minimum, a tea-spoonful, or one fluid drachm. 

CO'COA. A substance consisting of the roasted and powdered ker- 
nels and husks of the Theobroma Cacao, or Cocoa- tree, a Bilttneria- 
ceous tree of Mexico and the West Indies. 

COCUM BUTTER. A substance of recent importation, consisting 
of a concrete oil obtained from the seeds of Garcinia purpurea, a 
Guttiferous plant 

COD-LIVER OIL. Oleum Morrhua. An oil obtained from the 
liver of the Gadus morrhua, or Common Cod, formerly called Ascllus 
major, and from allied species. 

CODE I A (jcw^iia, a poppy-head). Codeine. An alkaloid dis- 
covered by Robiqnet in opium. 

[CCELELMl'NTHA] (icotXot, hollow, iXuivi, a worm). The 
name of those intestinal worms which are hollow, or possess an alimen- 
tary canal. These are the trichocephalus ditpar, or long thread- worm, 
found. in the caecum and large intestine; the ascaris lumbricoides. or 



large, round worm, found in the small intestine; the ascaris txrmicH* 
laris, or small thread- worm, found in the rectum, &c. See Sterd- 

[CCE'LIAl («oiXia, from icoiXot, hollow). The belly, or abdomen ; 
the cavity which contains the intestine*. The ccsliac a,tis is the first 
Binglc trunk given off by the abdominal aorta ; the cceluic plejrus is a 
prolongation of the solar; caeliac passion is another term for colic; 
and casliaca are medicines which act on the digestive organs. 

The term Ccdiaca is suggested by Mr. Erasmus Wilson as the 
appropriate name for the various symptoms commonly attributed to 
hysteria, the real cause of these being " distmbance of function of the 
coliac centre of the nervous plexuses." 

[CfELOSPE'RMOUS] (koiXo*, hollow, <nr»>utr, seed). A term 
applied to seeds which present a hollow form by the bending together 
of their upper nnd lower parts, as in some umbelliferous plant*. 

ICCENOSTHE'SIS] (koivov, common, ai<rt>u<rcv, perception). A 
term expressive of the general sensibility of the system. 

[CCENU'RUS] (koii/oc, common, ov f *a, a tail). A cystose bladder, 
containing several animals grouped together, and adhering to its Bides. 
Sec Hydatid. 

COHOBA'TION. The continuous redistillation of a liquid from 
the same materials, or from a fresh parcel of the same materials. 

COPTIC); CO'lTUS or CGETUS (coire % to go or come together). 
A going or coining together ; sexual intercourse ; in this sense only, 

COLATU'RA (cfJare, to strain). That which has been strained. 
Any filtered or strained liquor. 

CaLCHICUM AUTUMN A'LE. Colchicum or Meadow Saffron ; 
a Melanthaceous, indigenous plant, known to the Ancients under the 
name hermo- dactyl. The cormus and the seeds are officinal, and yield 
a vegeto-alkali called colchicine. The name is derived from Colchis, 
where the plant is said to have grown abundantly. 

CO'LCOTHAR. Oxidum fern rubrum, A mixture of red oxide 
of iron and the persulphate, called by Artists crocus, crocus Mortis, &c. 

[CO'LICJ (kcoXop, the colon). Belonging to the colon; a term 
applied to arteries, and to one of the omenta. 

[CO'LICA] (koiXov, the colon)." Colum. The colic ; a painful con- 
traction of the muscular coat of the colon without inflammation or 
fever. It is termed accidcniaJis, when induced by particular articles of 
diet; stercoracea, when occasioned by accumulation in the bowels; 
mectinialis, when arising from retention of the meconium; calatlosa, 
when produced by intestinal calculus ; and colica Pictonum, the colic of 
the Pictones, an endemic in Poitou, also called dry bclly-aehc, Devon- 
shire colic, painters' colic, and colica saturnina, as produced by the 
effects of lead. Colic was termed by Sydenham, and the old English 
writers, dry Mly-achc. 

[-COLLA] (K«JXXa,gluc). A termination denoting glue % or a re- 
semblance to glue, as in chryso-cotfa, golden glue, the green or blue 
carbonate of copper; ichthyo-co//a, fish-glue or isiuglass ; tarco-colla, 
flesh-elue, or the concrete juice of the Pencea sarcocolla, &c. 

COLLA'PSE (collapsus, a falling together). Prostration, or shock 
to the nervous system ; interruption of the powers and actions of life, 
immediately following any severe injury. 

COL 131 

COLLIQUAME'NTUM (coHwue*cerc, to melt). A term applied by 
Harvey to the first rudiments of the embryo in generation, 

COLLIQUATIVE [oolliquescere, to melt). A term applied to any 
excessive evacuation, as of diarrhoea, orperspi ration. 

[COLLO'DIUMJ («d\Aa, glue). Collodion. A solution of pyro- 
xylin or gun-cotton in ether and rectified spirit. CUlodium /facile, 
or flexible collodion, is a mixture of collodion, Canada balsam, and 

[COLLOID] («o'A\a, glue or jelly, tI<*ot, likeness). 1. Gelatin i- 
fbrm, or glue like; a designation of a variety of cancer, also called 
gelatinous and alveolar, in which the morbid product resembles glue. 
Colloid matter is also found in non-malignant tumors, &c. 2. The 
term co'loid or colloidal is also applied to the matter of which the til- 
sues of the body are composed. The purest form of this matter is found 
in the fibrin of the blood. 

CO'LLUM (KoAAaw, to join). 1. The neck ; the part by which the 
bead is joined to the body. It is distinguished cerrur, which is 
the hinder part of the neck, or the hollow part between the head and 
the nape of the neck. 2. In botany, the term coif tun denotes that por- 
tion ot the axis of growth where the stem and the root diverge ; or it 
may be described as the point of union between the ascending and the dc~ 
scroding axis. By Grew it was termed coarctnre ; by Lamarck, vital knot. 

COLLUTO'RIUM (colluere, to wash). Gargarisma. A liquid 
applied to the mouth or throat for local purposes. 

t'OLLU'VIKS {collar re, to wash out, to rinse). Collmio. Wash- 
ings, rinsings, sweepings, a mass of filth. 

COLLY RI UM (xoWvptov). Formerly, a solid glutinous substance 
applied to the eves ; now, a liquid wash, or eye-tcater. 

(COLOBO'MA] {«t>\6pu>na, the part taken away in mutilation). 
Coloboma iridis is a congenital fissure, generally situated in the inferior 
portion of the iris. Coloboma palpebrarum is a defect of the eye-lid 
similar to the preceding, and resembling hare-lip. 

CO'LOC YNTH. The name of a drug obtained from the gourd of 
CUrullus colocyntkis, a Cucurbitaceous plant, imported chiefly from 
8myrna, Trieste, France, and Spain. 

[COLON | (kwAup, quasi koIKov, hollow). The first of the large 
intrstines, commencing at the caecum, and terminating at the rectum. 
It is distinguished into the right lumbar, or attending colon ; the arch 
of the colon, or transverse colon ; the left lumbar, or descending colon ; 
and the sigmoid flexure, or left iliac colon. 

[COLON IT IS J. Colitis. Inflammation of the colon; a term em- 
ployed as smonymous with dysentery. 

C'O'LOl'lION Y (Co/«/*Ao«, a town of Ionia). Pix nigra. A black 
irsia which remains in the retort after the distillation of common tur- 
pentine. It has been distinguished into two different resins, the sylrio 
and the pink. By the action of heat on the latter, colookonic acid is 

[COLOPUNCTUREJ. The operation of puncturing the colon in 
cases of tympanitis, obstruction, &c. 

COLO'S T RUM. A Latin term denoting the first and imperfect milk 
secreted after delivery, containing cells filled with yellow fat-globules, 
called colosirnm-corpuscUs. By the term co!ostnUio y Fliny alludes to a 
disease of suckling, occasioned by the mother's first milk, and \uftm\a v* 

K 2 

132 COL 

affected he calls colostrati. The term admits of varied forms : we find 
colostra, a, and colostra, orum, n. pi., in Pliny. Plautus uses it as a 
term of endearment : " meum mel, meum cor, mea colostra." 

[COLOTO'MIAJ (K&Xoy, the colon, *ro/uij, section). Colotomv; 
the operation for incision of the colon, inguinal or lumbar, for the 
formation of an artificial anus in the loin. 

COLOUR-BLINDNESS. Achromatopsia. An inability to dis- 
criminate between certain colours — a defect compatible with perfect 
vision in other respects. See Daltonism. 

COLOURING. A term in phrenology, indicative of a peculiar 
faculty for the appreciation of the relations of colour. Its organ is 
seated in the middle of the arch of the eye- brow. 

COLOURING MATTER. A colouring principle, termed organic, 
when derived from animal or vegetable matters, and inorganic, when 
procured from minerals. Colours are termed suttstantivc, when they 
adhere to the cloth without a basis; adjective, when they require a 

[CO'LPOCELE] (voXxov, the vagina, *>/'\i|, tumor). Elytrocele. 
A tumor or hernia of the vagina. 

[COLPOPTO'SISl (*d\iro«, the vagina, irrco<ri«, a falling down). 
Prolapsus ravines. Prolapsus or falling down of the vagina. 

[COLPO'RRHAPHY] (koA-tov, the vagina, puim*, to sew). 
Suture of the vagina. See Episeiorrhaphg. 

COLTSFOOT. The vernacular name of the Tttssilago farfara, an 
indigenous composite plant, said to form the basis of several patent 
medicines employed for cough. The vernacular name of the plant is 
derived from the shape of its leaf; the Latin name refers to its reputed 
virtues as a means of dispelling cough. 

COLU'MBIUM. The former name of Niobium, a metal found in 
« rare mineral known as columlnfe, occurring in Massachusetts. 

COLUME'LLA (dim. of columna, columen, a column). 1. The 
name of a bone which, in birds, takes the place of the ossiatla audit us 
in man, and actually vibrates as a whole, and at the same rate as the 
membrane of the drum, when aerial vibrations strike upon the latter. 
2. The name of the central mass of placentas, in plants, which remains 
after the separation of the carpels by dehiscence. 

COLU'MNA. A column or pillar ; hence, any part which acts as a 
pillar, as the columna nasi, or the septum between the openings of the 
nostrils ; the columna carnea, or the muscular fas« iculi of the internal 
walls of the heart; and, of these, the columna pupillares, attached by 
one extremity to the walls of the heart, and by the other giving inser- 
tion to the chordae tendinis?. 

COLUMNS; CORDS; CURTAINS. Terms introduced by Mr. 
King into his description of the tricuspid valves of the heart. These 
valves consist of curtains, cords, and columns. 1. The anterior valve, 
or curtain, is the largest, and is so placed as to prevent the filling of the 
pulmonary artery during the distension of the veutrie'e. 2. The right 
valve, or curtain, is of smaller size, and is situated upon the right side 
of the auriculo- ventricular opening. 3. The third valve, or fired cur- 
tain, is connected by its cords to the septum vcntiiculorum. 

]. The cords, or chorda tendinese, of the ''anterior curtain" are 
Attached, principally, to a long column, or columna carnea, which is 
connected with the "right or thin and yielding trail of the ventricle." 

C L— C M 133 

From the lower nut of this column m transverse muscular band, the 
" low/ moderator band" is stretched to the septum ventriculorum, or 
M rdid wall" of the ventricle. 

2. The "right curtain" is connected, by means of its cords, partly 
with the long column, and partly with its own proper column, the 
second column, which is also attached to the " yielding wall " of the 
ventricle. A third and smaller column is generally connected with the 
right curtain. 

3. The " fixed curtain " is named from its attachment to the " solid 
trott" of the ventricle, by means of cords only, without fleshy 

COLZA, OIL OF. A yellow oil procured from the seeds of the 
Bra*vicn camwstris oleifera, used for burning in lamps. 

COM-, CON-. Forms of the Latin preposition cum, used in compo- 
sition as an inseparable prefix, and denoting with, to, or against. The 
former prefix is used before the labials b, p, and m, as in combustion, 
compression, comminution ; the latter before all the other consonants 
except /, as in consumption, &c. The final letter of each form of pre- 
fix is assimilated to the /, when this is the following consonant, as in 
collision. Before a and A, the final letter of the prefix is dropped, as in 
coarctation, cohesion, &c. 

CO"MA (coma, hair). I. A head of hair (see CapUlus). 2 A gene- 
ral term for the branches and leaves of trees, derived, by analogy, from 
their collective resemblance to a lie id of hair. 

[CO'MAJ (ft»M<St drowsiness, from kico, to lie). Drowsiness; lethar- 

S'c sleep; dead-sleep; torpor. It consists, according to Dr. George 
arrows, in a " suspension of the functions of the brain, while those of 
the spinal cord remain more or less intact." In coma somnolentum, 
the patient, when roused, immediately relapses into sleep; in coma 
vigil, the patient is unable to sleep, though so inclined. See Cams. 

1. Komata. This term comprises, in Cullen's Nosology, diseases 
characterized by diminution of the powers of voluntary motion, attended 
with sleep or an impaired state of the senses. 

2. Komatose. In a deep sleep; a term implying a morbid condition 
of the brain, attended with loss of sensation and voluntary motion. 

CO'MBATIVENESS (comlxittre, to fight). A term in phrenology 
indicative of a natural disposition in man and the lower animals to 
oppose and attark whatever requires opposition. Its organ is the infe- 
rior-posterior or mastoid angle of the parietal bone. 

COMBINATION' {cum, with, omits, two). The union of the par- 
ticles of different substances, by chemical attraction, in forming new 
compounds. Direct combination is that of metals which admit of being 
fused together into compound metallic masses, termed alloys; com- 
binations of the second degree take place when metals combine with non- 
metallic elements, as oxvgen, sulphur, &c. 

COMBU'STIBLE (comburere s to burn). The designation of a 
body which is capable of combining with oxygen, with the evolution 
of heat and light. Non-combustmes arc, in conventional language, 
bodies which do not burn, but support the combustion of other sub- 

COMBUSTION (comfMrere, to burn). Burning ; the disengage- 
ment of heat and light, which accompanies rapid chemical combination, 
as when carbon is burnt in oxygen gas. Compare Ignition, 

134 COM 

1. Combustion-heat. Animal heat produced by combination of the 
oxygen derived from the air with the carbon and hydrogen of alimentary 

2. Combustion, spontaneous. Combustion effected between two bodies 
at common temperatures, without any application of artificial heat, as in 
the case of arsenic and of antimony in chlorine. This phenomenon is 
said to occur in the human body from the excessive use of ardent 
spirits ; and it does occur when masses of vegetables, as damp hay, or 
oilv cotton, are heaped together. 

3. Combustion in air. Chemical combination of the elements of the 
combustible substance with the oxygeu of the air, attended with deve- 
lopment of heat and light. 

4. Comliustion, slow. A term usually applied to the gradual oxida- 
tion of moist phosphorus : but the term slow oxidation or slow chemical 
action would be more appropriate. 

5. Combustion, supporters of. Substances which combine with in- 
flammable bodies attended by the phenomena of combustion ; oxygen, 
for instance, combines with coal, the former being a supjtoiier of com- 
bustion, the latter a condmstible. 

COMBUSTION and EXPLOSION. These terms should be dis- 
tinguished. A substance which burn* by combining with the oxygen 
of the atmosphere, as wood, coal, sulphur, is combustible : a substance 
which burns without being supplied with air. because it contains within 
itself the oxygen necessary for the combustion of its other combustible 
materials, as gun-powder, gun-cotton, nitro- glycerine, and the fulminates, 
is explosive. The former class of substances burn on their surface only, 
and hum gradually ; the latter may burn simultaneously throughout their 
entire substance % wherein the oxygen is diffused, and hence they burn so 
rapidly as to cause what we call an explosion. See Ignition. 

COMEDO'NES (plur. of comedo, a glutton). Gluttons ; a term 
applied to the inspissated and concreted secretion of the hair-follicles, 
the excretory aperture remaining open. The sebaceous matter may be 
squeezed out, by pressure of the fingers, in the form of a little cylinder, 
and haa acquired the popular designation of worm or grub. See 
Crmones and Steatozoon. 

CO'M MINUTED (comminuere, to break in pieces). A term applied 
to a fracture, when the bone is broken into several pieces ; also to any 
substance which has been ground into minute particles. 

COMMISSU'RA {committer?, to unite). A commissure; a joining 
together ; a term applied to the converging fibres which unite the hemi- 
spheres of the brain. These arc the anterior ct posterior, two white cords 
situated across the anterior and posterior parts of the third ventricle ; 
the commismra magna of the corpuB ca11osuin,and the commissura mol- 
lis, or the gray mass which unites the thalami. 

The term commissure is also applied to the point of union of other 
parts, as of the angles of the lips, of the eyes, &c. ; and, in botany, to 
the line of junction of two carpels. &c. 

within the cranium which passes from the internal carotid to the pos- 
terior cerebral artery. It is a branch of the basilar v. 

COMPA'RISON. A term in phrenology indicative of the reflective 

faculty which investigates analogies, resemblances, and differences. It 

leads to the invention and employment of figurative language. Its 

COM 135 

organ it situated in the middle of the upper part of the forehead, be- 
tween those of Causality, immediately above Eventuality, and below 

COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS. Colours which, by being 
blended together, give rise to the perception of whiteness. 

COMPLE'XUS (complecti, to comprise). A muscle situated at the 
back part of the neck, it is so named fiom the intricate mixture of its 
muscular and tendinous parts. From the irregularity of its origins, 
it has been termed complexus implicuttts trigeminus. Albinus distin- 
guishes it into the biventer. or the upper layer, hitherto called complexus; 
and the complex**, or the lower layer, never before distinguished from 
the rent. 

CO'M POUND. A substance consisting of two or more elements 
held together by chemical attraction. The properties of a compound 
cannot be foreseen from a knowledge of those of its constituents ; herein 
it differs from a mixture, the properties of which can be foretold from a 
knowledge of the proportions of its constituents. 

CO'M POUND ATOM. An atom formed by the union of two 
atoms of different kinds, which may be called component atoms. If the 
latter have not been decomposed by the union, they may be called 
elementary or primary atom*. 

CO'M POUND LEAF. This term is commonly applied to a leaf in 
which several leaflets are connected by one petiole, as that of moun- 
tain ash. But this is, strictly speaking, the ptnnate leaf; the compound 
leaf is the jointed leaf of orange, barberry, &c. 

CO'M POUND MEDICINES. These have been divided into two 
classes, viz.. Officinal Preparations, or ihooe ordered in the pharmaco- 
poeias ; snd Magistral or Extemporaneous Formula, or those constructed 
by the practitioner at the moment. 

CO'MPOUND RADICALS. A term applied in chemistry to 
those combinations of elements which act towards oxygen, hydrogen, 
and acids, as simple elements. See Radicals, Compound. 

CO'M POUNDS. The following terms are applied to compounds : 

1. Binary, ternary, quaternary. These terms refer to the number of 
elements or proximate principles — two, three, or four — which exist in a 
compound. The binary compounds of oxygen, chlorine, iodine, bromine, 
and fluorine, which are not arid, terminate in ide, as oxide, chloride, 
Sec. ; those of all other substances terminate in uret, as hydruret of 
carbon, sulphuret of iron, &c. 

2. Mis, ter, quater. These are Latin numerals indicating the num- 
ber of atoms of acid which are combined with one of the base in a coin- 
pound, as 6i- sulphate of soda, &c. 

3. Dis, Iris, tctnikis. These are Greek numerals, indicating the 
number of atoms of base, which are combined with one of the acid in a 
compound, as rfi-chroroate of lead, &c. No prefix is used when the 
compound consists of one atom of each ingredient. But there are 
many exceptions to these rules : protoxide and deutoxide are frequently 
used for oxide and bin-oxide respectively. 

CO'M PRESS (comprimere, to press). A pad of folded lint or lint n 
fur application to any part where pressure is required. 

COMPRE'SSION, DIGITAL (comprimere, to press together). A 
method of treating aneurysm by pressing on the artery with the linger 
oulr. Sec Flexion, forcible. 

136 CO M— C O N 

CO'MPRE'SSION OF THE BRAIN (comprimere, to press toge- 
ther). A diseased state of the brain, arising from compression by a 
portion of bone, or extravasated blood. It comprises " fracture with 
depression," and indentation of the skull without fracture. 

COMPRESSOR (comprimere, to press). A muscle which com- 
presses a part, as the compressor nasi* compressor urethra, &c. Also a 
surgical instrument for compressing the femoral artery. 

COMPTE-GOUTTES. A drop-reckoner; an instrument for 
ensuring a sufficient degree of accuracy in dispensing medicine by 

[CONA'RIUM] (jewyaptop, dim. of «<L» oc, a cone). A designation 
of the pineal aland, derived from its conical form. 

CONCENTRATIVENESS. A term in phrenology indicative, 
according to Mr. Coombc and the Edinburgh school, of a desire, com- 
mon to man and the lower animals, of permanence in place, of a dispo- 
sition to render permanent emotions and ideas in the mind, and of the 
faculty of maintaining two or more powers in simultaneous and com- 
bined activity ; a faculty disposing to sedentary pursuits and a close and 
steady attention, especially in meditation, to a given object. The organ 
is immediately above Philoprogenitiveness and below Self-esteem. 
Compare Inhahitiveness. 

CONCEPTA'CULUM (concipere, to lay hold of). The name of a 
capsular fruit, consisting of two disunited fulticuli with one separating 
spermophnre, as in asclepias. 

CONCE'PTION (conci/tere, to conceive). The impregnation of the 
ovum — the first stage of grneratHw on the part of the female. False 
conception denotes an irregular production, as that of a mole or other 
preternatural formation. 

CONCE'PTION, MENTAL. A term applied to a rare operation 
of memory, by which objects are depicted on the retina by the mere 
effort of thought. This faculty is said to have belonged to Goethe 
throughout life, and to Dr. Guy during his childhood. 

CO NCHA (a shell-fish, a shell). A term applied to parts resem- 
bling a shell ; thus, we have conclia auris, the external ear ; and concha 
nans, the turbinated portion of the ethmoid bone. 

CONCO'CTION (coHCoquere, to boil together). The act of boilimj a 
substance together with some other substance ; a term formerly applied 
to the process of digestion, but in this sense now obsolete. 

CONCRETION (concrescere, to grow together). A term generally 
applied to calculus, and to osseous deposits in certain organs, as in the 
liver and the lungs. The following distinctions occur : — 

1. Concretions, calcareous. Brittle, earthv deposits, consisting 
chiefly of phosphate of lime, found in the arteries and in the valves of 
the left side of the heart, especially in advanced age. 

2. Concretions, pulmonary. Hard, irregular masses of phosphate of 
lime, about as large as almonds, occurring in the lungs of consumptive 

3. Concretions, salivary. Deposits consisting of the phosphate and 
the carbonate of lime, and occurring tinder the tongue or in the sub- 
stance of the cheek, in the ducts which convey the secretion of the 
salivary elands into the mouth. 

CONCESSION OF THE BRAIN (cmcuierc, to shake together). 
A term simply denoting a shaking or general disturbance of the minute 

CON 137 

parts of tbe brain ; sudden interruption of the functions of the brain, 
canted by a blow, or other mechanical injury of the head. 

CONDUCTOR {conducere, to lead). An instrument used to direct 
the knife or the forceps in surgical operations. Compare Director. 

CONDUCTORS OP HEAT. Bodies which admit the con- 
duction or transmission of heat through their component particles. See 

CONDUTLIC ATE (conduplicare, to double). Doubled together ; 
a term applied, in botany, to a form of vernation or aestivation , in which 
the two sides of a leaf or of a petal are applied parallel ly to the faces of 
each other. 

CONDY'S PATENT FLUID. A red, disinfecting fluid, owing 
its virtue to the oxidizing property of permanganate of potash. 

[CONDYLE] (jcoVAvAot, a knob or knuckle). A rounded emi- 
nence of the joints of several bones, as of the humerus and the 

Kondyto'id (ttdov, likeness). Having the shape of a condyle ; a term 
applied to some of the foramina of the occipital bone, viz.. the anterior, 
through which the lingual nerves pass, and the posteriory through which 
the veins of the neck pass. 

[CONDYLOMA] (tforti/Xot, a knob or knuckle). Mucous tulter- 
cle. A soft, fleshy, wart-like excrescence, of syphilitic character, ap- 
pearing about the anus and pudenda. 

CO'NE. The fruit of the Fir-tree. It is a conical amentum, 
of which the carpels are scale-like, spread open, and bear naked 

CONFE'CTIO (conficere, to make up). A confection. Under this 
tide, the London College comprehends the conserves and electuaries of 
its former pharmacopoeias. 8trictly speaking, however, a conserve 
merely preserves the virtues of recent vegetables by means of sugar ; 
an electuary imparts convenience of form. 

CONFERVAS. A section of algaceous plants, consisting of simple, 
tnbular-jointed species, inhabiting fresh water. Some of these are 
developed in pharmaceutical and other liauids, as crvptococcas inaqualis 
in aqua calami, ulvina myxophila in mucilage of quince-seed, sirocrvsis 
sfi/fica in solution of emetic tartar, &c. Some writers, however, con- 
sider the»e substances to be imperfect roucedinous fungi. 

CONFIGURATION. A term in phrenologv indicative of the 
faculty which investigates forms and figures generally, enables a person 
to remember forms and features, and induces a love of portraits and of 
taking likenesses. Its organ is seated in the internal angle of the orbit, 
and, when large, it pushes the eye-ball outwards and downwards, giving 
its possessor a somewhat squinting appearance, and causing the eyes to 
appear wide apart. 

COT* FLUENT (con/Uiere, to flow together). Growing together ; a 
term synonymous with connate, and denoting, in botany, the cohering 
of homogeneous parts. In medicine, the term is applied to eruptions 
in which the pustules rati together, as in small-pox. Some writers call 
scarlatina nutrl/illi ctwfluentes. 

CONFLUENT and CO'NNATE. Terms employed in describing 
the development of bone. By confluent is meant the cohesion or 
blending together of two bones which were otiginally separate; by 
connate, the ossification of the common fibrous or cartilagu\Q\i% 

138 CON 

bases of two bones proceeding from one point or centre, and so convert- 
ing such bases into one bone, as in the radius and ulna, in the tibia and 
fibula of the frog. In both instances they are to the eve a single bone; 
but the mind, transcending the sentcs, recognizes such single bone as 
being essentially two. 

CONGELATION (congelare, to freeze). The passage of 1 iquids to 
the solid state, particularly as applied to substances which, ordinarily 
existing in the liquid condition, are caused to congeal by the application 
of cold. Thus we speak of the congelation of water, but of the solidifi- 
cation of molten iron. 

CONGENER (con, and genus, kind). A thing of the same race, 
kind, or nature. Hence the term congenerous is applied to diseases of 
the same kind. 

CONGENITAL (conoeuitus, born or grown together with). A term 
applied to diseases which infants have at birth, and, hence, to diseases 
depending on faulty conformation, as hernia, &c. 

CONGESTION {conge >o*, to ama«s). 1. Active congestion con- 
sists in a local fulnefs of the small vessels, analogous to that general 
fulnesB of the vessels of the entire body which constitutes plethora. 

2. Passive congestion denotes torpid stagnation of the blood, ob- 
served in organs whose power of resistance has been greatly exhausted. 

3. Venous congestion denotes congestion of the veins, as well aa 
of the capillaries, whilst inflammation has its principal seat in the 

1. Mr. Krichsen says that " Congestion is always a passive and 
mechanical condition, and hence the term active congestion should not 
be employed. What has been described as 'active congestion ' is in 
reality a variety of the inflammatory process.' 1 

2. Congestion of the Brain. Under this name are included several 
forms of disease very different from one another in the general character 
of their symptoms. One is attended by fever, and is called " brain 
fever;" another is described as " apoplectic " or 4t paralytic stroke ;" a 
third, as a fit, or seizure of •• convulsions ;" a fourth, as an attack of 
" delirium/' or of " wandering." 

CO'NGIUS. This measure among the Romans was equivalent to 
the eighth of an amphora, to a cubic half-foot, or to six sextarii. It is 
equal to our gallon, or a little more. 

CO'NGLORATE {conqlofjare, to father into a ball). The designa- 
tion of a gland of a globular form, without cavity or excretory duct, as 
the mesenteric, inguinal, and axillary glands. 

COXGLO'M ERATE (conglomerai-e, to heap together). The desig- 
nation of a gland composed of various glands, having a common excre- 
tory duct, as the parotid, the pancreas, &c. 

L'O'MINE. An intensely poisonous volatile alkaloid extracted 
from the Conium maculutum, or hemlock. 

CONJUNCTIVA (conjungere, to unite). Adnata tunica. The 
mucous membrane which covers the cornea, the front part of the 
sclerotica, and turns back over the inner surface of the eye-lids. 

1. Conjunctiva, granular. A moibid state of the conjunctiva, con- 
sisting in enlargement of the minute glands, or some other alteration 
in the structure of the part, generally the sequel of purulent oph- 

2. Conjunctivitis. Ophthalmia. A barbarous term for inflammation 

CON. 139 

of the conjunctiva. By addition of the epithets catarrhal is and conta- 
giosa are denoted the catarrhal and the purulent forms of ophthalmia, 

CONNECTIVE {connecter*, to join together). That part of an 
anther which connects its two thecs together. 

CONNECTIVE TISSUE (connecter*, to join together). A term 
applied to the white fibrous or areolar tissue of organized bodies, owing 
to its connecting the various component parts of the frame in such a 
manner as to allow of a greater or less fitedom of motion among them. 
Connective tissue hss been ponularlv described ss a delicate stringy 
rabatauee which binds and packs skin, muscle, fat, blood vessel*, and 
bone all together, ** just as cottou-wool is used to pack up delicate toys 
and instruments " 

CONSANE'SCENT (consanescere, to become whole or sound, as of 
wounds). This term might well be applied to wounds which are in 
progress of healing, and would be a fit analogue to convalescent, as 

Killed to the general state of the system when recovering from disease. 
th terms are used bv Cicero. 

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS. A term in phrenology, indicative of 
the sentiment of justice, or respect for the rights of others, openness to 
conviction, and love of truth. Its organ is seated on the upper part of 
the head, on each side of Firmness, upwards from Cautiousness, and 
backwards from Hope. 

CONSCIOUSNESS. The general term under which are classed 
sensation, emotion, volition, and thought. But what consciousness is, 
we know not ; and " how it is," says Prof. Huxley, " that anything 
so remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as the result of 
irritating nervous tissue, is just as unaccountable as the appearance of 
the Djin when Aladdin tubbed his lamp in the story, or as any other 
ultimate fact of nature." 

Contcvutsnet*, douUe. This term, more properly expressed as a 
divided consciousness, denotes " a double personality showing in some 
measure two separate and independent trains of thought and two in- 
dependent mental capabilities in the same individual, each train of 
thought and each capability being wholly dissevered from the other, 
and the two states in whicfi they respectively predominate subject to 
frequrnt interchanges and alternations." — Ernest \V. Bartlett. 

COXSE'CUTIVE COMBINATION. A term applied to the che- 
mical process by which a series of salts are formed from one another ; 
thus, the quadroxalate of potash is derived in the same way from the 
binoxalate, as the binoxalate itself is derived from the neutral oxalate, 
two atoms of water being displaced by two atoms of hydrated oxalic 
acid. See SntMitution. 

CONSENSUAL MOTIONS. A term applied to two or more 
simultaneous motions, of which the secondary and remoter motions 
are independent of the will. Thus, the iris contracts when the eye is 
open to admit the light. 

CONSE'RVA (conserrare, to keep). A conserve or composition of 
vegetable matter, beaten up with powdered sugar to the consistence of 
a stiff paste, as a means of preserving the distinctive qualities of the 
plant in a fresh state. See Confectio. 

CONSTIPATION (constipare, to cram together). Torpor intrsti- 
ncruM. Costiveness; confinement of the bowels *, the contcuU of \\\e 

140 CON 

bowels being so crammed together as to obstruct the passage. Hence 
the expression tdvu* coacta. 

CONSTITUENT. The vehicle ; a constituent part of a medicinal 
formula, signifying " that which imparts an agreeable form/* See 

CONSTITUTION (constituere, to set or put together). A general 
term for the disposition or nature of anything ; but it has specific and 
technical applications. 1. Thus, the coustitutum of the t*odg, or 
diathesis, denotes the particular condition of the body, comprising the 
"propiia," or peculiarities, as distinguished from the '* communia," or 
grneralities. 2. The constitution of the air denotes that peculiar state 
of the air which induces epidemics, or impresses upon epidemic er 
sporadic diseases their peculiar characters or particular occasions, and 
was designated bv Sydenham as bilious, dysenteric, &c. 

CONSTITUTIONAL WATER. A* technical term employed in 
chemistry to denote that portion of water in a salt which is not generally 
expelled at 212° Fahr., and is in more intimate connexion with the 
chemical properties of the salt than the tcater of crystallization, which 
is generally expelled at this temperature, and is connected with the 
form and colour of the crystals. See Hydration. 

CONSTRl'CTOR {constringere, to 'bind tightly together). 1. A 
muscle which contracts or closes any opening of the body, as that of the 
pharynx, the sphincter ani, &c. 2. A surgical instrument for com- 
pressing a part of the bod v. 

CONSTRU'CTIVENESS. A term in phrenology indicative of the 
desire in man to construct works of art, and in the lower animals to 
build nests, to burrow, to make huts, &c. Its organ is situated at the 
lower part of the temple, or that part of the temporal bone which it 
immediately above the spheno-tcmporal suture. 

CONSUMPTION (consumere, to waste away). Emaciation or 
wasting away of the body. ' Pulmonary consumption is termed phthisis 
put mono/is ; mesenteric consumption, marasmus. 

CONTABESCE'NTIA (contabcscerc, to waste away). Atrophy, or 
consumption : wasting away of every organ. 

CONTACT1LE DISCRIMINATION. The facultv of detecting 
the double impression made on the surface of the body when two points 
are made simultaneously to touch it within a given distance of each 
other. See Diaphoromctric Compass. 

CONTA'GION {contagium y for contagiosa, touching, from contwftre, 
to touch, take hold of). This term, and Infection, generally denote the 
transmission of a poisonous principle. When the transmission it 
effected by a material substance, and is brought about by actual contact, 
the term contagion (immediate contagion) is employed ; but when 
transmission is effected through the agency of the winds, and at a 
distance, the mode of communication is called infection (mediate 
contagion). In other words, when the poisonous principle is volatile 
and communicable through the medium of the atmosphere, it it t»- 
fectiom ; when this diffusibility is absent, it is contagious. 

CONTA'GIUM VIVUxM. A theory respecting germs and their 
development, according to which it is affirmed that germs are the first 
causes of disease. 

CONTINUED DISEASE. A term applied to a disease with 
reference to its form or type, and denoting that it runs its course with- 

CON 141 

out interruption of iu symptoms. Simple continued /ever is continued 
fever having no specific character. 

CONTO'RTED (contortus, twitted). Twisted in such a manner 
that each piece of a whorl, in botany, overlaps its neighbour by one 
margin, ana is overlapped by its other neighbour by the other margin, as 
in the aestivation of oleander. See /Eslitatvn. 

CONTRACTI'LITY {contrahere, to draw together^. The property 
by which bodies contract. 1. The property by which the fibrous 
tissues return to their former dimensions, after being temporarily 
extended. 2. The property of the muscular fibre, by which it shortens 
in length, on the application of a stimulus, while it increases its other 
dimensions. See irritability. 

CONTRA'CTION (contrahere, to draw together). An abnormal and 
permanent alteration in the relative position and forms of parts, as in 
club-foot and wry-neck. Also, a decrease of volume, occasioned by 
diminution of temperature. 

CONTRA-F1SSURA (contra, against, fissura, a cleft). A fracture 
of the skull, produced by a contrt-cuup opposite to the part on which 
the blow is received. 

CONTRA-INDICANT {contra, against, indicare, to show). A 
circumstance which indicates that a certain mode of treating a par- 
ticular disease is not to be adopted; such treatment is, in fact, contra- 

CONTRA-STI'MULANT. That which acta in opposition to sti- 
mulants; that which diminishes excitability. Under this name Rasori 
explained his new medical doctrine of the susceptibility of living beings 
to exciting influences, and of their power of reacting against these 
influences; and, hence, all medicines were reduced by him to two 
cla s s es s t imu l a n ts and contra- stimulant*. 

CONTRA-8TIMULANTS. Hyposthenics. A class of medicines 
which counteract the effects of stimulants, and depress the vital energies. 

CONTRE-COUP. A term applied to that variety of indirect 
fracture of the skull, in which the solution of continuity occurs at a 
point of the cranium opposite to that which has been struck. This is 
called fracture by contre-coup. 

CONTRECTATIO (coutrectare, to handle). A handling ; a term 
applied to the ooeration for aneurysm, by manipulation. 

CONTU'SUM (contundere, to bruise). Contusion; a bruise; a 
lesion occasioned by a blow from a blunt body, without apparent wound. 
If the skin be divided, the lesion is called a contused wound. 

CO'NUS. A cone; a conical body, as the conus anteriosus or in- 
fundibulum of the ventricle of the heart; the coni rena/ct, or conical 
masses forming the tubular portion of the kidney ; the coni vasculosis 
or conical convolutions of the vasa efSucntia, constituting the epi- 

CONVALESCENCE (convaletctre, to grow strong). The state of 
recovery ; the period between the termination of a disease and complete 
restoration to health. See Consanescent. 

CONVOLU'TA OSSA (convotutus, rolled together). A term 
applied to the upper and lower turbinated bones of the nose. 

CON'VOLUTE (convolutus, rolled together). Rolled together ; a 
term applied, in botany, to a form of vernation or aestivation, iu which 
one leaf or petal is wholly rolled up in another leaf or petal. 

142 C O N— C O R 

CONVOLUTION (convuloere, to roll together). The state of any- 
thing which is rolled upon itself. Hence the term is applied to the 
windings and turnings of the cerebrum, called gyri ; and to the foldings 
of the small intestines. 

CONVU'LSION (convellere, to pull together). Mnnbrorum 
distentio ; eclampsis. Violent irregular contraction of the muscles ot 
animal life, or those of voluntary motion, with alternate relaxations, 
commonly called *jit. See Spasm. 

CONVULSI'VA. Spastica. Agents which augment the irrita- 
bility of muscles, and excite spasm and convulsion, as strychnia and 
bruc.ia. These excite common sensibility, and act as hypcrasthetic agents. 

COOPER'S SALTS. A cheap material consisting of a mixture ot 
chlorides, of considerable deodorizing power. 

COPAIVA or COPAIBA. An oleo resin procured from the 
Copaifera multiju'/a and other species. It is incorrectly called a 
balsam, as it contains no benzoic or cinnamic acid. 

[COPHCS1S] (*tt>f/>u><riv, bluntncss, deafness, dulness of the senses 
or mind). A term generally restricted to deafness. 

COPPER (Cuprum, quasi as Cyprinm, from the island Cyprus, 
where it was first wrought). A red metal, found in the common ore 
called C(tjtper pyrites, a double sulphide of copper and iron. Among its 
compounds are red copper, or the suboxide; black cojvper, or the pro- 
toxide ; copper glance, or the protosulphide ; resin ofconper, the proto- 
chloride or white muriate ; and the while cttpper of the Chinese, an 
alloy of copper, zinc, nickel, and iron. 

CO'PPEKAS. A technical name for protosulphate of iron, also 
railed ferrous sulphate, and green vitriol. It is a mineral composed ot 
copper or iron combine I with sulphuric acid (vitriol), found in copper* 
mines, commonly of a green or blue colour. Blue copperas it sulphate 
ofconper, also called blue vitriol, and blue stone. 

COPPER-COLIC. Colic occasioned by chronic poisoning by copper; 
incidental to copper -plate printers. 

COPPER COLOUR. The u copper-colour " of the syphilitic tu- 
bercle is, properly speaking, a reddish yellow brotcn ; it is the red-brown 
with a slight admixture of yellow. 

[CO'PRAGOGUES] (ko'*>>o«, faeces, aycuyot, expcllcr). Ecco- 
protica. Purgatives ; medicines for expelling frcces. 

[COPROPHO'RIA] (Kowpo*, dung, fa;ccs, and 4>opia>, to carry). 
The carrying of dung; the act of purging. 

[COPRO'STASIS] (Kowpot, faices, 'l«Tnpi, to make to stand). 
Costivencss ; undue retention of the farces in the intestines. 

COR, CORDIS. The heart, the central organ of circulation ; figu- 
ratively the of feeling and passion. It corresponds with the Creek 
words Ktip. contracted from **ao, and Kdfio'iu, both signifying the heart. 

[CO'RACOID] PROCESS (k6 P h£, tdpttKO*. a crow, tUot, likeneas). 
The crow's beak -sha/x'd ojfchoot ; a process of bone arising from the 
upper part of the neck of the scapula, and named from its resemblance 
to a crow's beak. It was also formerly named the ankyroid process, 
though in one passage Galen uses the name as synonymous with 
akromion, and as distinguished from that process. 

Korako-ftrackialis. A muscle arising from the apex of the korakoid 
process, and inserted into the inner side of the middle of the humerus, 

COR'ALLINE. A red organic colouring matter, derived from 

COR 143 

carbolic (pbenic) acid, and capable of producing poisonous effects, as in 
sock -poisoning. 

CO'RDIALS (cor, tlie heart). Cardiacs. Warm medicines ; medi- 
cines which increase the action of the heart, or quicken the circula- 

[CORETO'MIA] KORETOM1A. This term, and some others 
compounded with hart (fopi)), the pupil, will be found in their proper 
place under the letter A. 

CO'RIUM (xoptur, skin, hide, leather). A term sometimes em- 
ployed as synonymous with derma, or the internal layer of the skin. 
See, however, Chorum, which is derived from the Greek \6ptov, though 
the Latin dictionaries refer the term cot turn to the same origin. 

[CO'RMOGENS] («o/>/uot, the trunk of a tree, yivo^ai, to be pro- 
duced). A term applied, in botany, to a class of Acrogens, in which 
there is a distinct axis of growth, or stem and root, symmetrically 
clothed with leaves. Jn these we find a trace of something equivalent 
to the sexes of Exogetit and Endocens. They comprise the Ferns, 
Mosses, Equisetums, &c. See Thalfot/ens. 

[CO'RMUS] (*rtf>fiov, the trunk of* a tree). The enlarged subterra- 
nean base of the stem of Colchicum, of Arum, &c, falsely called root 
or bulb. 

CORN (cornu, a horn). A growth of thickened cuticle, not merely 
lying upon the true skin, like a callosity, but penetrating into it. What 
are called soft corns, between the toes, are not always corns, but fun- 
gous warts, growing from the cutis vera. 

CO'RNEA {conieus, horny). Corn- a pelhtdda. The transparent 
horny portion of the external tunic of the eye, fitting into the 
sclerotica as a watch-glass fits into its frame. Cornea opaca is a 
term formerly applied to the sclerotica; it is synonymous with aUmtjo 
and leucoma. 

Cornea onica or cacuminata. A disease in which the cornea, re- 
taining its transparency, projects in a conical or sugar-loaf form. Tho 
affection is sometimes called honoj-hthalmia and transparent staphy- 

CORNEITIS. An uuclassical term for keratitis or inflammation 
of the cornea. Corneitis interstitialis s. diffusa is distinguished by a 
general, minute mottling of the whole structure of the cornea. 
Corneitis patmosa is characterized by uniform opacity, traversed by 
long veins, resembling apiece of red cloth or pan n us. 

CORNL'CULA LARY'NGIS (cornicutwn, a little horn). Capitula 
Santorini. Two small pyriform cartilages surmounting the summit of 
the arytenoid cart i laces. 

COKNU AMMO'NIS (cornu, a horn). A designation of the pes 
bi/tpocanpi of the brain, from its being bent like a ram's horn, tho 
famous crest of Jupiter Amnion. 

CORNU CE'RVI. Stag's or Hart's horn ; the horn and horn- 
shavings of the Cervus Elcphas, formerly so much used for the pre- 
paration of ammonia, that the alkali was commonly called Salt or SjnrU 
of' Hartshorn. 

CORNU HUMA'NUM. The human horn ; a horny substance pro- 
duced by induration of the secretion of a sebiferous duct or hair-folli- 
cle, and its projection through the aperture of the ta<*. 

CORNU UsTUM. Burnt horu ; phosphate of lime, prepared frwxv. 

144 COR 

horn by fire. Spiritus cornu usti is the result of the destructive distil- 
lation of hartshorn. 

CORNU A OF THE VENTRICLES (cornu, a horn). Each lateral 
ventricle of the brain has been divided into a body or central portion ; 
an anterior or diverging oornu ; a posterior or converging cornu ; and an 
inferior or descending cornu : hence the appellation of tricorne, applied 
to tins cavity. 

CORNUA SACRALIA (cornu, a horn). Horns of the sacrum; 
two tubercles, forming notches, which transmit the last sacral 

CORNUA UTERI (cornu, n horn). The horn-like appearance of 
the angles of the uterus in certain animals. 

CORO'LLA (dim. of corona, a crown). Literally, a little crown. 
The internal envelope of the floral apparatus. Its separate pieces are 
called petals ; when these are distinct from one another, the corolla is 
termed poly-petalous ; when they cohere, gamo-peUdous, or incorrectly 
mono-petalous. The petals of a corolla, as well as the sepals of a 
calyx, are leaves metamorphosed for their special function, and liable 
to resume the typical state of leaves if exposed to any disturbing cause. 

CORO'LLIFLO'RjE (corolla, the inner envelope of the flower, 
4o«, a flower). A sub-class of exogenous plants, characterized by the 
presence of a calyx and a corolla, and by united petals, bearing the 

CORO'NA. A crown ; whatever surrounds any ports like a crown, 
as the corona gl 'and is, the prominent margin of the glans penis; corona 
tubulorum, a circle of minute tubes surrounding each of Fever's glands, 
opening into the intestine, but closed at the other extremity; corona 
Veneris, a term for venereal blotches appearing on the forehead ; corona 
or zona ciliaris, the indented circle on the vitreous humor, caused by 
the ciliary processes. Hence also the terms coronal, applied to a suture 
of the skull ; and coronary, applied to vessels, net ves, a valve of the 
heart, &c. 

CORONAL ASPECT (corona, the crown of the head). An aspect 
towards the plane of the corona or crown of the head. The term coro- 
nod is used adverbially to signify " towards the coronal aspect/ 1 See 
Anatomy % page 32. 

[COKO'NE] (k op to m, a crow). The acute process of the lower 
jaw-bone ; so named from its supposed likeness to a crow's bill. 

[CORO'NOID] (Kopunni % a crow, tI6ot, likeness). The designa- 
tion of a process of the ulna, from its being shaped like a crow's 

CORPSE (corpus, a body). This term is now restricted to a body 
without life (cadaver), but it was formerly applied also to the body of 
a living person. — " A valiant corpse, where force and beauty met. ' — 

CORPSE-LIGHT. A name applied by miners to the blue flame 
which is frequently observed to play around the candles, indicating that 
the quantity of fire damp in the mine is only a little below that lequired 
to form an explosive mixture. It is called also corpse-candle. 

CO'KPULENCE (corpus, the body). An excessive increase of the 
body from accumulation of fat. As a remedy, Mr. William Banting 
recommended, from his own experience, great moderation in the use of 
sugar and starch in diet See Obesity. 


CO'RPUS. A body. Plural, Corpora. Hence— 

1. Corpora alUcantia, mammUlaria % vcl pin/or mia. Two white, 
mamroiliary, pisiform bodies, situated behind the tuber cinereum, and 
between the crura cerebri. They are also called corpora bulti fornicis y 
from their forming part of the crura of the fornix. 

2. Corpora amylaeea. Laminated bodies found in the prostate, oc- 
casionally accumulating so as to form prostatic concretions. 

3. Corpora Arantii, Tel sesanvtidea. Three small, hard tubercles, 
of the size of sesamum-seeds, situated on the points of the three semi- 
lunar valves of the heart, and named after Arantius of Bologna. 

4. Corpora cavernosa (caverna, a cavern). Two lengthened bodies, 
constituting the chief bulk of the body of the penis. They are sepa- 
rated by an incomplete partition, named septum pectinifitrme. 

5. Corpora gcniculata (geniculuro, a knot). Two knotty prominences, 
the external and the internal, at the inferior surface of the thalami ner- 
vorum opticortim. 

6. Corpora Ma/piyhiana. Splenic vesicles; small, white, roundish 
bodies, embedded in the splenic pulp, and connected with the twigs of 
the small arteries. 

7. Corpora olivaria. Two o/rre-shaped eminences of the medulla 
oblongata. On making a lection of the corpus olivarc, an oval medul- 
lary substance is seen, surrounded by cineritious matter, and called 
corpus dmtatum eminentia oliraris. 

8. Corpora pjframidalia. Two narrow convex cords, situated one 
on each side of the anterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata. 

9. Corpora qu-idrigemina. Tho four optic lobes, situated immediately 
behind the third ventricle and posterior commissure. The anterior pair 
arc termed nates ; the posterior pair, testes. 

10. Corpora resti/urmia (restis, a cord). Two cord-like processes, 
extending from the inedulla oblongata to the cerebellum. 

11. Corpora striata (stria, a streak). Two streaky eminences in the 
lateral ventricle, termed by Gall the 4 great superior ganglion of the 

12. Corpus af/tieans vel nigrum. A small whitish or dark-coloured 
mass— the reduced corpus luteum, after parturition. 

13. Corpus callosum (callus, hardness). The hard substance which 
communicates between the hemispheres of the brain ; also called com- 
missura magna. 

14. Corpus cavemosum vagina. The erectile spongy tissue of the 
vajrina, termed by Degraaf retiforme y or net-like. 

15. Corpus cUiare. The radiated wreath or circle consisting of the 
ciliary processes, or triangular folds, formed apparently by the plaiting 
of the middle and internal layer of the choroid. 

1G. Corpus dentatum vcl serratum. A yellowish matter which ap- 
pears on making a section of the crura cerebelli. 

17. Corpus Jimltriatum (fimbria, a fringe). A narrow white band — 
the lateral thin edge of the fornix, also called tctnia hippocampi. 

18. Corpus genieulatum externum et internum. Two rounded eleva- 
tion* of the thalami optici. 

19. Corpus I/igkmorianum. A prominence of the superior part of 
the testis, so called from High more of Oxford. See Mediastinum testis. 

20. Corpus luteum (luteus, yellow). The cicatrix left in the ovarium, 
in consequence of the bursting of a uraaffian vesicle. 


146 COR 

21. Corpus pampini/orme (pampinus, a tendril, forma, likeness). A 
tendril-like plexus of the spermatic vein. 

22. Corpus papillare. The soft, pulpy, gelatinous matter which rests 
on the retc mucosum of the skin. 

23. Corpus psallo'ides. Another name for the lyra, considered by 
Oall as the general union of the communicating filaments of the fornix. 
See Psallo'ides. 

24. Corpus rltomftoidenm. Ganglion of the cerebellum ; a gray body 
observed in the centre of the white substance of the cerebellum, if an 
incision be made through the outer third of the organ. 

25. Corpus spongiosum (spongia, a sponge). A lengthened body 
situated in the groove upon the under surface of the two corpora caver- 

CORPU'SCULUM (dim. of corpus, a body). A corpuscle, or small 
body. 1. Corpuscuta amylacea are small bodies, resembling starch- 
granules, found in the lining membrane of the ventricles. of the brain, 
in states of disease. 2. Corpuscuta tactvs is a term given by Wagner 
to certain oval-shaped nervous masses enveloped by the nervous 
papillae destined for the famltv of touch ; these are the uxile corpuscles 
ofKolliker. 3. Corpuscuia Purkinge are minute cells scattered abun- 
dantly through the substance of bone. 4. Corpuscuia tiilenis are 
minute whitish spots scattered through the substance of the spleen. 
See Tactile Corpuscle. 

CORRELATION. A term applied bv Mr. W. R. Grove, in his 
Essay on the " Correlation of Physical Forces," to reciprocal rela- 
tions of phenomena, such as heat and electricity, electricity and mag- 
netism, &c. The application of the word has latterly Wen extended to 
classes of phenomena which might be more accurately referred to 

Correlation of growth. A term denoting the empirical law that cer- 
tain structures, not necessarily or usually connected together by any 
discoverable link, invariably co-exist or are associated with each other, 
but do not, so far as human observation goes, oceur apart. Thus the 
presence of mammary glands is associated with two condyles, but not 
with a single condyle, on the occipital hone; ruminating animals, but 
no others, have cleft feet; cats which arc entirely white, and have blue 
eyes, are usually deaf. 

CO'RRIGENS (corrigcre, to make straight). A constituent nart of 
a medicinal formula, signifying " that which corrects its operation. ' See 

CORROBORANTS (corrofnrare, to strengthen). Remedies which 
impart strength and give tone. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE (cormdere, to eat away). Mercuric 
chloride. The perchloride of mercury, lately the bichloride, formerly 
the oxymuriate. See Hydrargyrum. 

CORRO'SIVES (corrodere, to eat away). Substances which have 
the power of wearing awav or consuming bodies, as caustics, &c. 

CORRUGATOR SUPERCI'LII {corrugare, to wrinkle). A mus- 
cle which knits and contracts the brow into wrinkles. 

CORTEX. The bark, rind, or outer covering of plants. The term 
it sometimes applied to other envelopes, as cortex ort, or egg- 

CORTI, FIBRES OF. Cortis Rods. Minute, rod like bodies, of 

C O R— C O T 147 

definite form and length, and more or less of cellular structure, found 
io the scala media of the cochlea, the vibration* of which are supposed 
to act directly upon the fibres of the auditory nerve. 

CORTICAL SUBSTANCE {cortex, bark). The exterior part of 
the brain, also termed cineritious, and of the kidney. 

CCRYMB {corymbas, a cluster of ivy- berries, or the like). A form 
of inflorescence, in which the lower stalks are so long that their flowers 
are elevated to the same level as that of the uppermost flowers. The 
expansion of the flowers of a corymb is centripetal. See Fascicle. 

Corymbose. This term is applied to a singular and fatal form of 
smalt-pox* in which the eruption appears in patches or clutters. 

[CORY'ZAJ («of>v£a, from noppu, or */(p», the head). An inflam- 
matory affection of the mucous membrane lining the nose, and its 
contiguous cavities, usually arising from cold. It is also called yravedo, 
nasal catarrh, cold in the head, &c. See Catarrh. 

[COSMETIC] (koct pyrin 6s skilled in decorating, from ko«t>iov, 
order). To what ''base uses'" may a word descend, when a derivative 
of kosmos, which represents the universe, from its perfect order and 
arrangement, as opposed to the indu/esta moles of Chaos, is known only 
aa a remedy for improving the complexion, atid removing blotches and 
freckles from the face ! 

CO'SMOLIN E. A yellow, semi-solid body obtained from petroleum, 
and supposed to be a mixture of paraffins. 

COOT A. A rib. The ribs are divided into— 

1. The true, or sterno-vertebral. The upper seven pairs, so called 
because they are united by their cartilages to the sternum ; they are 
called cusUideSy or the preservers of the heart. 

2. TUeJalse, or vertebral. The remaining five pairs, which are suc- 
cessively united to the lowest true rib, and to each other. The last 
two are called y&xi/iny ribs. 

3. The vertebral extremity of a rib is called the head; the contracted 
part which adjoins it forms the neck; at the back of the rib is the 
twtterde; further outward the bone bends forwards, producing the angle y 
from which proceeds the body, which passes forwards and downwards, 
to the sternal eatremity. 

A. Coital. A term applied to the cartifofjes which serve to prolong 
the ribs forward to the anterior part of the thorax. 

5. Co*to-. A word compounded with several terms denoting 
muscles arising from the ribs. Hence we have costo-altdominafis, 
another name for the obliquus ex tern us abdominis, descendens, or 
external flat muscle of the a Women ; costo-clavicularis or sub-clavius 
muscle ; costo-coracoideus or pectoral is minor muscle ; costo-wapularis 
or scrratus magnus muscle ; aud costo-truchelius or scalenus anticus 

CC8TIVENESS. This term is perhaps a corruption of constipa- 
tion, undue retention of the faeces in the bowels. 

COTTON. The filamentous covering of the seeds of several species 
o{ Gossypium, a genus of Malvaceous plants, indigenous in India and 
America, and quite distinct from the genus Dombax, a species of which 
it frequently called Cotton-tree and Silk Cotton-tree. 

[COTYLE'DON] KoruXuiwv, a cavitv). The seed-lobe of a 
plant. Plants have been distinguished, with reference to the number 
of their cotvledous, into dicotyledonous, or those which nave Vro 

L 'J 

148 COT-COX 

cotyledons in their ieeds; mono-cottffedonou-% or those which have only 
one ; and a-coti/ledonous, or those which have none. 

[COTYLOID] CAVITY («ortfAn, a small cup, tWoc, like- 
ess). A designation of the acelalmlum, or socket of the hip-bone, 
derived from its deep cup-shaped cavity. 

COUCHING. The depression or displacement of a cataract ; an 
operation consisting in the depression of the opaque lens below the axis 
of vision, by means of a needle. See Reel mat ion. 

COU'MARIN. The odoriferous principle of the Tonka- bean, the 
produce of Coumarouna odorata, of the flowers of Melilotus officinalis, 
of the sweet- seen ted vernal grass, &c. Sec Hay-Fever. 

COUNTER-EXTENSION. A means of reducing a fracture, by 
making extension in the opposite direction. See Extension. 

COUNTER INDICATION. An indication contrary to another 
indication; a circumstance which forbids the application of a remedy 
which had been indicated by other circumstances. 

COUNTER- IRRITATION. Antagonism. The production of an 
artificial or secondary disease, in order to relieve another or primary 
one. Dr. Parry calls this the " cure of diseases by conversion. ' But 
as the secondary disease is not always a state of irritation, Pereira sug- 
gested the use of some other term, as counter-morbific. The practice is 
also called derivation and revulsion. 

COUNTER-OPENING. Contra-apertura. An opening made in 
a second part of an abscess opposite to a first. 

COUP-DE-SANG. Blood stroke. An instantaneous and universal 
congestion, without any escape of blood from the vessels. This it a 
form of haemorrhage, occurring in the brain, the lungs, &c. 

COUP-DE-SOLEIL. Insolatio ; erethismus tropicus ; heat-apoplexy 
or sun-stroke. An affection of the head, produced by exposure to the 
ravs of the sun, allied to simple npoplexy. 

COUP or TOUR-DE-MAITRE. A mode of introducing the 
sound, with the convexity directed towards the abdomen. 

COUPERO'SE (the French term for copperas). Goutle-rose. The 
Aknc, or gutta rosacea, or carbuncled face ; so named from the redness 
of the spots. See Acne. 

COW-ITCH or COWHAGE. A substance procured from the 
strong, brown, stinging hairs, covering the legume of Mucuna prurient, 
and employed as a mechanical anthelmintic. 

COWPfcR'S GLANDS. Accessory Glands. Two small lobulated 
glands, of about the size of peas, placed parallel to each other before 
the prostate *• gland." 

COW-POX. The small-pox of cattle ; the vernacular name for 
Vaccinia, from its having been derived from the cow. See Vac- 

CO'XA. The hip, or haunch; the hip-bone ; the joint of the hip. 
The term is synonymous with coxendix. 

1. Os coram m. Another term for the ot iliacum, more generally 
known by the name os innominatum. 

*2. Cox-alt/ia (a\<yot, pain). Morltus coxa. A hybrid term for 
ischialgia, or pain of the hip or haunch. As the hip-joint consists of 
three distinct parts, the disease presents the three forms, arthritic, 
acetafmlar, %x\a' femoral. 

COXjELU'VIUM {com, the hip, lavare, to wash). The hip-bath, or 

C R A-C R E 149 

dsmi-baU of the French, in which the patient it immersed as high as to 
the umbilicus or hip. 

CR A B- LOUSE. The pediculus pubis, or morpio ; a species of louse 
distinguished by the cheloid structure of its leg a, and frequently induc- 
ing local prurigo ; it is found chiefly infesting the groins of uncleanly 

CRAB- YAWS. The name given in the West Indies to hard ex- 
crescences occurring on the sole of the foot See Frambcma. 

CRAMP (Krampf, German, contraction). Spasm; sudden and 
violent contraction of the muscles. 

[CRA'NIUMJ (ftpaWor, the skull). The skull, or cavity which 
contains the brain, its membranes, snd vessels. The inner and outer 
surfaces of the bones are composed of compact layers, called the external 
ox fibrous, and the internal or vitreous, tablet of the skull. There is 
an intermediate cellular texture, termed diploe, which it similar to the 
cancelli of other bones. 

1. Crattio-dasm (*A«'», to break into pieces). An operation for 
diminishing the festal head in cases of dangerous parturition, proposed 
to be employed instead of craniotomy and cephalotripsy. 

'2. Cranio-looy (Aoyov, discourse). A description of the external 
form of die human skull, as indicative of mental powers and moral 
qualities. It is also termed phrenology. 

3. Cranio- $copy {a Koir ia», io observe). An inspection of the skull. 
Dr. Pritchard characterized the primitive forms of the skull according 
to the width of the bregma, or space between the parietal bones : hence 
we have — 

a. The steno bregmate (aTtpot % narrow), or -/Ethiopian variety. 
fl. The meso-bregmaU («tf <ro«, middle), or Caucasinn variety. 
y. The platy-bregmate (-rXarvr, broad), or Mongolian variety. 

4. Cramio-tabet. Softening of the cranium, which yields elostically, 
like card-board ; occurring in rickets. 

5. Cranio-tomy (-rr^fj, incision). The operation of opening the 
head of the fetus in parturition, by means of perforating instniments, 
crashing the skull and removing the fragments. 

CRA'PULA (tpaiirdAft, the result of a debauch). Drunkenness, 
debauch; especially in its consequences, the next day's head-ache, 
sickness, Ac. 

[CRA'SIS] Upafftt, a blending together, from Ktp&vvvm, to mix). 
A mixture of the constituents of a liquid, as of the blood. The 
term it also synonymous with temperament, which conveys the same 

CRASSAME'NTU M (erassus, thick). The cruor, or clot of blood, 
consisting of fibrin and red globules with serum. 

CREAM OP TARTAR. Potavm tartras acida. An acid salt 
obtained from the crude tartar which is deposited during the fermenta- 
tion of grape-juice. 

CREASOTE and CREATIN. These terms will be found in 
their proper place under the letter K. 

CREEPING SICKNESS (Kriebelkrankheit). The name by which 
the gansrenoas form of Ergotism is known in Germany. 

[CREM ASTER] («piM««, to suspend). A muscle which arises 
from the middle of Poupart's ligament, and is inserted into the os pubis. 
It draws up or suspends the testis. 

150 C R E-C R I 

Kremasteric aitertf. Spcrmatica externa ; a branch of the epigastric 
artery which supplies the cremastcr muscle. 

CREMATION (cremare, to burn, to consume by fire). The 
destruction of the sort parts of the body and the calcination of the bones 
by fire. 

[CREMOCA'RPIUM] (*piM«», to suspend, *npiro«, fruit). A 
dry, compound fruit, breaking up longitudinally into indehisccnt cocci, 
which are suspended, for a time, from a bipartite carpophore, as in 
Um belli ferae. See Schizocurp and Pohkenium. 

CRE'MOR PTI'SAN^: (cremor, thick juice, ir-ruon?, barley- 
groats). The thick juice of barley ; panada- water ; gruel of frumenty. 

[CRE'NIC] ACID (*pii»n, » fountain). Krcnic Acid. A term 
applied by Berzelius to a species of extractive matter contained in spring 
water. This name is also applied to an acid found combined with am- 
monia in vegetable mould. 

CREPITATION (crepitate, to creak). The grating sensation, or 
noise, occasioned by pressing the finger upon a part affected with em- 
physema ; or by the ends of a fracture when moved ; or by certain salts 
during calcination. 

CRE'PITUS (crept/are, freq. of creparc, to crackle). A crackling 
noise, as crepitus dentium, gnashing < f the teeth ; the peculiar rattle 
of pneumonia; the grating made by joints, from a deficiency of 
synovia ; the grating together of the rough surfaces of broken bone, &c 

[CRE'SYL] (frpeat, flesh, 6At|, matter). A radical hydro-carbon 
existing in crude kreasote. Cresylic alcohot or cresol is an oily liquid ex- 
tracted from coal-tar, homologous with phenvlic alcohol or carbolic acid. 

CRETA. Chalk ; a native friable carbonate of lime, commonly 
called whiting ; used in producing carbonic acid gas. 

CRETIFlCATION (creta, chalk, fieri, to become). The forma- 
tion of earthy and other matter, into which tubercle sometimes 

CRETINISM. "A condition of imperfect development and de- 
formity of the whole body, especially of the head, occurring in the 
valleys of certain mountainous districts, and attended by feebleness or 
absence of the mental faculties and special senses, and often associated 
with goitre/' — Norn, of J)ig. The term is supposed to be derived 
from artiita, a miserable creature ; and the various names, cretin, trot" 
tetn, laJlcn, qoclcen, cagot, &c., all convey a similar meaning. See Goitre. 

1. Complete Cretinism. Incurable cretinism. u Cretinism, character- 
ized by idiotcy, deaf-dumbness, deficiency of general sensibility, and 
absence of the reproductive power/* 

2. Incomftfete Cretinism. Curable cretinism. " A degree of cre- 
tinism in which the mental faculties, though limited, are capable of 
development ; the head is moderately well-formed and erect, the special 
senses, the faculty of speech, and the reproductive powers are present.** 
— Norn. ofDis. 

CRI'BRIFORM (cribriformis, from cribrum^ a sieve, and forma, 
likeness). Sieve-like; a term applied to the plate of the ethmoui bone, 
from its being perforated like a sieve; and to a fascia connected with 
the sheath ot the femoral vessels, forming one of the coverings of femo- 
ral hernia, perforated with numerous openings for the passage of lym- 
phatic vessels. 

/CRl'CO-] (jcpixoc, a ring). A word compounded with several 


terms denoting muscles of the chorda* v oca let and riroa glottidis. as 
the crico-thyroideus, &c. The crico-thyroid membrane is one of the 
three ligaments which connect the cricoid to the thyroid cartilage. The 
term cricoid is applied to a ring-like cartilage of the larynx. 

CR I'NONES. Grubs; a secretion from the sebaceous glands, ap- 
pearing on the arms, legs, and back of infants; a synonym of come- 
d*mes, but derived, perhaps, from crinu, a hair, suggestive of the /arm 
of the contents of the glands — hair-like, t/luttons ! 

CRI'SIS (*pi*t*, to decide). Literally, a decision or judgment Au 
event or period, which marks changes or terminations in disease. 

CRPSTA GALLI. A cock's comb; and hence the cristiform or 
comb-like process of the ethmoid bone. 

CRITICAL («rp/*«*, to decide). A term applied to symptoms or 
periods especially connected with changes in a disease, as sudden per- 
spiration, diarrhoea, or a deposit in the urine ; and to certain day$ upon 
which febrile disorders are prone to take a favourable turn. 

CRO'CUS (Kpoicox). Saffron; a substance consisting of the dried 
stigma and part of the style of Crocus satirus t or saffron crocus. 

The term Crocus was formerly apolied to oxides and other prepara- 
tions of the metals, from their saffron colour : thus we have crocus 
mortis, or oxide of iron ; crocus mctaUoruni, or oxide of antimony ; 
crocus Veneris, or oxide of copper. 

CROSS-BIRTH. Parodinia perversa. Labour impeded by preter- 
natural presentation of the foetus or its membranes. 

ICROTA'PHITES] («f>OTa</>iTi/v, of the *pora0ov, or the 
temples). The term pi/f, or muscle, being understood, we have 
here another name of the temporalis muscle, occupying a considerable 
extent of the side of the head and filling the temporal iossa. 

[CROTAPHITIC] NERVE (xpora<t>nv, the temple). A name 
given by Palletta to a portion of the Fifth Pair, which he considered 
to be divided into three parts, viz., the common trunk of the fifth pair, 
or portio major ; the krotaphitic, agreeing with the portio minor of 
other anatomists ; and the buccinator. 

CROTON-OIL. Oil of tiglium. A drastic oil procured from the 
seeds of Croton tit/Hum, or Purging Croton, a Euphorbiaceous plant 
growing in tropical countries. 

Croton-chtoral. The eh I orated aldehyde of crotonic acid. It pos- 
sesses no relation whatever to croton oil. 

[CRO'TOPHUS] (*|h»tov, a pulse). Crotophium. A term import- 
ing i«inful pulsation, or throbbing in the temple. 

CROUP. The Cynanche tracheal is of Cullen, now Angina trachea- 
lis; a specific inflammation of the trachea and air- tubes, named from 
the crouping noise attending it. This noise is similar to the sound 
emitted by a chicken affected with the pip* which in some parts of 
Sortland is called roup ; hence, probabl v, the term croup. 

1. Catarrhal Croup. A term applied to several supposed varieties of 
croup, called pseudo-membranous, inflammatory, asthenic, spasmodic, 
nervous, Ac, especially when these varieties have terminated favour- 
ably. Epidemic croup is, strictly, diphtheria. 

i False Crouv. A name applied to stridulous laryngitis, including 
nanv of the slighter cases of diphtheria, as well as of croup. 

CkU'ClBLE {crux, a cross, which the alchemists stumped upon tho 
vessels; or from cruciare, to torture). Melting-pot. A chemical vet- 

152 C R U-C R Y 

scl in which substances are exposed to high temperatures. In these the 
metals were tortured by the alchemists, to force them to become like 

CRU'OR. Gore; blood from a wound. This term differs from 
sanguis in never denoting blood confined and circulating in its proper 
▼easels. Thus Celsus applies the term cntor to the blood discharged in 
certain diseases. 

[CRU'PSIA] (x/>oa, colour, oi//it, sight). Visus coloratus. A de- 
fect of sight, consisting in the coloration of objects. 

CHU'RA (plural of cms, a leg). A term applied to some parts of 
the body, from their resemblance to a leg or root, as the crura penis, 
crura cerebri, crura cerebelli, crura dkiphragmttis. 

CRURJE'US (cms, the leg). Femoraut. One of the extensor 
muscles of the leg, arising from the femur aud inserted into the 

CRU'RAL (cruralis, belonging to the cm*, or leg). A term applied 
to a canal which sheathes the crural or femoral Teasels; to the in- 
guinal ligament^ or ligament of Poupart; and to a rim/ formed by this 
ligament and other adjoining parts. 

CRU'STA (crust a, a shell, a hard surface of a body, as of ice). A 
general term for a collection of matter into a hard body, occurring in 
all discharging diseases. 

CRU'STA LA'CTEA. Milk -crust, or the eczema puslulosum or 
impeliginosuin, occurring in infants, and commonly ascribed to a faulty 
secretion of milk on the part of the parent It it also called tinea 
lactea, porritjo larvalis, and psoriasis infantilis. 

CRYO'PHORUSj {kpuov, cold, 0s>o>, to bear). Literally, the 
frost-bearer. An instrument invented by Wollaston for exhibiting the 
degree of cold produced by evaporation. 

[CRY'PTjEJ MUCO ? SjE (*pu<r«ni, a crypt, or concealed place). 
Mucous crvpts ; the name given by LieberkUhn to the mucous follicles 
of the small and the large intestine. 

[CRYPTOGA'MIA] {apuwro^ hidden, yauot, nuptials). Crypto- 
gams ; a class of flowerless plants, the reproduction of which is effected 
by processes unusual to other plants, and formerly considered to bo 
hidden. The subdivisions are Acrogens; Bryogcns, Thallogens, and 
Protophytes, which are described in their respective places. 

[CRYTTO'PIA] (Kpvvrdv oiciov, hidden juice, especially poppy- 
juice, opium). A new organic alkaloid obtained by the Messrs. T. and 
H. Smith from opium. It is contained in the weak spirituous washings 
of crude precipitated morphia. 

[CRYPTO'RCHID] (*puirro'c, hidden, o>x<«, testis). A person 
affected by malposition of the testes. Such a person is said to be 
invariable- sterile, though not impotent. 

[CRYSTA'LLI] (iciwcTaWot, crystal). A term fonnerly applied 
to the appearances of Varicella, described as white transparent ptittulcs 
containing lymph. 

CRYSTALLINE LENS (*pu<rTa\\o«, cnstal). The lens of the 
eye which contains the crystalline humor, and refracts the light to a 
focus on the retina. 

CRYSTALLIZATION (#cou<rraA\o*, ice). The process by which 
the particles of liquid or gaseous bodies form themselves into crystals, 
or solid bodies of a regularly limited form. 

C U B-C UP 153 

1. Crystal l iza t ion, Alternate. This term it applied to a phenomenon 
which Ukes place when several crystallizable substances, having little 
attraction for one another, are present in the same solution. That 
which is largest in quantity and least soluble crystallizes first, in part; 
the least soluble substance next in quantity then begins to separate ; and 
thus different substances, as salts, are often deposited, in successive 
layers, from the same solution. 

2. Crystallization, Water of. The water which is separated from 
most crystals on exposure to heat or to the atmosphere. The name is 
derived from the circumstance that most crystals have their crystalline 
form destroyed or modified by the loss of the water. Such salts are 
railed efflorescent. See Constitutional Witter, 

CU'oEBA. Cubebs, or Java Pepper, the dried unripe fruit of 
Culeba officinalis* or Cubeb Pepper, a plant cultivated in Java. 

CU'BITO-RADIA'LIS (cubitus, the forearm, radius, the small 
bone of the fore-arm). Another name of the guadrator pronatus mus- 
cle, arising from the ulna and inserted into the radius. 

CU'BITUS (cubare, to lie down, from the Ancients* reclining on 
the arm at meals). The fore-arm, consisting of the ulna and the 

[CUBOI'DES («vj3ov, a cube, tlAoc, likeness). The name of a bone 
of the foot, somewhat resembling a cube, situated at the fore and outer 
part of the tarsus. 

CUCULLA'RIS (cucullus, a monk's cowl). The former name of the 
trapezius muscle, derived from its resemblance to a monk's cowl. 

CUCU'RBITA. A gourd. A gourd-shaped vessel. A cucurbit or 
cupping-glass. Cucurbita ventosa, or windy cucurbit, is a term some* 
times applied to the cupping-glass generally. Cucurbita levis, or mild 
cucurbit, is the cupping-glass without scarification, employed in " dry 
cupping.** The term sicca is also employed to denote dry cupping, 
and cruenta cupping with scarification. 

Cucurbitula. This is a diminutive of cucurbita, and denotes a cucur- 
bital or small cupping-glass. 

CUDBEAR. A violet-red colouring matter prepared from the 
lichen Lecanora tarturea, and named from Sir Cuthbert Gordon. The 
expressed liquor is called litpiid cudUar, or archil ; when thickened by 
other mat'ers, it is sold as cwtbear, sometimes as persio. 

CT'MULUS PROLI'GERUS. Literally, offspring bearing mass ; 
the name given to the germinal eminence of the ovisac or Graafian 
vesicle, formed by an accumulation of cells, and containing a minute 
globular nucleated vesicle, the ovulum. 

CUNDURA'NGO. Condor Vine. A plant of Ecuador, the bark of 
wbirh is much prized in the United States as a remedy for cancer. 

CUTEL (Kuppel, German). A small, flat, cup like crucible, made 
of bone-ash. (Jubilation is the process of purifying gold and silver by 
melting them with lead, which becomes first oxidated, then vitrified, 
and sinks into the cupel, carrying along with it all the baser metals, and 
leaving the gold or silver upon its surface. 

CUTOLA. An Italian designation of the dome-Uke extremity of 
the canal of the cochlea. 

CUPPED, BLOOD. A term applied to the blood drawn in inflam- 
mation, when its surface presents a concave appearance. 

CUPPING. The abstraction of blood by the application of the 

154 C U P-C Y A 

cupping-glass, prescribed in topical affections. Dry cnppinq consists 
in the application of a cupping-glass without previous scaiification, to 
excite action or to remove pus from an abscess. 

CU'PRUM. Copper. A red metal of Cyprus, an island famous for 
its rich cooper-mines. See Copper. 

CU'PULE (cu/w/a, dim. of cupa, a tub or ca*k). A term applied 
in botany to the bracts of an involucrum when they cohere and form a 
cup around the base of the fruit, as in acorn. 

CU'RA FA'MIS. Abstinence; or, literally, regard for fasting. 
CU'RARINE. An alkaloid procured from Strychnos tojnfera, 
Woorulv, Urari, or Poison-plant of Guyana, yielding the famous Indian 

CU'RCUM A PAPER. Paper stained with a decoction of turmeric, 
employed as a test of free alkali, by the action of which it receives a 
brown stain. 

Curcumin. The resinous colouring matter of turmeric root. 
CURD. The coagulum which separates from milk, upon the ad- 
dition of acid, rennet, or wine. 

CURETTE {FrcncJt, a scoop). An instrument with a curved needle 
at one end, and a small spoon at the other, sometimes employed in the 
operation for cataract. 

CURVATORCOCCY'GIS. Auothcr name of the sacrococcyfje us 
auticus muscle, arising from the last piece of the sacrum and first of the 
coccyx, and inserted into the last piece of the coccyx. 

CURVATURE, SPINAL. The three principal varieties are- 
1. Lateral curvature, the convexity occurring on either side, usually on 
the right. 2. Posterior curvature, or excurvation, affecting chiefly the 
cervical and dorsal regions. 3. Anterior, ani/ular, or PoWs curvature, 
usually about the mid-dorsal region. 

CUSPID A'TI (cu*pis, a point). The canine or eye-teeth, named 
from their pointed extremities. See Deng. 

CUTANEOUS BLUSH. Rose-rash ; false measles. Popular 
designations of Roseola. 

CUT A'NEUS MU SCULUS {cutis, skin). A name of the platysma 
myoides, or latissimus colli, a muscle of the neck, having the appear- 
ance of a very thin fle*hy membrane. 

CUTCII. A variety of catechu, derived from the Acacia catechu. 
CUTICLE (cuticida. dim. of cutis). The epidermis or scarf-skin, 
which envelopes and defends the cutis vera, or derma, the true skin; 
between these is the rtte mucosum. 

CUTIS (kutov, the skin). The derma, or true skin, which lies 
beneath the cuticle, epidermis, or scarf- skin, and is distinguished 
into the deep stratum or corium, and the Superficial or pttpillary 

CUTIS ANSERI'NA. Goose-skin; a peculiar appearance of the 
skin induced by cold or fear ; the seat of the effect is the contractile 
fibrous tissue of the derma, which produces those prominences of the 
pores of the skin which have suggested the characteristic term. 

[CYAN-, C Y'ANO-] {kvuvio^ blue). Prefixes used in forming the 
names of certain chemical substances containing cyanogen. 

[CY'ANIN] («vavaov, blue). The colouring matter which pro- 
duces the red and the blue tints of various flowers. It may be obtained 
from the petals of the violet or the iris. 

C Y A-C Y N 155 

[C Y'ANO-DERMAJ («tWtov, blue, 6ipn<t. skin). A blue de- 
coloration of the skin, differing from coloured sweat. Dr. Tilbury Fox 
says, " It it a curiosity, if not, at least in the greater number of cases, a 
ho.ix.*' The proper term is dermato- or tiermo-cyattosis. 

[CYA'NOGEN] (Ki'dctot, blue, ytwaw y to generate; so called 
from its being an essential ingredient in Prussian blue). Bicarburet of 
nitrogen ; a colourless, combustible, and exceedingly poisonous gas, 
affording the first instance of the isolation of a compound radical. It 
forms, with oxvgen, the cyanic, cyanoas, and fulminic acids ; and with 
hydrogen, the hydro-cyanic, or prussic. All its compounds, which are 
not acid, are termed cyanides or cyanurets. 

[CYANO PA'THlA] (iciiairtov, blue, w«0ot, disease). Morbus 
cstrnlrw. Bine disease; another term for cyanosis. 

[CY ANO'SISI (wtfuymaiv, the giving of a blue colour, from kWi/iov, 
blue). Morbus aBrnlcus. Blue disease ; blue jaundice of the Ancients ; 
a disease in which the complexion is tinged with venous blood, from 
malformation of the heart, which admits of the admixture in the system 
of the venous and the arterial blood. The term is synonymous with 
plethora venom, cyanopathia, &c. 

[CYANU'RIC ACIDJ (Kvdvtot, blue, ovpiu>, to make water). An 
acid discovered by Scheele in the distillation of uric acid. It has been 
more recently described by Serullus under the name cyanic add. 

CY'ATHuS(«va0ov,adrinking-cup}. A wine-glass, which may ho 
estimated to contain an ounce and a half — as much as one could easily 
swallow at once. It is said to be equal to the one -twelfth part of the 
English wine- pint See Cochleare. 

[CYCL1TIS] (kvkAov, a circle, and -ids, denoting inflammation). 
Literal It, inflammation of a circle, and, hence, inflammation of the 
ciliary body, evidenced by a circlet of radiating vessels around the 
corneal margin, the finest branches of the anterior ciliary arteries. The 
veins of the iris mav be inflamed, giving rise to irido-cyclUis. 

[C Y'CLOGENHJ («v*Aot, a circle, ysiuofiai, to grow). A collective 
name for all those exogens which are characterized by the concentrically 
toned growth of their wood, as distinguished from homoyeus, which are 
named from the homogeneity of their wood. 

CYCLO-NEUKA] (*u«\ov, a circle, vtupov, a nerve). A term 
applied by Grant to the first sub kingdom of animals, or Kadiata, as 
expressive not only of the circular Jorm of the nervous axis in this 
division, but also of the rudimental state of simple filaments. The 
classes are Poriphcra, Polypiphera, Malactinia, and Ecninodcrma. 

[CYCM.)'81N) (kvkXov, a circle). A circular movement of the glo- 
bular particles of the sap, a» observed in the cells of Chara and Nitcllu, 
and in the jointed haiis projecting from the cuticle of several other 
plants. A similar motion has been recently found by Mr. Lister to 
exist in a great number of poWpifcrous zoophytes. 

CY'Mh (cyma % a voutig sprout of cabbage). A form of inflorescence 
resembling an umbel and a corymb, but with a centrifugal expansion, 
indicated by the presence of a solitary flower in the axis of the dicho- 
tomons ramifications. 

ICY'N ANCHEJ («*•*, a dog, &yx<», to strangle). Literally, doa- 
choke. Squinancy, squincy, quinsy, sore throat, throat disorder. ** The 
disease is supposed by some to be named from its occasioning a noise 
in breathing like that made by dogs when being strangled. By ottat\ 

156* C Y N-C Y 8 

it is said to bo from the patient being obliged to breathe like a dog, 
with open mouth and protruded tongue." — Forbes. 

1. Cynanche maligna. Angina putris. Sloughing sore throat ; putrid 
•ore throat. This affection must be distinguished from malignant scarlet 

2. Cynanche pharyngta. Inflammation of the mucous membrane 
lining the back of the moutli and the upper part of the throat. It is 
the common sore throat. 

3. Cynanclie tonsillitis. Cynanche tonsillaris. Quinsy. Inflammation 
entirely or nearly limited to the tonsils. 

4. Cynanche parotidaa. The name given by Cullen to parotitis or 
mumps. Inflammation of the parotid gland. 

5. Cynanche trarJiealis. The name given by Cullen to croup. 
CY'NIC SPASM (tfuco*, a dog). A convulsive contraction of the 

muscles of one side of the face. 

[CYNOLY'SSA] (fct/wc, a dog, \vaaa, madness). Canine mad- 

fCYNORE'XlA] («vc»*, a dog, op*£i«, appetite). Canine appetite. 
CYNO'RKHODUM ] (twapotov, a dog-rose). A fruit composed 
of several dry and hard carpels, enclosed in the thickened tube of the 
calvx, as in the rose. 

[C YPHO'SIS] («cu</)ui<ri«, a being hump-backed). Deformitas angu- 
lar is. Angular deformity of the spine. See Lordosis and Skoliosis. 

CYTSELA (icvu/fXt;, any hollow vessel). A dry, inferior, inde- 
hiscent fruit, of which the pericarp is not much indurated, as in com- 
posite, valerianacese, &c. See Acnamium. 

[CYRTO'SIS] (Kuprot, curved). A term denoting, among the 
Ancients, a recurvation of the spine, or posterior crookedness ; as lordosis 
denoted procuration of the nead, or anterior crookedness. It has, 
more recently, been termed cyrtanosos, but such a word is quite inad- 
missible. See Hyiosis. 

[C Y'STIS ] (ku<xtiv, a bladder). By this term is meant an accidental 
membrane, forming a sort of shut sac, and containing a liquid or half- 
liquid matter, secreted by the membrane which encloses it. The term 
ie also applied to the urinary and the gall-bladder. 

1 . CystisfeUta ( /*/, gall). The gall-bladder, a membranous reservoir, 
situated at the under surface of the right lobe of the liver. 

2. Cystic duct. The duct, about an inch in length, leading from the 
gall-bladder, and uniting with the hepatic duct. 

3. Cystin. A crystalline substance constituting a very rare form of 
human calculus, and characterized by an excessive proportion, about 
26 per cent., of sulphur. 

4. Cyst-anenkephalia (a»tytct<f>a\ia y brain lessness). A state of mon- 
strosity in which, in place of a brain, a bladder is found filled with fluid. 
So, also, a monster having a head with a vesicular brain is called cyst- 
enkepfiatus % or bladder- brained. — G. St. Hilaire. 

5. Cystitis. Catarrhus vesica or catarrh of the bladder. Inflamma- 
tion of the bladder. 

6. Cysto-cercus tela celluloses (^cpKov, a tail). A parasitic cystose 
bladder, resembling the echinococcus, and containing an unattached and 
almost always solitary animal. Compare Cosnurus and Hydatid. 

7. Cysto-rrhagia (pi\yvvm, to burst forth). Hemorrhage from the 
urinary bladder. 

CYT-DAC 157 

8. Cysto-rrkaa (pi*, to flow). Chronic cystitis ; characterized by 
the discharge of an increased quantity of mucus with the urine, with 
slight symptoms of inflammation of the hladder. 

9. CpUo-tome (rofin, section). An instrument fur opening tho 
capsule of the crystalline lens. 

10. Cysto-cele («4\t;, a tumor). Hernia formed by protrusion of the 

11. Cystry-plasty (ir\u<r<ru», to form). A mode of treating vesico- 
vaginal fistula. The edges of the fistula are refreshed, a flap dissected 
off from the external labium, and united by suture with the refreshed 
edges of the sore. 

12. Cysto tomia (romt, section). The operation of opening tho 
bladder for the extraction of a calculus. 

13. Cyst ectasy feKTaatv, extension). An operation for removing a 
calculus from the Madder. See LUkectasy. 

14. Cysto cede (iciiAti, a tumor). Protrusion of the bladder, occasioned 
by prolapsus of the walls of the vagina. 

15. Cysto- sarcoma. Complex cystic tumor. The designation of 
compound ovarian cysts, when they are surrounded by thick walls of 
firm fibrous or vascular tissue. Toe disease is also termed alveolar, 
gelatinous, and colloid tumor. 

16. Cystic tumors. Tumors consisting of a sac containing solid or 
liquid substances. Compound cystic tumors are formed by the exagge- 
rated development into cysts, of the cells of which a structure mainly 

[CYTOBL AST] (kwtw, a cell, 0AaVrn, growth). A cell-germ, or 
nucleus observed in the centre of some of the bladders of the cellular 
tissue of plants, and regarded by Schleidcn as a universal elementary 
organ. The term is also applied to the nucleus of the cell which com- 
poses the tissues of the animal body. See CytoUastcma. 

[CYTOBLA'STKMA] (*ut<w, a cell, fiXdanwa, growth V Cell- 
producer; the elementary structureless substance in which the nuclei 
or cytohlasts, in which the several tissues of animals and plants originate, 
are developed. 

ICYTO-GE'NESIS] (««to», a cell, ?fWc*, production). Cell- 
multiplication ; the power possessed by cells, in many cases, of pro- 
ducing: fresh cells. See Cell-multiplication. 

[CYTOIDJ («»tcw, a cell, alfof, likeness). Cell-like; a general 
term applied to the corpuscles occurring in lymph, chyle, mucus, pus, 


DA'CRYO- (AaicouM, to shed tears). A term employed by French 
writers in combination mith other terms denoting affections of the 
lacrvmal apparatus. The compounds are as follow : — 

1.* Lktcryo-adeniUyia. Neuralgia of the lacrymal gland. 

2. Daeryo-ademtts. Inflammation of the lacrymal gland. 

158 DA C-D A N 

8. Dacryo pvonhota. Purulent lacrymation. 

4. Dacryo-ltennorrhcea. A discharge of mucus from the lacrymal sac. 

5. Dacryocystitis. Acute inflammation of the lacrimal sac. 

6. Dacryocystalgia cacochymia. Inflammation of the lacrymal sac. 

7. Dacryo-cyst-atonia. Atony of the lacrymal sac. 

8. JJucryo-cyst-ectusis. Hernia of the lacrymal sac. 

9. Daayo-hcBtno-rrhysis. Effusion of tears mixed with blood. 

10. JJacryo Utiles. Calculus in the eye. 

11. Dacryo-rrftysis. A preternatural secretion of tears. 

12. Dacryo-stuyon. An undue secretion of the lacrymal fluid. 

13. Dacry-or>s. Swelling of the lacrymal sac. 
DACRYO'MA (dutepvot, to shed tears). An impervious state of 

one or both of the puncta laciymalia; so named from the running 
down of the tear over the lower eye-lid. 

DACTYLITIS (AaVruXoc, a finger, and -itis, denoting inflamma- 
tion). Swelling of the fingers, an affection connected with syphilis. 

DACT Y LO'LOG Y (oaicTvXot, a finger, Xdyov, an account). The 
ait of communicating ideas by spelling words with the fingers; a 
manual alphabet or finger- talking, employed as a medium of intercourse 
between the deaf and dumb, and blind person*. We read of one 
Bahington, who was deaf, but who felt words, and " whose wife dis- 
coursed very perfectly with him. by a strange way of arthrvlogy, or 
alphabet contrived on the joints of his fingers." 

D/EMONOM A'NIA (6ainu>v,6niuovo?,ix demon, vaviu, madness). 
Demon-madness ; a species of melancholy in which the patient supposes 
himself possessed with demons. 

DAGUE'RROTYPE. A process invented by M. Daguerrc, by 
which all images produced by the camera obscura arc retained and 
fixed in a few minutes upon a plate of silver, or, more properly speaking, 
a layer of iodide or bromide of silver. See Calotyj*. 

DALLEI'OCHIN. The green product of the action of chlorine and 
ammonia upon quina. See ThalUiochin. 

DA'LTONISM. Colour-blindness; a term derived from the name 
of John Dal ton, who first noticed the affection in his own case. See 

DALTON'S LAW. A law indicating the relation between the 
elastic force of a vapour and the temperature : the force is greater as 
the temperature is higher. 

DAMMAR. Cowdie <jum. A term applied to resinous exudations 
from the Dammar-pine and other East India trees. 

DAMPS. The permanently elastic fluids which are extricated in 
mines. These are choke damp, or carbonic acid ; and fire, damp, con- 
sisting almost solely of light carburctted hydrogen, exploding on contact 
with a light. 

DANCE OF ST. JOHN. A dancing epidemic which innde its 
appearance at Aix-la-Chapelle in the summer of 1374, and was cha- 
racterized chiefly by paroxysms of extravagant dancing, leaping, howl- 
ing, and screaming. It appears not to have differed from the dance of 
St. Vitus. 

DA'NDELION {dent de lion, lion's tooth). A familiar name of the 
Lfontodon taraxacum, a composite indigenous plant, derived from its 
runcinatc, toothed leaves. 

DA'NDRIFF or DANDRUFF. A scurfincss attended with 

I) A P— D A Z 159 

itching, occurring usually on tbe head, as in pityriasis and psoriasis 
capitis. The term is said to be derived from the Saxon words tan, " a 
foil letter/' and drof, or " draflFy." 

DAPHN1N. A peculiar acrid principle found in the hark of 
Daphne mezereon, but not constituting its active principle. 

DARCETS ALLOY. Soluble metal. An alloy consisting of two 
parts of bismuth, one of lead, and one of tin. 

DA'RSIS (Aa7><rt«, from dipt*, to flay). The operation of removing 
the skin for the purpose of bringing into view the organs covered by 

DA'RTOS (inproti flayed). The term x*™*, tuttica, being under- 
stood, we have a designation of the thin, smooth, muscular layer forming 
the proper tunic of the scrotum, at of skin stripped oft'. 

DA'RTRE (flap-roc, flayed). The French term for tetter, applied, 
popularly, to all common affections of the skin, resulting from abrasion, 
desquamation, &c. A tendency to these affections has bien termed 
dart row diathesis. 

DARWINIAN HYPOTHESIS. A hypothesis propounded by 
Mr. Charles Darwin on the subject of Evolution. He believes that 
species are not permanent and immutable, hut that they " undergo 
modification, and that tbe existing forms of life are the desrendents by 
true generation of pre-existing forms." Species are, by this hypothesis, 
evolved by variation and " natural selection," and in the " struggle 
for existence/* those individuals which do not possess a favourable 
variation, are gradually exterminated, the " survival of the fittest " 
being thns secured. 

DASY'METER (oWii?, thick, uirpov, a measure). An instru- 
ment for determining the loss of weight which a body undergoes when 
suspended in air; or, in other words, the increase of weight it undergoes 
when weighed in vacuo, or in a highly rarefied medium. The instru- 
ment was invented by Otho von Guerirke. and is sometimes spoken of 
as a manometer i being used instead of a barometer to test the density 
of the air. 

DATU'RI A. A peculiar vegetable alkali constituting the poisonous 
principle of the Datura stramonium, a Solanaceous plant cultivated in 

DAVY LAMP. A lamp flame surrounded by a cage of wire- 
gauze, invented by Davy for the protection of the miner when sur- 
rounded by explosive gases, and constructed on the principle that 
ignited gas, or flame, is extinguished by contact with a large surface of 
a good conductor of heat, as copper or iron. Davy's lamp is safe, so 
long as the explosive gases remain fterfectly tranquil. See Safely- 

DAY-MARE. Ephialtes viyilantium. A species of incubus, occur- 
ring during wakefulness, and attended with that severe pressure on the 
chest which peculiarly characterizes night-mare. 

DAY-SIGHT. Hemeralopia. An affection of the vision, in which 
it is dull and confused in the dark, but clear and st rone in the day-light; 
it is also railed nyctalopia, or night-blindness. Hens labour under this 
affection ; hence it is called hen-blindness. 

DA'ZZLING. A popular name for a disturbance of vision, occa- 
sioned by a sudden impression of powerful light, or by an internal 
cause. See Visus. 

160 D E— D E C 

DE. A Latin preposition, signifying, in composition, 1, dotrn, 
away, off, as in deglutition, de-mulcent, de-tergent; 1, deficiency or 
reversal of the meaning of the root, as in de-coloration, decortication, 
derangement; 3, over, overmuch, muck, as in de-auratus, &c. It 
coincides nearly, in sense, with the French des and the Latin dis. 

DEAD OIL. A refuse of tai -distillation, employed as fuel in place 
of coal, by driving it, by means of steam, upon a layer of burning ashes 
or coke. 

DEAF-MUTE. One who is deaf and dumb; one who, through 
deprivation or defect of hearing, has either failed to acquire the power 
of speech, or has lost it after having acquired it. For such has been 
contrived a finger-alphabet, or dactylology. 

DEAFNESS. The partial or entire destruction of the sense of 
hearing, occasioned, when congenital, by malformation of the ear, and, 
when acquired, by various diseases affecting the apparatus of the ear. 
The Greek term for deafness is kophosis ; the Latin, surditas. 

DEAURATUS (rfc, of, aurum, gjold). Gilded ; a term applied to 

?ills when ordered to be rolled up in gold-leaf, to please the patient, 
'he verb deaurate is obsolete. 

DEBI'LITANTS (debiiis, weak). Remedies exhibited for the pur- 
pose of reducing excitement, as antiphlogistics, &c. 

DEBl'LITY (debitis, weak). Astltenia. Weakness, feebleness, 
decay of strength both of mind and body. Debility is a more general 
affection than infirmity, and may be constitutional ; the latter belongs 
to particular members, may be accidental, and is often temporary. Im~ 
Itccility applies to the whole frame, and is always constitutional. Figu- 
ratively, we have debility of intellect, imbecility of mind, and infirmity 
of purpose. 

DECAGY'NIA (ii*a, ten, ywv, a woman). The designation of 
those orders of plants in the Linnscan system, which are characterized 
by the presence of ten pistils. 

DECA'NDRl A {Una, ten, ivvn, a man). A class of plants in the 
Linnaean system, characterized by having ten stamens. 

DECANTA'TION. The pouring off of clear fluid from sediment, 
or from one vessel to another. But the Latin word decantatio simply 
means talkativeness ; decantare means, to sing one's song out. 

Decanthation. A proposed improvement of the preceding term, 
derived from canthus a wheel-tire, or *ai/0ov, the corner of the eye. The 
term may then mean the pouring off of a liquid from the edge or brim of 
a vessel. To cant % among mechanics, is to raise on the edge or comer. 

DECARBONIZATION. The process of depriving a substance of 
carbon. Decarttonation is the process of depriving a substance of its 
carbonic acid — destroying its character of carbonate. 

DECI'DUA MEMBRA NA (decidere, to fall off). A spongy mem- 
brane, or chorion, produced at the period of conception, and thrown off 
from the uterus after parturition. 

1. Decidua refiejra. That portion of the decidua which is reflected 
over, and surrounds the ovum. 

2. Decidua vera. That portion of the decidua which lines the in- 
terior of the uterus ; the non-reflected portion. 

DECIDUOUS (deciduus, that falls off or down). Falling off ; a 
term synonymous with caducous, and opposed to persistent. The petals 
of poppy are deciduous; those of campanula, persistent. 

D E C— D E F 161 

DECLINATIO (dedinare, to turn aside). A term applied to the 
period at which the paroxysm of a disease is declining or passing away. 
See Acrtmio. 

DECO'CTIO : DECO'CTUM (decoquere, to boil awayV The former 
term denotes the boiling of a substance in water or other liquid, for 
the purpose of extracting its soluble constituents. The latter term 
denotes the result of the operation. See Pre/ace, par. 3. 

Decoeto-infusa. Decocto-infuaions. These are decoctions to which, 
after they hare ceased to boil, but while they are still hot, other sub- 
stances are added and allowed to be digested therein. 

DECOLLATION (dccollare, to behead, from collum. the neck). 
Decapitation. The removal of the head, as of the fetus from the 
trunk, the latter remaining in the uterus. 

DECOLORA'TIO ARGENTE'A. Chemical coloration of the skin, 
produced by the internal use of the nitrate of silver. 

DECOLORATION. The property of discharging colour— a property 
remarkably possessed by animal charcoal. 

DECOMPOSITION. Analysis. The separation of the component 
parts or principles of bodies previously held together by chemical attrac- 
tion. It is attended by an entire change of properties, either spon- 
taneously or from chemical agency, and is thus distinguished from mere 
mechanical division. 

DECOMPOUND. Deeomnositus. A term applied, in botany, to 
those ramifications of plants which are themselves compounded, as to 
leaves in which the petiole bears secondary petioles. When the 
secondary petioles are divided into a third set, such leaves are said to be 

DECORTICATION (<fc, from, cortex, bark). The removal or 
stripping off of the bark, husk, Ac., of plants. See Groats, 

DECREPITATION (de, from, crepitus, crackling). The crackling 
noise which takes place when certain crystallized bodies, as common 
salt, part with the water which they contain, by the application of heat, 
and tall to pieces. The crackling noise is caused by small portions of 
water imprisoned within the crystals being converted into steam, which 
acquires sufficient tension to tear asunder the walls of the chamber 
within which it was confined. 

DECUBITUS (deatm/*rc, to lie down). This uuclassical term, to- 

Sther with the equally unclassical and obsolete word decubation, denotes 
e act of lyingdown or decumbency. 

DECUSSATION (decussare, to cross like an X). A term applied 
to parts which cross each other, as leaves or branches growing in pairs, 
which cross one another alternately at right angles ; as the optic nerves 
which cross each other in the cranium. The term decussation of the 
anterior pyramids is applied to the crossing, from right to left and from 
left to right, of white fibres at the lower and front part of the medulla 

DECUSSO'RIUM (deevtere, to cast down or off). An instrument 
for depressing the dura mater, after trephining, for the purpose of faci- 
litating the discharge of substances effused on or under that mem- 

DKFjECATION (<fc, from, /<**«, dress, excrement). The pro- 
cess of removing the lees or dregs from a liquid ; also the act of eva- 
cuating the bowels. 8ee Fmx. 


1G2 D E F— D E J 

DEFE'CTIO ; DEFECTUS (deficer*, to fail). The former term 
denotes the act of failing, physically or mentally ; the latter denotes the 
state induced by failing. The two terms represent cause and effect, 
respectively. See Preface* par. 3. 

DEFERVESCENCE (defervescere, to cease boiling, to cool down). 
Abatement of heat ; reduction of the temperature of the body in febrile 
diseases. Refrigescence is the growing cool or cold. 

DEFINITE PROPORTIONS. A law of the Atomic Theory, 
according to which the nature and properties of the constituent ele- 
ments in every chemical compound are definite and invariable. 

DEFLAGRATION (de/lagrare t to be utterly consumed by fire). 
The ozidatiou of metals by mixing them with nitrate or chlorate of 
potash, and projecting the mixture into a red-hot crucible. It is at- 
tended by sparkling combustion without violent explosion. This pro- 
cess is the converse of reduction. 

1. Deflagrating Mixtures. These are generally made with nitre, 
the oxygen of which is the active ingredient in promoting their com- 

2. Deflagrator. A very effective battery, in which the plates are so 
connected together as to admit of the whole being immersed into the 
exciting liquid, or removed from it. at the tame instant. 

DEFLU'VIUM CAPILLO'RUM (deftuere, to flow down). Athrix 
simplex. Thinning of the hair; a simple and progressive fall of the 
hair, producing thinness. This is the earliest stage of diminished 
formation of hair, as aJope&ia is the last. See Afodarosis. 

DEFLU'XION {defiuert, to flow down). DestUlatio. Catarrh. 
This term was formerly used, as well asyftotoir, to denote a swelling 
arising from the sudden flow of humours from a distant part. 

DEFCEDA'TIO UNGU'IUM. Degeneratio unguium ; scabrities 
unguium. Excessive thickening of the nails, accompanied with a yellow 
and dirty discoloration, imparting to the nails an appearance of horn, 
both in colour and density. 

DETRUTUM (defervitum, sc. must urn, from defervescerc, to cease 
boiling). Mead. New wine boiled down to one-half, or one-third, 
with spices, &c. See Bob. 

DEGENERATION (degenerare. to become unlike its kind). A 
change of condition, but always for the worse, as when a structure of 
the body passes into a cancerous or tuberculous state. When fatty or 
calcareous, it is termed atheroma or ossification, respectively. 

DEGLUTITION (degluiire or degluttire, to swallow down). The 
act of swallowing. The verb is of rare occurrence. 

DEHISCENCE (dehiseere y to gape or open wide). The spontaneous 
opening of a ripe fruit for the discharge of the seeds, of the thecae of 
anthers for the discharge of pollen, &c. 

DEHYDRATION. An inelegant term, signifying the abstraction 
of water or its elements from a chemical compound. 

DEITERS' CELLS. Peculiar cells observed in the brain, con- 
listing, each, of a nuclear body furnished with long hair-like pro- 

DEJE'CTIO ; DEJETTUM {dejicert, to cast down). The former 
term denotes a casting down, as in dekctio alvi, or purging; the latter 
denotes that which is cast down, or wees — the result of purging. See 
I*re/ace % par. 8. 

DEL ]63 

DELHI BOIL. Aurungzebe. A disease prevailing in Delhi and 
other Indian cities, allied to anthrax, and corresponding with " Aleppo 

DELIQUESCENCE (deliquesce re, to melt away). A chemical 
term denoting the change of form which certain bodies undergo from 
the solid to the liquid state by exposure to the air and absorption of 
moisture from it, as nitrate of soda and most of the haloid salts. 

DELIQUE'SCENT (delUfuescere, to melt away). Melting away ; a 
term applied, in botany, to a panicle which is so much branched that 
the primary axis disappears. 

DELI'QUIUM (deliquare, to pour off; or delinquere, to fail). In 
the former case the term denotes a flowing or dripping down ; in the 
latter, a want or defect Deliquium am mi denotes syncope or 

DELI RATIO (delirare, to deviate from the straight line). A 
going away from the line, producing deliramentum, absurdity, and 
deiirtum, madness. 

DELl'RIANTS (delirare, to swerve from reason). Medicinal 
agents which, in excessive doses, occasion delirium, as byoscyamus, 


DELI'RIUM (delirare, properly, to slip out of the furrow, from de, 
and lira, a furrow ; figuratively, to talk or act extravagantly, to swerve 
from reason). Raving ; frenzy ; disorder of the brain. Deliratio is 
the ad of talking or acting extravagantly ; delirametUum is extravagance 
or absurdity. 

1. Delirium febrile. A form of delirium occurring in febrile and 
inflammatory diseases of acute character. 

2. Delirium tremens. An uncouth expression, intended to convey 
the idea of delirium co-existing with a tremulous condition of the body 
or limbs. It has been called " drunkard's delirium " and mania a 
potu ; the proper term is alcoholic delirium. See Alcoholism. 

3. Delirium trauma ticum. A similar disease, which occurs after 
serious accidents or operations. It may assume the form of ordinary 
mania, of a mild cast, or of hysteria. 

DELITESCENCE (delitescere, to lie hid). The state of being 
concealed. A term used principally by French physiologists to express 
• more sudden disappearance of the symptoms of inflammation than 
occurs in resolution. Sir W. Hamilton speaks of " the delitescence of 
mental activities." 

DE'LPHINE. An alkaloid found in the seeds of Delphinium 
ttapkisagria, together with a yellow non-crystalline body called 

DELTOID LIGAMENT (IfXra, the Greek letter A, and ittot, 
likeness). The internal lateral ligament of the ankle-joint ; a tri- 
angular layer of fibres, attached superiorly by its apex to the internal 
malleolus, inferiorly by an expanded base to the astragalus and os 

Deltoides musculus. Attollens humeri; subacromio-humeralis. 
The deltoid or triangular muscle which forms the convexity of the 
shoulder, and moves the arm directly upwards. 

DELUSION ; ILLUSION. These terms are used vaguely. Rat 
delusion is a false judgment respecting the real affairs of life ; illusion 
is a deception practised on the senses or imagination. " A fanatic, 

if 2 

164 D E M-D E N 

either religious or political, is the subject of strong delusions; while 
the term illusion is applied solely to the visions of an uncontrolled 
imagination, the chimerical ideas of one blinded by hope, passion, or 
credulity, or lastly, to spectral and other ocular deceptions, to which 
the word delusion is never applied." — Wkately. 

DEMEOTIA {dement, senseless). Disorder of the intellect, 
characterized by loss or feebleness of the mental faculties. See 

DEMI-BATH. Demi-bain. A half-bath; a bath in which the 
lower part only of the body is immersed ; a hip-bath. 

DE'MODEX FOLLICULO'RUM (<5.,«ov, fat, *<***«, **i£o/uac, 
to bite). The name given by Owen to the acarus of other writers, 
which inhabits the sebaceous sacs and hair-follicles of the human 
skin. He regards it as a lower form of one of the higher divisions 
of the Arachnida. By Mr. E. Wilson, it is described under the term 

DEMOIVRE'S HYPOTHESIS. A hypothesis respecting the 
duration of human life, formed by Demoivrc, and thus expressed : 
of eighty-six persons born, one dies every year, till all are eMinct. 
The remainder of eighty-six years, at every age, Demoivre called the 
complement of life. 

DEMU'LCENTS (demulcere, to soften). Medicinal agents which 
have the property of protecting sensible surfaces from the action of 
irritating matter, by hindering it from coming into direct contact with 
them. They are thus distinguished from diluents, the object of which 
is to lessen acrimony by diluting or attenuating the fluid in which it 
exists. Emollients are employed for external application. 

DENDRODEWTINE (3**6>w, a tree, and dentine). A modifica- 
tion of the fundamental tissue of the teeth which is produced by the 
aggregation of many simple teeth into a single mass, exhibiting, on 
section, a dendritic appearance by the interblending of the dentine, 
enamel, and cement, as in dendrodus. 

DENGUIS. Dengue or Dandy Fever. " An ephemeral continued 
fever or febricula, characterized by frontal head-ache and by severe pains 
in the limbs and trunk, and sometimes by an eruption, resembling that 
of measles, over the body ; occurring in the West Indies." — Nom. of 

DENIGRATION (de, from, and niger, black). A Latin term for 
the Greek melanosis, derived from its black appearance. 

DEN1TRAT10N. The process of separating nitrogen from a sub- 
stance. Thus, in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, this substance, 
after being charged with nitrous vapours or nitric acid, is exposed to 
sulphurous acid ; this exposure denit rates the sulphuric acid, much sul- 

Ithurous acid becoming sulphuric acid, and peroxide of nitrogen being 
iberated in the state of vapour. 

DENS. A tooth. The first set of teeth in children, called the milk- 
teeth, consists of 20, which are shed in childhood, and replaced by 28 
permanent teeth at about 7 years of age ; to which are added I dentes 
sapient ia, or icisdom-teeth, at about the age of 20. 

1. The classes of the teeth are three, viz. the incisores, the front or 

cutting teeth ; the canini or cuspidati, the eye or comer teeth ; and tho 

molares, or grinders, the double or lateral teeth. Of these, the first 

two pain have been termed bicuspidati, from their having two conical 

D E N— D E P 165 

tubercles ; the next three, multicuspidati or the large grinders, having 
several tubercles. Thus — 

2. The teeth in the adult arc— 

Incisores | ; Canini \ — \ ; Molorcs \ — J = 32. 
/» infanta — 

Incisoret } ; Canini \ — \ ; Molares | — ] = 20. 

3. In each tooth arc observed — the Crown, above the alveolus ; the 
Neck,\utt below the crown ; and the Fang or fanes, within the alveolus. 

4. The Structure of the Teeth is —1. Enamel, encasing the crown, 
and the hardest production of the body; 2. Bone, constituting the 
whole of the root, and the interior of the crown ; and 3. the Pulp, a 
bulbous prolongation of the mucous membrane of the gums, which fills 
tbe cavity of the teeth, forming their nucleus. 

DENSl'METER (densus, dense, ixirpov, a measure). An un- 
classical term for an instrument employed for determining the density 
of liquids. It is an ordinary hydrometer, graduated so that the point 
corresponding to the level represents the density of the liquid into 
which it has been immersed. 

DENSITY (densitas, from densus, thick). The property of a body 
by which a certain quantity of matter is contained under a certain 
bulk. The absolute density of a body is its specific gravity ; its appa- 
rent density is obtained by weighing a given measure of it against an 
equal measure of water. Density is opposed to rarity. Density is a 
weight, while specific gravity is a ratio. 

DENT ATA (dentatus, toothed). Sub. vertebra. The name of the 
second vertebra, so called from its projecting tooth-like process. 

DE'NTATE (dentatus, furnished with teeth). Toothed; having 
sharp teeth with concave edges; as the margins of some leaves. 

DENTl'GEROUS (dens, dentin, a tooth, ge.rere, to bear). Bearing 
teeth; a term applied to certain compound or proliferous cysts, some- 
times occurring in the ovary. 

DE'NTINE {dens, dentts, a tooth). Dentinum. Materia propria 
dentium. The tissue which forms the body of the tooth ; it consists 
of two distinct parts, first, dentinal tubes ; secondly, intertubular tissue. 

Dentinal tubes. The minute tubes of the dentine or tissue of the 
tooth ; they diverge from the " pulp-cavity," or hollow of the tooth, 
and proceed with a slightly wavy course at right angles, or nearly so, to 
the outer surface. 

DENTITION (dentin, to cut teeth). Teething; the formation 
and evolution of the teeth. Dedenlition is the sheddin? of the teeth. 

DECBSTRUEXTS (de, from, obstruere, to obstruct). Medicines 
for removing obstructions, and opening the natural passages of the fluids 
of the body ; aperients. 

DEODORIZERS {de, from, odor, a scent). Disinfectants; sub- 
stances which act on fetid and offensive effluvia, and destroy their un- 
pleasant odour, as chlorine and charcoal. 

DEOXIDATION (de, from, and oxidation). The partial separa- 
tion of oxygen from a body; the reducing a body from tbe state of an 
oxide. Total separation of oxygen is termed reduction. 

DEPHLEGMATION (de, from, and phlegma, <p\ iy/u«, phlegm; 
a watery, distilled liquor, as distinguished from a spirituous liquor). 
The depriving of a body of water, as, in the case of alcohol, by bringing 
over the spirit by distillation, and leaving behind the superfluous water* 

166 D E P— D E R 

The effect if that of concentration, and this term is employed especially 
when acids are the subjects of it. 

DEPH LOGI'STIC ATED [de, from, and phlogiston, the inflam- 
mable principle). A term formerly employed to denote bodies which 
had been burned, or, according to the prevailing theory, deprived of 
their phlogiston, or inflammable principle. 

1. Dephlogisticated air ; empyreal air ; vital air. Oxygen gas. 

2. Dephlogisticated muriatic acid. A designation of chlorine. 
DEPl'LATORY {de, from, pilus, a hairi. A substance employed 

for the temporary removal of hair from the body, as lime, &c. 

DEPLETION (depUre, to emDty). The act of emptying; the 
operation of reducing the amount of blood by blood-letting, of the alvine 
fasces by purgatives, &c. 

DEPLUM A'TION (de, from, pluma, a feather). A disease of the 
eye-lids, in which the eye-lashes fall off. 

DEPO'SIT (deponere, to lay down). A sediment, or anything laid 
or thrown down, especially matters precipitated from solution in water 
or other liquids. See Urinary Deposits. 

DEPOSITION (deponere, to lay down). The mechanical operation 
of separating a fluid from a solid, when performed for the sake of 
securing the latter. See Decantation. 

DEPO'SITIVE (deponere, to put down). A term expressive of that 
condition of the membrane in which plastic lymph is exuded into the 
tissue of the derma, so as to give rise to the production of papula; or 
Dimples. Under the term depositive inflammation of the derma, Mr. E. 
Wilson comprises strophulus, lichen, and prurigo. 

DEPRE'SSANTS {deprimere, to press down). Medicinal agents 
which augment the frequency and diminish the force of the contractions 
of the heart — the exact reverse of the action of stimulants. 

DEPRE'SSION (deprimere, to press down). Couching; an opera- 
tion for cataract, consisting in the removal of the opaque lens out of the 
axis of vision, by means of a needle. 

DEPRE'SSOR (deprimere, to press down). Deprimens. A general 
term for muscles which depress a part of the body, as depressor alas 
nasi, or my rti form is, muscle ; depressor anguli oris, or triangularis; de- 
pressor labii inferioris, or quadratus menti ; and depressor oculi, or rectus 
inferior, muscle. 

DETRI M ENS O'CULI (deprimere, to press down). A name given 
to the rectus inferior, from the action of this muscle in drawing the eye- 
ball down. 

DEPURATION (depurare, to cleanse). Defmcation. The process 
of clarifying a liquor, or of cleansing the body from impurities. Boyle 
writes, " to depurate the mass of blood." A disease that expels morbid 
matters from the fluids of the system is called a depuratory disease. 

DERBYSHIRE NECK. A name given by Prosser to bronchocele, 
or goitre, from its frequency in the hilly parts of Derbyshire. 

DERIVATION (aerivare, to draw oft water from its regular chan- 
nel). Revulsion, or the drawing away of the fluids of an inflamed part, 
by applying blisters, &c, over it, as in pleuritis ; or at a distance from 
it, as in the application of sinapisms to the feet in comatose affections. 
Agents producing this effect are termed derivatives. 

DE'RMA (dipfia, the skin). Chorium. The internal layer of the 
skin, ns distinguished from the external layer or epidermis. It is also 

D E R 167 

termed cutis, and is thus distinguished from culicula, or cuticle, a 
synonym of the epidermis. Its lower surface is termed pars reticu- 
laris, or the net-work structure ; its upper surface is termed pars WpU- 
luris, from its papillary prolongations. Closely connected with the 
latter is another, less perceptible, surface, called the glandular and 
follicular surface. 

DE'RMAL ASPECT (Sippa, the skin). An aspect towards the 
•kin or external surface. The term dermad is used, adverbially, to 
signify " towards the dermal aspect." See page 33. 

Dl£RMATA'GRA (6ipiia, dipuarot, skin, ay pa, seizure). Derma- 
gra. A classical svnonvm for the term pelhujra, or skin-disease. 

DERMATA'LGIA (Mpua, Mpparot, the skin, d\yov, pain). 
Dermilfjia. Pain of the skin ; neuralgia of the skin. 

DBRMATAPCSTASIS (itptia, iipnamx, the skin, diroaTacrir, 
a standing away from). A term employed in the same sense as pht/ma, 
denoting a prominence or tumor of the skin. — E. Wilson. 

DERMATITIS (<5«Vm«> dipuaro*, the skin, and -tWf, denoting in- 
flammation). Inflammation of the derma, cutis, or true skin. 

DE'RMATO-, DE'RMO- {iippa % dipparo*, the skin). Either of 
these terms is admissible in words compounded of derma, the skin : we 
may nse dermatology and dcrmology indifferently, dermatalgia and 
dermal gia. 

DE'RMATO-DVSCHROIA (dioua, iipuiTot, skin, 66<r X P°'«, 
a bad colour). Dermodyschroia. Discoloration of the skin; a term 
suggested as a correct substitute for the strange compound dysckromato- 
derma, which means, a ftad colour s skin ! 

DE'RMATO-KELIDO'SIS (dipua, tipuarov, skin, «i|\f6Wif, 
defilement, from «>j\tt, a spot or stain, especially of blood). Dermo- 
kdidoris. A term proposed for spottiness of the skin. 

DERMATOLOGY (Sippa, the skin, Xo'yot, a discourse). That 
branch of anatomy which investigates the nature and qualities of the 
ekin. and of its diseases. By dermatograpky (ypa'<f>«, to write) if 
meant a description of the skin. 

DERMATO'LYSIS (iippa y iipparot, skin, \vati, a loosening). 
Cutis pendula. A form of hypertrophy of the skin, characterized by 
great extension of this organ, which is thrown into folds, forming occa- 
sionally large pendulous masses. Alibert describes five varieties of 
dermatolvsis by the specific terms palpebrals, facialis, collaris, abdomi- 
nalis, ana* genitalinm. 

designation of the Morttus Addisoni, or Addison's disease. 

DE'RMATO-PA'THIA (dippa, Kpnarov, skin, itd*c*~ disease). 
Dermopaikin. Dermatopathy or Dermopathv ; a term suggested as a 
general designation of disease of the skin, and as an appropriate substi- 
tute for the term dermatosis, which has no such meaning. Further, 
there can be no such word as de.rmalonosis. 

DERMATOTIIYTA {iippa, dipuurtn, the skin, <puro», a plant). 
Vegetable parasites, inducing parasitical skin-diseases, as dermo- 
mycosis, epiderroido-mycosis, &c. 

DERMATOSIS (itpfxa, iipparot, the skin, and the termination 
-ctv). A general term foi disease of the skin. Under the pluial term, 
Dermatoses, Alibert classed all diseases of the skin. But the term, 
per tc, hat ao relation to disease of the skin, any more than (rtctasit 

168 D E R_D £ S 

has to disease of the hair. The terminal particle of these words merely 
denotes an action, incomplete or in progress. See Preface, par. 2. 

DBUMATOSKLERO'SIS (a/p/ua, a* PM «™, skin, «r«Xti/>o't, 
hard). Dermo-slderosis. A term applied to a disease which has been 
variously designated as skier om a, sk/eriasis, and sklerodenna, and de- 
noting hardness of skin. 

DERMATOSPA'SMUS (Mpna, Mpparot, the skin, airaa/uoc, a 
spasm). Spasm of the skin, produced by contractility of its muscular 
fibre, as in spasmus periphericus and urticaria. Spasm of the skin is 
seen in operations of the scrotum. — E. Wilson. 

DE'RMATOSY'PHILIS (Mpfia, tipfia™, skin, and syphilis). 
Dermo-syphUis. Disease of the derma, or skin, arising from syphilitic 
poison. See Syphilodermata. 

DERMATOZO'A (iipua, tipfiarot. the skin, g»ov. an animal). 
Animal parasites, inducing parasitical skin-diseases. They are the 
acarus, filaria, and pediculus. 

DE'RMIC {Sipua, the skin). A term applied to the action of 
remedies applied through the skin. 

DE'RMOID (iipfia t the ekin, iloov, likeness). Dermatoid. Skin- 
like ; a term applied to tissues which resemble the skin, as the dura 
mater; also to cutaneous or piliferous cysts, occurring in the ova- 

DE'RHO-MYCCSIS (Mp/ia, iipnarox, the skin, fitter a fun- 

¥is). Dermaio-mycosis. A generic term for mouldiness of the skin, 
he species are D. circinata, or ringworm ; D. sycosa, or chin-welk; 
and D. favosa, or scall-head. See Epidermido-mycosis. 

DERMCTOMY (Mpua, Sip nam, skin, t*V*«, to cut). Der- 
matotomy. Anatomy or dissection of the skin. 

DERO'SNE'S 8 ALT. Narcotine ; O inane. A crystalline sub- 
stance, obtained by treating opium with etner. 

DESCE'NDENS NONI. The descending cervical branch of the 
ninth pair of nerves, or hypoglossal. 

DESICCA'NTIA (desiccare, to dry up). A class of astringents 
which exhaust moisture, check secretion and exhalation, and exercise 
but little corrugating power over the solids. 

DESICCATION (desiccate, to dry up). The process of drying 
bodies, as precipitates, by exposure to the air, by absorption, and by 
▼arious modes suited to the nature of the substance. 

DESILVERIZING PROCESS. A process invented by Pattinson 
for extracting silver from lend, and founded upon the fact that, upon 
melting and subsequent cooling, the lead separates in a crystalline 
form, leaving almost all the silver in the remaining liquid. 

DE'SMOlD (3iVfi>N * fasciculus, tiAoc, likeness). Resembling a 
fasciculus; a term applied to the fasciculate appearance presented by 
the white fibres in certain fibrous tumors. 

DESMO'LOGY Utonot, a bond, \6yov, a description). That 
branch of anatomy which relates to the tendons and ligaments. Des- 
motomy is the art of dissecting the tendons and ligaments ; desmoyruphy 
is the description of them. 

DESPUMATION (</«, from, spuma, foam). The clarifying of a 
fluid, or a separating of its foul parts; literally, scumming, or the 
throwing off of froth or foam. 

VESQUAMA'TIOX (de, from, squama, a scale). Eafoliution. The 

D E S-D E V 169 

falling off of the cuticle or epithelium, in the form of scales ; a common 
consequence of exanthematous diseases. 

DESTRU'CTI YEN ESS (destruere, to destroy). A term, in phreno- 
logy, indicative of a tendency to all kinds of destruction. It is common 
to man and the lower animals, being particularly developed in the car- 
nivora. Its organ is situated on ench side of the head, immediately 
above the ear, corrcspondingto the squamous portion of the temporal bone. 

DESUDA'TION (desudatio, from desiidure, to sweat greatly). A 
violent sweating ; profuse or morbid sweating. 

DETE'RGENTS {detergere, to wipe away). AUuents. Substances 
which cleanse wounds, ulcers, &c, as stimulants or emollients. 

DETERMINATION (de, from, terminus, a bound). Increased 
vascular action, resembling congestion in the blood being in excess, but 
differing fr»m it in every other respect. 

DETONATION (detonare, to thunder). A chemical term denoting 
combination or decomposition of certain bodies, which occurs with 
noise and frequently with combustion, on the application of a small 
degree of heat, or by means of friction, or a blow. Detonating mercury 
and detonating silver are the best known examples. 

DETR ACTIO. Literally, a drawing off; a term applied to certain 
surgical operations. Thus, detractio lent is is extraction of the lens ; 
detractio corporum lioerorum is removal of loose bodies in operations 
on joints ; detractio ccdculomm, the removal of calculi, &c. 

DETRITUS (deterere, to wear away). The waste of a tissue or 
organ ; that which remains after disorganization. 

DETRU'SION (detrudere, to thrust away). The act of thrusting 
awav, at in the lateral displacement of the heart by extraneous pressure. 

DETKU'SOR URI'NiE (detntdere, to thrust out). The external 
laver of the muscular coat of the bladder which expels the urine. 

DEUTEROPATH Y (dwrtpo*, second, wdtU, disease). A term 
indicative of sympathetic diseases, or of the supervention of a second 
affection upon a first, and their connexion with each other. 

DEUTEROPE'PSIA («*«ut» P o«, second, vt^it, digestion). The 
name given by Dr. Watson Brad thaw to a " second " or " secondary " 
process of digestion, supposed to occur in the upper part of the large 
intestine. See Protopeysia. 

DEL'TOXIDE (Ati/Tipov, second). Binoxide. A term applied to 
a substance which is in the second degree of oxidation, or contains two 
equivalents of oxygen to one of some other body. This term is often 
used to denote a compound of 3 atoms of oxygen with 2 of metal, as 
in deutoxide of manganese, of lead, &c. 

DEVELOPMENT. Embryology. A term employed in biology 
to include all those change* which a germ undergoes before it assumes 
the characters of the perfect individual — all the changes, for instance, 
which are undergone by a butteifly in passing from the fecundated ovum 
to the condition of an " imago" or pci feet insect, See Transformation 
and Metamorphosis. 

Development, retrograde or recurrent. This term relates to those 
forms of life in which the adult state is, in all appearance, a degraded 
form as compared with its earliest condition. This phenomenon is seen 
in animals which lead a free life when young, hut are parasitic in their 
habits when fullv grown. See Epizoa, 

DE V I A'TION (de, from, via, the way). A going out of tta to ,%* 

170 DT5V— DIA 

in abnormal curvature of the spine, faulty direction of the teeth, the 
passage of the fluids into foreign vessels, &c. 

DEVITRIFICATION. A term denoting a change which takes 
place in some varieties of glass, when heated to nearly their melting 
point and allowed to cool slowly : they become converted into an 
opaque hard mass resembling porcelain (Reaumur" a porcelain). The 
term denotes the depriving of the glass of its original transparent con- 

DEVONSHIRE COLIC. Colic of Poitou. A specie of colic, 
occasioned by the introduction of lead into the system, and named 
from its frequent occurrence in Devonshire and Poitou, where lead 
was formerly used to destroy the acidity of the weak wines and cider 
made in those parts. It is also called Painters' colic from the same cause. 

DEW. The moisture insensibly deposited from the atmosphere on 
the surface of the earth. It occurs whenever that surface is lower in 
temperature than that of the dew-point of the atmosphere immediately 
in contact with it. 

1. Dew-point. Herschel defines this as " the temperature which the 
air ought to have, so as to be exactly saturated with the quantity of 
vapour it actually contains.** It is otherwise defined as the temperature 
of the atmosphere at which its moisture begins to be deposited. 

2. Depression of the Dew-point. This phrase denotes the quantity 
of heat to be abstracted, or the number of degrees of the thermometer 
below the actual temperature of the atmosphere which it requires to be 
cooled, in order that the vapour it contains may become so condensed. 

DE'XTRAL ASPECT (dexter, right). A lateral aspect from the 
mesial plane towards the right. The term dextrad is used, adverbially, 
to signify " towards the dcxtral aspect** See page 3*2. 

DE'XTRINE (dexter, right). British gum. A gummy substance 
found in the interior of the cells of plants, and formed artificially by 
the action of heat, diastase, or acids upon starch. Its name is derived 
from its property of rotating the plane of polarization of light to the 
right hand. 

Erythro-dextrine ; achroo-dextrine. Dextrine coloured red by iodine, 
and dextrine uncoloured bv iodine, respectively. 

DE v XTROG YRE ; L A'VOG Y RE (dexter, right, lavas, left, gyrus, 
a circle). Terms applied to substances from their rotating the plane of 
polarization to the right or to the left, respectively. 

DE'XTROSE (dexter, right). A name given to grape-sugar, from 
its rotating the plane of polarization to the right. See lAeru/ose. 

to tartaric acid with reference to its mode of crystallization : the acid 
which is separated from the right-handed tartrate furnishes crystals 
which are hemihedral right-handedly ; that from the left-handed tar- 
trate furnishes left-handed hemihedral crystals. The former acid is 
termed dextro-tartaric, the latter Icbvo- tartaric. 

DI- (Ate, twice). A prefix employed, in chemical terms, to denote 
two equivalents of the substance indicated by the noun following that 
of which the prefix forms a part, as <ft-chloride of mercury, L e. a com- 
pound formed of two equivalents of mercury and one of chlorine. 
Compare Bi-. 

Dl'A- (it a). A Greek preposition, denoting through. Words com- 
pounded with did imp'y extension, diffusion, perversion, transition; also 

D I A 171 

that which in English and Latin is expressed by the prefixes di- or die-, 
as in divido, to divide ; disjungo, to disjoin. 

DIABE'TES (At a/?acVc», to pass over). Immoderate flow of saccha- 
rine urine. This is the true complaint ; hut the terms viellitus and 
insipidus hare been applied to it, according as the saccharine quality of 
the uriue is, or is not, the characteristic symptom. See Glycosuria and 

1. Diabetes, artificial. The production of glycosuria by artificial 
meaus, as by puncturing the floor of the fourth ventricle. The term 
44 artificial" in this case is not new, but the term " diabetes " had not 
the same meaning formerly as it has now ; it was looked on simply as 

2. Diabetic swjar. The sweet principle of most acid fruits, and of 
diabetic urine. It is also termed starch-sugar, sugar of fruits, grape- 
sugar, glucose, &c. 

DIACHY'LON (iidvvXov, very juicy). An emollient digestive 
platter, formerly prepared from expressed juices. It forms the Emplas- 
trum plumf/i of the Pharmacopoeia. The preposition itd here denotes 

DI'ACID. A term applied to the diamines, from their capability of 
combining with two equivalents of hydrochloric or any similar acid. 
See Amines. 

DI ADE'LPHIA (*/«, twice, ia«X</>o'«, a brother}. The seventeenth 
class of plants in Linnaeus' s system, in which tno filaments of the 
stamens are united into two parcels, or brotherhoods. This is the strict 
meaning of the term, but it is customary to place in this class all the 
papilionaceous plants which have united stamens, whether in one parcel 
or two. 

DIURESIS {ttaipuris, a dividing). A solution of continuity. 
The operation of dividing any part of the body. The term has been 
applied to denote a cause of external aneurysm. 

DIAGNOSIS (a*aV»<™, » distinguishing). The act of discern- 
ing, or distinguishing, in general; in medicine, the distinction of 
diseases. Dia gnosis and tftg-cernnient exactly correspond. Diagnosis 
may be said to be the art of converting symptoms into signs. 

DIAGO'METER, ELE'CTRICAL (a*o-y», to conduct, nirpov, 
a measure). An apparatus used by Rousseau for ascertaining the con- 
ducting power of oil, as a means of detecting its adulteration. It con- 
sists of one of Zamboni's dry pile, and a feebly-magnetized needle, 
moving freely on a pivot. The deviation of the needle is less in pro- 
portion to the low conducting power of the interposed substance. 

DI ALVSE8 (4<aAv<m, a loosing of one from anything). Solutions 
of continuity ; an order of the class locales of Cullen. 

DIA'LYSIS (dta'Avfftt, the separating from anything). A process 
of chemical analysis by means of liquid diffusion. It consists in the 
separation of dissolved substances from one another by taking advantage 
of the unequal rate at which they severally pass through moist dia- 
phragms or septa. Those which pass through membranes freelv, are 
found to be of crystalline character, and have been termed crystalloul ; 
those which pass slowly, are found to be glutinous, and have been termed 

DIAM AGNE'TIC. A term applied to those substances which place 
themselves equatorial ly, and by consequence, across (4«£) the. axAax 

173 D I A 

direction or line of magnetic force ; in other words, diamagnetic bodies 
place their length at right angles to the line joining the two magnetic 
poles, as distinguished from magnetic bodirs, which place themselves 
lengthwise between the two poles. Sec Direction, Axial. 

DIA'METER, PARl'ETAL. The distance between the tuo 
parietal bones of the cranium, or, in popular language, the side- to-side 
diameter, as distinguished from the occipitofrontal, or fore-und-afr, 
diameter, or the distance between the forehead and the occiput. The 
latter is almost always the greater; when more, than tiro inches greater, 
ft skull is long-headed ; when less than one, short-headed. 

DIA'MIDES. A class of chemical compounds derived from ammo- 
nia, in which two equivalents of hydrogen in a double equivalent of 
ammonia are replaced by a biatomic radical, as in oxamide. 

DI A'MINES. A class of organic bases which are formed upon the 
type of two atoms of ammonia, or diammonia. See Amine*. 

Dl'AMOND. A gem ; the crystallized and pure state of carbon, and 
the hardest and most brilliant body in nature. The old spelling, 
diamaft/, is preferable to the modern, diamond, for it tells more plainly 
of the quarter whence the word came. Diamant and adamant are only 
two forms of the same Greek word, aianai, invincible, which after- 
wards became the Latin word adamas, adamant or diamond. 

DIA'NDRIA (ok, twice, avnp, aman). The second class of plants 
in Linnaeus'* system, characterized by the presence of two stamen*, 
provided that the stamens are not united at their base, nor combined 
with the style and stigma, nor separated from the pistil. 

PIAPKDE'SIS (diairriin<ri9, a leaning through or across, from 
vi|6aw, to leap). A term formerly used to denote external aneurysm : 
a Per diapedesin" says Sylvaticus, 4t id est, rarefactia ejus tunicis. * By 
Ataxffo'iia'tf u'/motov, Hippocrates denotes a sweating of blood. 

^ DI AT HA NOUS (StaQawit, transparent). Transparent ; the name 
given by Pinel to the serous membranes, from their transparency wh< n 
detached from their organs, as the arachnoid, the omentum, &c. In 
Chemistry, the term denotes permeability to light. Z)ta-phaiious and 
translucent exactly correspond. 

DIAPHORE'SIS (Aiafffdptjo-if , perspiration ; from iiatfropit*, to 
carry from one place to another, and hence to throw off by perspiration 
— a sense derived from thepcusage of food through the bod/). Increased 
perspiration. Hence — 

Diaphoretics. Medicines which increase the natural exhalation of 
the skin, or restore it when suppressed. When they are so powerful as 
to occasion sweating, they are called sudorific*. 

DIAPHOROMETRIC COMPASS (tia<popa, distinction, /utrpois 
a measure). An instrument contrived by Dr. John Ogle for measuring 
the degree of discriminative power as regards contartile impressions 
possessed by the skin and certain parts of the mucous membiane in 
those affections of the nervous system in which this power of apprecia- 
tion is interfered with. The term has been sometimes incorrectly called 
diapkemetrie. See Contactile Discrimination. 

DPAPHRAGM (JidoVay^a, a paitition-wall). Midriff. A cir- 
cular muscle, placed transversely between the thorax and the abdomen, 
forming a movable partition between those two preat cavities. 

1. Diaphragmatic Gout. A term applied by Butter to the affection 
now called Anginu Pectoris. 

D 1 A 173 

2. Diapkragmitis. Inflammation of the diaphragm. A term iodic- 
tim«*s applied to that variety of partial pleurisy in which the effused 
fluid exists between the base of the lung and the diaphragm. The 
term paraphrenitis (<ppn *, (pptvov, the diaphragm) has been used in the 
tame tense. 

DIATHYSIS (tia<pv<Tiv % a growing through). A term applied to 
the middle part, or body, of the long or cylindrical bones. 

DIA'PNOICS (Acawof), a passage for the wind; evaporation). A 
term synonymous with dutjyhoreiics and nudorifics. 

DIAPOTHYSIS (Sta t through or across, <fci-o>v<rtf, a process of 
bone). A term applied by Prof. Owen to the homologue of the 
upper transverse process of the neural arch of the vertebra. See Ver- 

DIARRHCE'A (ttdtfoia, a flowing through). F/turm vetttria ; 
alvut fu»a; lienteriu. A flux or looseness of the bowels without 
tenesmus. It is termed crapulo$a, when caused by food improper in 
quality or quantity ; bUiosa, by excessive or acrid bile ; serosa, by in- 
creased vascular action of the mucous surface of the alimentary canal ; 
mwensa, by increased secretion of the mucous follicles; limterica,wUen 
the aliment passes in the evaluations almost unaltered ; fibrinosa, when 
the discharges occur in the form of shreds or tubular membranes ; and 
sympathetica, when induced by other affections. 

DIARTHRO'SIS (e\a\ and <!,>t)f>»a»«, articulation). A species of 
movable articulation, constituting the greater proportion of the joints 
of the body. Here the preposition 6td denotes separation, and so 
mobility; whereas in synarthrosis, or immovable articulation, the 
preposition <rvv denotes connexion, and so immobility. The term 
diarikrosis is the Greek svnonym of the Latin aUiriicidation. 

DI'ARY FEVKR (dies, a day). Ephemera. The simplest form 
of fever, distinguished by Dr. Fordyce as simple fever ; it has one series 
of increase and decrease, with a tendency to exacerbation and remission, 
for the most part appearing twice in twenty-four hours. 

DI ASTA'LTIC Uid, through, along, o-rt'AAw, to contract). A term 
applied by Marshall Hall to the series of actions which take place 
wrowjh the spinal system as their essential seat. It is intended to 
express the actions otherwise called ejtcttomototy or reflex. 

DIA'STASE (3ia'<rTn<r««, diastasis, separation). A substance 
formed during the germination of plants, and artificially prepared from 
malt, being probably the vegetable fibrin of gluten in a* state of decom- 
position. It is named in allusion to the reparation, or rather alteration, 
it effects among the constituent atoms of starch. 

DIASTASIS (iid<rra<ri* } separation). A forcible separation of 
bones, without fracture. 

DIA'STATIZKD ORGANIC IRON. A tonic remedy, introduced 
by Dr. Victor Baud, and consisting of cress-seed, absorbed in a solution 
of iron, and then submitted to a process of active germination, the 
process being arrested at the very moment when it acquires its 
greatest vital energy. The iron is thus " made organic/* and is also 
M diastatized." Diastatized Iodine is a remedy prepared by a similar 


DIAT3TOLE' (Aicto-roXif, a drawing asunder; dilatation). The 
dilatation of the heart and arteries ; opposed to systole, or contraction. 

DIATHE'RMANOUS (tou, through, 0% Pf ialtm % to warm). A 

174 D I A— D I C 

Greek term denoting free permeability to radiant heat, and synonymous 
with the Latin term transcalent 

Diathermancy. The property, possessed by nearly all diathermanous 
bodies, of admitting the passage only of certain species of calorific ray*. 
When the quantity of heat transmitted independently of the quality is 
to be denoted, the term diathermaneily lias been suggested by Melloni, 
in order to preserve the same termination as in the word diaphaneity, 
indicating the analogous property in relation to light. 

DIATHESIS (did0t<Ti9 y a placing in order; disposition). Consti- 
tutional disposition to particular diseases, as the rheumatic, the scro- 
fulous, the haemorrhage, the calculous diathesis. 

Diathesis spasmodica. A general term for an irritable weakness of 
nervous constitution, in which, if there be not positive disease, there is 
the well-prepared ground of disease. 

DICHLAMY'DEOUS (*«, twice, xW", a cloak). A term 
applied to a flower which has two envelopes — a calyx and a corolla. 
See Monochlamydeous. 

DICHO'GAMY (o7x«, doubly, yafiiw, to morry). A term indi- 
cating that, in hermaphrodite flowers, the male and female organs are 
very commonly not in a functional state at the same time. 

DICHOTOMY (3fx«. doubly, t«V», to divide). A term ex- 
pressing, in botany, a mode of branching by constant forking or hifur- 
eathn, as in the veins of fern-leaves and the branches of the Doom- 
Palm. The principle may be extended, and the terms trichotomy, 
tetrachotomy, and pentachotomy be employed. 

DI'CHROISM (3«, double, \i )6a > colour). A term applied to that 
property of certain crystals by which they exhibit different colours 
according to the position of their axes to tne incident pencil of light. 
This property was first discovered in the mineral iolite, which was 
accordingly termed dichroite. 

DI'CHROOSCOPE (ai'xpoo*, two-coloured, <r*oW«, to investigate). 
An optical apparatus invented for representing interferences, spectra in 
coloured lights, polarization of light, &c. 

DICLE/SIUM. The carpological name of a spurious fruit consisting 
of achenia enclosed in a hardened perianth or corolla, as in spinacia, 
mirabilis, &c. 

DI'CLINOUS (o7v, twice, kXavij, a bed). A designation of plants 
in which the stamens are present in one flower and the pistil in another. 
Monoecious and dieocious plants are both diclinous. 

DICOTYLE'DONES (to, twice, kotvAijoW, a seed-lobe). Plants 
whose embryo contains two cotyledons or seed-lobes. See Cotyledon. 

DICRO'TIC (oV fcporoc , double-beating, from to, twice, nporim, to 
beat). A term applied to the pulse, where the artery conveys the sen- 
sation of a double pulsation. It is synonymous with the term rebound- 
imp, and is suggestive of a tendency to haemorrhage. 

DICTY'ITIS (torvo*,a net, and, hence, the retina). Inflammation 
of the retina. This term might fairly replace the barbarous retinitis. 
See also Amphiblestroides. 

DI'CTYOGENS (o"iktvo», a net, yimv, to produce). The name 

of a division of Endogenous plants, of which the stem has the structure 

of endogens, the root that of the stem of exogens nearly, with netted or 

reticulated, disarticulating leaves, as Smilax. They constitute a sub- 

division of the Spermogens of Lindley. 

D 1 D-D 1 G 175 

DIDYMI (M&vfH*, double). Twins. An obsolete term for the 
testes. The Eni-didymis is the body which lies above the testes. 

DIDY'MIUM (6 id u not, twin). A metal discovered in cerite, and 
named from its being, as it were, the toin-brother of lantonnm, which 
was previously found in the same body. 

DlDYNA'MIA (4/c, twice, Mvam^ power). The fourteenth class 
of Linnaeus'* system of plants, characterized by the presence of four 
stamens, of which two are long, two short 

DIET; DIETETICS (a/aira, regimen). The food proper for 
invalids. The terms are nearly synonymous with hygiene and regimen. 
La diitc, used by French physicians, means extreme abstinence. 

DIET DRINK (4t'aira, regimen). The Decoct. SarsajxiriUm 
amp. of the Pharmacopoeia, consisting of sarsaparilla, sassafras, guaiacum- 
wood, fresh liquorice, and mezereon. 

DIFFUSION. 1. The process by which gases and liquids, when in 
contact y pass through each other and intermingle, although not necessarily 
related by chemical affinity. 2. The process by which gases, when 
separated from one another by a porous septum or lamina, tend to an 
equilibrium of mixture through the intervening substance. See En- 
dosmosi* and At molt/sis. 

1. Diffusion Tube. An instrument for determining the rate of diffu- 
sion for different gases. It is simply a graduated tube, twelve inches in 
length, closed at one end by plaster of raris, a substance, when mode- 
rately dry, possessed of the requisite porosity. 

2. Diffusion Volume. A term adopted to express the different dis- 

Csition of gases to interchange particles; the diffusion-volume of air 
ing 1, that of hydrogen gas is 3 83. 

DIG A'STRIC G ROO VE. A longitudinal depression of the mastoid 
process, giving attachment to the digastricus muscle. 

DIGA'STRICUS (i«, twice, ya<rrtip % a belly). Having two 
bellies ; the name of a muscle attached to the os hyoulfg ; it is some- 
times called biventer maxilla iuftrioris ; it depresses the lower jaw. 
The term is also applied to one of the interior Profundi of Meckel, 
given off by the facial nerve; the other is called tlic stylo-hyoideus. 

DIGESTER. An iron or copper vessel, in which water and other 
materials can be heated considerably beyond their boiling points. The 
apparatus was introduced by Papin,and is hence called Papin's digester. 

DIGE'STION (dioerere, from diversim gerere t to carry into different 
parts). A term employed in various senses : — 

1. In Physiology* the change of the food into chyme by the mouth, 
stomach, and small intestines ; and the absorption and distribution of 
the more nutritious parts, or the chyle, through the system. 

2. In Surgery, the bringing of a wound into a state in which it forms 
healthy pus, in which it is disposed to suppurate. Applications which 
promote this object are called digestives. 

3. In Chemistry, the continued action of a solvent upon any substance. 
The operation is similar to that of maceration, but is promoted by heat 
ranging from 90° to 100°. 

4. M Scholars of the seventeenth century often employ a word of their 
own language in the same latitude as its equivalent possessed in the 
Greek or Latin ; as though it entered into all the rights of its equivalent, 
and corresponded with it in all points, because it corresponded in one. 
Thus, 'coctus' meaning * digested,* why should not digested' mean 

176 D I O— D I CE 

mil which ' coctus* meant? But one of the meanings of * coctus* is 

* ripened ;* * digested/ therefore, might be employed in the same tense. 

* Splendid fires, aromatic spices, rich wines, and vreVL-digested fruits. 1 " 
IJ. Taylor.)— Trench. 

DIGE'STIVE SALT OF SYLVIUS. A salt discovered by 
Sylvius, since named muriate of potash, and now chloride of potassium. 

DIGITAL CAVITY (digitus, a finger). Another name for the 
posterior cornu of each lateral ventricle of the brain. 

DIGITALI'NUM (digitalis, pertaining to the finger). Digital in ; 
an active poison, procured from the leaf of Digitalis purpurea. The 
blossoms resemble finger-cases, aud the plant has accordingly been called 
•• thimble-wort." See Foxglove. 

DI'GITUS (digerere, to point out). A finger or a toe — pet altera 
nanus. The fingers of the hand are the index, or fore-finger ; the 
medius, or middle finger; the annularis, or ring-finger; and the 
auricularis, or little finger. The bones of the fingers are called 

DIGY'NIA (o7t, twice, ywi'h * woman). The second order in 
Linnaeus' s system of plants, characterized by the presence of two styles 
in the flower, or of a single style deeply cleft into two parts. 

DILATATION (dilatare, to make wide, from diversim fero, tuli, 
latum). The act of enlarging or making wide anything. In physio- 
logy, it may be a temporary act, as in the diastole of the heart ; in 
pathology, a permanent act, as in passive aneurysm of that organ ; in 
surgery, it is the enlargement of a canal, orifice, or organ by operation 
or disease. 

Dilatation, cardiac. Hypertrophy of the heart with dilatation. It is 
termed active, when the dilatation predominates over the hypertrophy ; 
simple, when the thickness of the walls is normal ; passive or attenuated, 
when the walls are thinned. 

DILATATOR (dilatare, to make wide). The general name of 
several muscles which serve to widen parts, as dilatator concha*, &c. 

Dl'LUENTS (diluere, to dilute). Watery liquors, which are sup- 
posed to increase the fluidity of the blood, and render several of the 
secreted and excreted fluids less viscid. See Demulcents. 

DILUTIO ; DILU'TUM (diluere, to wash off). The former term 
denotes the act of diluting; the latter denotes a liquid in which some- 
thing has been dissolved, Anqlice, a solution. See Preface, par. 3. 

DIMO'RPHIC PLANTS (3i», twice, fiopd>ij, form). Plants in 
wbich a single species presents two distinct forms, similar to each 
other in all respects except in their reproductive organs, the one 
form having a long pistil and short stamens, the other a short pistil 
and long stamens. See Trimorphic Plants. 

DIMO'RPHISM (Ait, twice, tiop<p*, form). The property of many 
solid bodies to assume two incompatible crystalline forms ; such are 
sulphur, carbon, arscnious acid, &c. 

DINGLER'S GREEN. A new green colouring matter, consisting 
of a mixture of phosphate of chromium and phosphate of lime. 

DI'NUS (hivo* or o'ii'if, vortex). Vertigo, or giddiness ; illusory 
gyration of the person, or of the objects surrounding him. 

DICE 'CI A (oic, twice, oLtot, a house). The twenty-second class of 
plants in Linnseus's system, in which the stamens and pistils are in 
tepuutt flowers, and on separate plants, as in mercurial is, <&c. 

D I 0— D I P 177 

DICGENES'S CUP. A term applied to the cup-like cavity of 
the hand, occasioned by bending the metacarpal bone of the little 

DIORTHO'SIS (aio>6tt><r<f, a making straight, as in the setting of a 
limb — Hipp.). The restoration of parts to their proper situation ; the 
redaction of a fractured or luxated limb. 

. DICS M IN. A brownish-yellow, bitter extractive matter procured 
worn several species of Barotma, formerly Diotsna. See Buchu. 

DICXIDK. According to the electro-chemical theory, the elements 
of a compound may, in relation to each other, be considered oppositely 
electric ; the equivalents of the negative element may then be dis- 
tinguished by Latin numerals, those of the positive by Greek ; thus, a 
fa-oxide denotes a compound which contains two equivalents of the 
negative element oxygen ; whereas a eft-oxide indicates that one equiva- 
lent of oxyeen is combined with two of some positive body. 

DIPHTHERIA (at</>0f>a, a prepared hide, a piece of leather). 
•* A specific disease, with membranous exudation on a mucous surface 
(generally of the mouth, fauces, and air-passages), or occasionally on a 
wound.*' — Now. of Die. 

Under the term diphtAerite, Breton neau included, not only the acute 
and gangrenous varieties of pharyngitis, both of which are accompanied 
by exudation of & false memltrune, but also inflammation of the trachea ; 
and he contends that this peculiar disease is identical with croup, 
arising from the same causes, and requiring the same mode of treat- 

DIPLE'GIC {6 it, twice, xXtjyij, a stroke). The designation of a 
form of permanent contraction of the limbs, in which the hemiplegic 
and the paraplegic forms are combined. 

DITLOK (AtvXoV a fold, doubling, especially the overlapping of 
the bones of the skull). Afediiullium. The cellular osseous tissue 
wbirh separates the two tables of the skull from each other. 

PIPLOGE'NESIS (JnrAovt, double, ytWn, generation). Double 
generation, owing to the uniou of two germs. 

DIPLOMA (Siir\»fia, anything folded doubleY Originally, 
letters patent of a prince, written on waxed tables /b/<foa together. The 
term is now restricted to an instrument by which a legalized corpora- 
tion confers a title of dignity, or a privilege to practise in a learned 

DI'PLO-NEU'RA (dirXout, double, vtvpov, a nerve). A term 
applied by Dr. Grant to the Second Sub-kingdom of Animals, or 
Hetminthoula, comprising the various forms of Worms, in which the 
nervous columns nave their ganglionic enlargements verv slightly 
developed, and are marked by a greater lateral separation from each 
other along the median line, than is observed in the next sub king- 
dom. The classes are polygastrica, rotifera, suctoria, cirrhopoda, and 
annul id a. 

D1PLOTSI8 (oWXovt, double, £u7, the eye, from 5irrofxat t to 
see). Diplopia. Vitus duplicatus. Double vision ; a disesse of the 
eye, in which the person sees sn object double or triple ; incomplete or 
incipient amaurosis. This disease is of two kinds :— 1. The patient sees 
an object double, treble, &c., only when he is looking at it with both 
his eyes, the object appearing single on his shutting one eye ; or, 2. 
The patient sees every object double, whether he surveys it with one 

178 D I P— D I S 

or both his eyes. Uniocular diplopsis is a form of double vision occur- 
ring when one eve only is used. 

DIPLOTE'GIA. The name given, in carpology, by Desvaux to an 
inferior capsule, dehiscing by spores, as in campanula. 

DIPPEL'S OIL. An animal oil procured by the destructive dis- 
tillation of animal matter, especially of albuminous and gelatinous sub- 
stances. It is synonymous with bone oil. 

DTPS AC US (AiO'aMos, a disease of the kidneys, attended with 
violent thirst — Galen). A name formerly given to diabetes, from the 
thirst accompanying that affection. 

DIPSOMA'NIA (<3i'u7a, thirst, navia, madness). A form of partial 
moral mania, inducing a propensity to drunkenness. But the term 
means " a mania for being thirsty," and would be well replaced by the 
word potomania, from irdVoc , a drinking. 

Dipsomania and Alcoholism. Dr. Magnan states that dipsomania is 
a form of instinctive monomania, whilst alcoholism is a poisoning. 
Trelat says that " drunkards are men who get drunk when they get 
the chance of drinking, while dipsomaniacs are people suffering from 
disease who get drunk whenever they get an attack of their peculiar 
disordt r." 

DIPSO'SIS (&fya, thirst). Morbid thirst ; excessive or impaired 
desire of drinking. 

DIRECTION, AXIAL; EQUATORIAL. The anal direction, 
or line of magnetic force, is that which connects the two poles of a mag- 
net; the equatorial direction is that which is perpendicular to the axial. 
Bodies which place themselves across the axial direction are termed 

DIRE'CTOR {dirigere, to direct). A narrow, grooved instrument, 
of silver or steel, used to direct the knife in dividing any part. 

DI'RIGENS (dirigere, to direct). An ancient constituent in a pre- 
scription, meaning that which directs the operation of the associated 
substances ; thus, Nitre, in conjunction with Squill, is diuretic ; with 
Guaiacutn, it is diaphoretic. 

DIRT-EATING. Geopltagie. A strange practice constituting one 
of the chief endemic diseases of all tropical America. — Dr. Gait. 

DIS-. A Latin inseparable particle, denoting, when prefixed to 
verbs, asunder, in pieces, apart, in ttvo. It sometimes retains its un- 
altered form, as in dislocation ; sometimes it assimilates its s to tho 
following consonant, as in ^/fusion, or it may reject the s altogether, 
as in digestion, diluent, &c. 

DISARTICULATION (dis, an inseparable particle denoting 
asunder, and articulus, a joint). Amputation of a limb performed at a 
joint. De-articulation is an obsolete term. 

DISCOLORATION. A morbid stain of the skin, as the pigmen- 
tary, the syphilitic, the haeinonhagic, the parasitic, the chemical. See 

DISCRETE (discretm, separated). A term applied to certain ex- 
anthemata, in which the papulae or pustules are separated from ono 
another, as opposed to tho term confluent, or flowing together. 

DISCUS PROLI'GERUS (discus, a disk, proles, offspring, gerere, 
to bear). Discus vUellinus. The proligerous disk or layer ; a granular 
layer, situated generally towards the most prominent part of the ovarian 
reticle, in the centre of which is the true ovum or ovule. 

D I S 179 

DISCTJ'SSION {discutere, to shatter). A shaking, a breaking up 
or dispersing, a dissolution and removal — as of a tumor. Bee Di»~ 

DISCUTJENTS (discutere, to shake into pieces). Substances 
which possess a power of resolving or " discussing ' tumors. 

DISEASE. This term was once applied to any distress or discom- 
fort, but is now limited to a sick and suffering condition of body, 
to change of structure, as distinguished from disordered function. 
Disease is termed acute, when severe and of short duration ; chronic, 
when less severe and of long continuance; sporadic, when arising 
from occasional causes, as cold, fatigue ; epidemic, when arising from 
a general cause, as excessive heat, contagion ; endemic, when prevailing 
locally, as from marsh-miasma; intercurrent, when it is sporadic, 
occurring in the midst of epidemic or endemic disease. 

DISINFECTANTS. Mechanical and other agents which destroy 
miasmata, both odorous and inodorous. The Disinfecting Liquid of 
Labarraque consists of a solution of chlorinated soda; that of Burnet, 
of a solution of chloride of zinc ; that of Condy, of a manganate of soda. 

DISINTEGRATION (rfw, and integrare, to make whole). The 
destruction of cohesion, the breaking up into pieces. The pathological 
condition of the spinal cord, designated by Lock hart Clarke as " granu- 
lar disintegration ," has been referred by Benedikt to a process of 

DISK or DISC (disctts, a flat plate). A term signifying, in botany, 
any ring or whorl of glands, scales, or other bodies that surround the 
base of an ovary, intervening between it and the stamens. In its most 
common state, it is a fleshy wax-like ring, as in the orange. 

DISLOCATION (dislocare, to put out of place). The displace- 
ment of the articular surfaces of a bone from their natural situation. 
The term is nearly synonymous with lujxtfion, which is not quite so 
generally applied, and suggests more of external force. It is, for 
instance, to speak of the dislocation, not the luxation, of the internal 
cartilage of the knee ; and the latter term is seldom, if ever, used in 
describing the displacement of the small bones of the wrist or instep, 
or of single vertebra. See Ijoco-motus. 

1. Dislocations arc distinguished, with respect to ejeient, into the 
complete, and the incomplete; the latter term is applied when the 
articular surfaces still remain partially in contact; this occurs in 

¥'nglymoid articulations only, as those of the foot, knee, and elbow, 
he complete dislocation almost always occurs in the orbicular 

2. The Direction of a Dislocation is named upward, downward, 
forward, and laclncard, in the orbicular articulations ; and lateral, 
forward, and backward, in the ginglymo'id. 

3. Dislocatitms arc further distinguished, according to the accom- 
panying circumstances, into the simple, when, unattended by a wound, 
communicating internally with the joint and externally with the 
air ; and the compoun/t, when attended by such a wouud. 

4. When a Dislocation occurs in consequence of a disease destroying 
the cartilages, ligaments, and articular cavities of the bones, it is termed 

6. Desault divided Dislocations of the humerus into the primitive, 
which are the sudden effects of external violence, and tta ttmaectffoe^ 

N 2 

180 DIS 

which follow the former, from the influence of other cause*, as of a fresh 
fell, while the arm is separated from the trunk. 

DISLOCATION OF MEMORY. A terra proposed by S!r Henry 
Holland for the phenomena of complete hut temporary forgctfulnets. 

DISPE'NSATORY (dispensatorium, an apothecary's diary or day- 
hook). A treatise of the composition of medicines ; a private, not 
officinal* pharmacopoeia. 

DISPLACEMENT. 1. A term applied to a pharmaceutical pro- 
cess by which the soluble matter of drug* is removed or displaced in 
the highest state of concentration, and by means of the least possible 
amount of fluid. 2. The term displacement is also used as synonymous 
with couching — an operation for cataract 

DISSE'CTION (dissecare, to cut in pieces). The display of the 
different structures of the animal body, by means of the scalpel, com- 
prising the several branches called osteotomy, myotomy, neurotomy, 

DISSETIMENTS {dissepire, to separate). The partitions inside of 
a fruit which are formed by the union of the sides of its constituent 
carpels. Dissepiments are therefore necessarily alternate with the 
stigma. See Phragmata. 

DISSOCIATION (dissociatio, a separation). A term employed in 

chemistry, originally almost synonymously with decomposition 

1. Recently, M. Deville has used the term to indicate the partial and 
gradual decomposition which bodies undergo when exposed to a tem- 
perature below that at which they are decomposed in bulk, which is their 
true temperature or decomposition. 2. Dr. Wurtz employs the term 
to characterize the temporary disjunction which certain bodies undergo 
at elevated temperatures into elements which are ready to recombine 
when the temperature becomes lowered. 

The term '* dissociation " is perhaps not a strictly appropriate one, 
since it implies that a union is broken up into socii, or members of like 
kind, while, in the phenomena in question, chemical compounds are 
resolved into components which are essentially different from one 
another. See Thermolysis. 

DI'STA L ASPECf (distare, to stand apart). An aspect of a bone 
or of a situation from the trunk or towards the extremity. (Sec Car- 
diac.) The term distad, used adverbially, signifies " towards the distal 
aspect." See Anatomy, page 32. 

DISTI'CHIASIS (Jurrivia, a double line, as of thips, as of eye- 
lashes; from 4tc, twice, artx©*, a row). An affection in which each 
tarsus has a double row of eyelashes, some of which, inclining inward, 
irritate the eye, and keep up ophthalmia. See Tricltiasis. 

DI'STICHOUS (Me, twice, arfx"** * row). Arranged in two rows ; 
a term applied, in botany, to the florets of a spikelet, to the grains of an 
car, of grasses. 

DISTILLATION (desiHlart,io drop by little and little). The con- 
version of a liquid into vapour by heat, and its subsequent condensation 
into the liquid form in a separate vessel by cold. — 1. Sometimes the 
volatile matter condenses as a solid body, and then the process is called 
sublimation. 2. When the product obtained is the result of a change 
induced by heat upon the original substance, out of contact with air, the 
process is namrd destructive or dry distillation. 3. When a liquid pos- 
teningm definite boiling-point is separated from other liquids possess- 

D I S— D O B 181 

ing other boiling-points, the process is termed fractional distillation. 
4. When the process of distillation is repeated many times, in order to 
obtain perfect purity from the less rolatile matter, it is termed recti- 
Jication. Other terms are — 

1. DestUlatio per la (us, in which the vapour passes laterally from the 
retort to the receiver, where it is condensed. 

2. DestUlatio per ascensum, iu which the vapour ascends into the head 
of the still, and thence passes into the worm, before it is condensed. 

3. DestUlatio per descensum, in which the vapour descends into a lower 
cavity of the vessel, to be condensed, the fire being placed over the 

D1STOMA (Ait, twice, <rroua t the mouth). The name of a genus 
of sterelminthous parasitic worms, of which the species crassum infests 
the duodenum ; lanceolatum, the hepatic duct and intestines ; ophtkal- 
tnolobium, the eye: and heterophyes, the small intestines. See BU- 

DISTORTION (distorouerc, to wrest aside). A term applied to 
the spine, or limbs, when they are brnt from their natural form. 
When the distortion is congenital, it is termed malformation. 

DISTO'RTOR ORIS (distorquere, to twist on one side). A name 
piven to one of the zygomatic muscles, from its distorting the mouth, as 
in rage, grinning, &c. 

DrSTRIX (<&»'«, twice, Opi^ the hair). Forky hair; a disease of 
the hair, in which it splits at the ends. 

DITHIO'NIC ACID (*/«, twice, 6tio», sulphur). A term applied 
by Berzelius to hyposulphuric acid. The hyposulphurous acid he calls 
diihionous. Each contains two atoms of sulpnur. 

DIURK'SIS {oWpttti, to pass in urine, Hipp.., or, absolutely, to 
pass urine). Urtnafreqttens. This term is applied, though improperly, 
to an abundant excretion of urine. Hence the term diuretics, applied 
to medicines which augment the urinary discharge, and facilitate 
its expulsion from the bladder, as cantharis, digitalis, &c. See Poly* 

Diuresis, chronic. A term applied by Sir Thomas Watson to the 
disease vaguely designated as diabetes insipidus. The excess of water, 
or the greater or less quantity of urea, in the urine, than exists in a 
state of health, has been termed by Dr. Willis, hydruria, axoturia, 
and anatnturia. respectively. 

DIURNATION (diurnus, daily). A term introduced by Marshall 
Hall to express the state of some animals, as the bat, during the day, 
contrasted with their activity at night. Compare Hyliernation. 

DIVAGATION (diva;mri, to wander about). A going astray. A 
state of rambling in mind or in speech. 

DIVARICATION (divaricate, to straddle). The bifurcation, or 
separating into two, of an artery, a nerve, &c. Divaricatio pal' 
peltrarum is a synonym for ectropium, or eversion of the eye-lids. 
Branches of trees are called divaricating, when they spread out at right 
angles from the stem. 

DIVERTICULUM (divertere, to turn different ways). A by- 
passage ; a hole to get out at ; a blind tube branching out of a longer 
one, especially out of the small intestine. Diverticulum Nuckii is the 
opening through which the rousid ligament of the uterus passes. 

DOBEREINER'S LAMP. An instrument, invented bv ¥tt&«Wft 

182 DO D— D O S 

Dobereiner, of Jena, for producing an instantaneous light, by throwing a 
jet of hydrogen gas upon recently-prepared spongy platinum ; the metal 
instantly becomes red hot, and then sets fire to the gas, which, in turn, 
lights a candle placed in front of it. 

DODECAGY'NIA (<3»3i*a, twelve, yvni, a woman). The de- 
signation of those orders of plants, in the Linnseau system, which are 
characterized bv the presence of twelve styles. 

DODECA'tfDRIA (oa»6"*«a, twelve, di/>ju, a man). The eleventh 
class of plants in the Linnaean system, characterized by the presence of 
from twelve to nineteen stamens, provided they do not adhere by their 

DOKIMA'STIC ART (oo*ijia£ctf. to prove by trial). The art of 
•staying ; the testing of medicine* and poisons. 

DOLA'BRIFORM (dolabra, an sue, forma, likeness). Axe-like; 
ft term applied, in botany, to certain fleshy leaves somewhat resembling 
an old-fasnioned axe-head, as in a species of mesembryanthemum. 

DOLICHOKKTHALOUS (JoAtgot, long, ™</>a\if, the head). 
Having a skull whose anteroposterior diameter, or that from the 
frontal to the occipital bone, exceeds the transverse diameter, as many 
African tribes. 

DO'RSAL ASPECT (dorsum, the back). An aspect towards the 
dorsum or back-bone. The term dorsad, used adverbially, signifies 
u towards the dorsal aspect. 1 * See Anatomy, page 32. 

DORSA'LIS PENIS. The superior division of the internal pudic 
nerve, distributed to the glans penis. 

DORSTE'NIA. A genus of Urtinaeeous plants, in which the flowers 
are arranged upon a fleshy receptacle, usually flat and expanded, and of 
very variable form. The D. Braziliensis is said to yield the eontrajerva- 
root which occurs in the shops. 

DCRSUM. The back of a man or other animal. Hence the terms 
dorsal, appertaining to the back ; dorsi-spinal, applied to a plexus of 
veins connected with the processes and arches of tlie vertebrae ; dorso- 
cervical, the designation of a region at the back part of the neck ; and 
dorso-costalis, dorso-soapularis, and dorso-tracltelius, names of muscles, 
respectively synonymous with the serratus posticus superior, the rhom- 
boideus. minor, and the splenitis colli, muscles. 

DOS1S (Aofftv, from iidotfit, to give). A dose; a determinate 
quantity of anything given. A t the age of twenty-one the full dose may 
be given. But for children under twelve years of age, the do^es of 
most medicines should be diminished in the proportion of the age, to 
the age increased by twelve. Thus — 

At one year the dose is | , | = r«th of the full dose. 

2 1 , 
At two years 2"+~l2 = 7 

3 " 1 ^ 

At three years 3 _^_ 12 = 5th „ „ 

At four years 4 + 12 = 4 th " " 

It should be carefully remembered, however, that infants bear opiates 
fkr worse, and purgative* better, than according to the rule. 

DOS-DRA 183 

IXVSSIL. A pledget of lint, mode up in a cylindrical form. 

DOTH1NENTEHITE (oofM*, a pustule, 'irrsf>o», an intestine). 
A term applied by M. Bretonneau to inflammation and ulceration of 
the glands of Peyer and Brunncr, which he considered to be the 
essential character of a large class of fevers, particularly the typhoid. 

DOUBLE-FLUID SERIES. A term applied by Dr. Williams, 
with reference to tiis doctrine of the distinct blood proper and cltylo- 
aqueows fluids, to those invertebrate animals corresponding to the radiate 
and articulate series of systematic zoologists. To the whole molluscan 
•cries, in which the chain diverges from the radiate and articulate chain, 
he devotes the term single-fluid series. 

DOUBLE SALTS. Sal is which combine with each other, as alum, 
which is a combination of sulphate of alumina and sulphate of potash. 
In naming this double salt, it is enough to say, sulphate of alumina and 
potash, for there arc not two acids in a double salt, although there are 
two bases. 

DOUBLE TOUCH. A term applied to surgical examination per 
rectum and per vagi nam at the same time. 

DOUBLES. Double Epsom Salts. A term applied to the single 
Epsom salts, after they have been drained, dissolved, and recrystallized. 
See Singles. 

DOUCHE. The French term for a shower-bath. A cold affusion ; 
a column or current of fluid directed to, or made to fall upon, some part 
of the body. According as the fluid employed is water or aaueous 
vapour, the application is called the liquid douche, or the vapour douche. 
According to the direction in which it is applied, we have the descending, 
the lateral, and the ascendinq douche. 

DOVE- TAIL JOINT. The suture or serrated articulation, as of 
the bones of the head. See Articulation. 

DOVER'S POWDER. A valuable sudorific, consisting of the 
Pulvis Ipecacuanha Compositus of the pharmacopoeia. Ten grains con- 
tain one grain of opium. The dose is from 5 to 10 grains. 

DRACHM (6Vax/u>i, from ipaanopiai, to grasp with the hand). 
Literally, a handful, or manipulus of the Latins. An Attic weight of 
about 6b' grains avoirdupois. Now, an eighth part of an ounce. This 
is an instance of a term having narrowed its meaning in time. 

DRACOXTl'ASIS (dpuKOiTtov, dim. of dpaawv, a snake). A 
helminthic disease produced in the human body, especially in the sub- 
cutaneous areolar tissue of the feet and legs, by the presence of the 
Dracunculus Medincnsis, Filaria Medincnsis, or Guinea-worm. 8eo 

DRA'GANTIX. A mucilage obtained from gum-tragacanth. 

DRAGE'ES. Drages. Sugar-plums; lately employed for admi- 
nistering medicines. In some ot these the centres or nuclei are 
almonds, or some seeds or fiuit ; in others, the uuclei are pills or 
boluses ; in a third variety, the centres consist of a liquid ; in some 
forms of dragees there is no separate nucleus. 

Dragirs Mmirales. Dragees for extemporaneously preparing arti- 
ficial mineral waters. The prepared dragee is to be dropped into a 
glass of water, and allowed slowly to dissolve, the disengaged carbonic 
acid being partly retained by the water. 

DRAGON'S BLOOD. Smguh draconis. A term applied to cer- 
tain tesiuous fcub&tauces, mostly obtained from some palms of the genus 

184 D R A— D R Y 

OUamus ; to a product of the Dracaena draco ; also to a substance ob- 
tained from the Pterocarpiu draco. It occurs in the form of tears, of 
grains, and of reeds ; it consists of a peculiar resinous, colouring prin- 
ciple, called draconin, mixed with benzoic acid and other matters. 
The Greeks called it cinnaJtar, a nnnie they also applied to the red bi- 
sulpburet of mercury or minium. 

DRAINAGE TUBES. India-rubber tubes for gradually discharging 
the contents of large chronic abscesses. 

DRASTICS (o>4», to effect). Purgatives which operate effectually* 
as croton-oil. elaterium, &c. 

DRILLING. An operation for producing absorption, in coses of 
capsular or capsulo-lenticular cataract with adhesion of the pupil, caused 
by iritis. 

DROPPING BOTTLE. An instrument for supplying small quan- 
tities of a fluid to a test-tube or other vessel. A dropping-tube is a glass 
tube having a bulb blown in it, and capable of supplying by drops any 
liquor contained in it. 

DROPSY (from the Greek, M|»«uV— Latin, hydrops .— Th. M»p, 
water, and «^, the look or aspect). Aqua inter cutem. A preter- 
natural effusion of watery or serous fluid into the cellular tissue, or into 
any of the natural serous cavities of the body. With the addition of 
the epithet encysted, it designates a collection of serous fluid in a sac, of 
which the ovarium is most frequently the seat. [The term dropsy is nu 
abbreviation of hydropsy, as is evident from the Greek and the Latin 
derivations.] See Hydrops. 

DRUG. A medicinal simple; an ingredient used in medicine. 
The Italian term is droga; the French, drogue. Dry-grocer was 
formerly in use as well as green -grocer ; and drug or droog signified a 
dry herb or aroma. Why not go to the Greeks at once? Their Tpvyn 
is dryness; their t/ou£, dregs. The distinction between drugs and 
chemicals is as vague as that between chemist and druggist and apothe- 

DRUMMOND LIGHT. Lime-light. A brilliant light procured 
by exposing a small ball of lime to the action of a spirit flame fed by 
pure oxygen gas; the flame, in a highly vivid state, heats the lime to 
an intense degree, and, in this heated state, the lime emits a light ex- 
ceeding in brilliancy any flame yet known. 

DRU'PA. A drupe. A stone-fruit, originally one celled, one or two- 
seeded ; the mesocarpium fleshy, the endocarpiumvroodv, as in amygdalus. 

DRY CUPPING. The application of the cupping-glass, without 
scarification, in order to produce revulsion of blood from any part of the 

DRY DIET. A term denoting restriction in the amount of alimen- 
tary fluids. By dry treatment is signified the total abstinence from 

DRY PILE. The name of a galvanic apparatus, constructed with 
pairs of metallic plates, separated bv layers of farinaceous paste mixed 
with common salt The name is inappropriate, as the apparatus evi- 
dently owed its efficacy to the moisture of the paste. 

DRY ROT. A snecies of decay to which wood is subject The 

wood loses all its cohesion, and becomes friable, and fungi generally 

appear upon it; but the first destructive change is probably of a chemi- 

caj kind, Med to the action of fermentation, and the process cannot, 

therefore, be correctly culled a dry one. 

D U A— D U C 185 

DU'ALIN. 1. A highly explosive substance, consisting of a com- 
pound of glycerine and cellulose ; it is, in fact, another name for 
gtyoxyline. 2. Another explosive substance consisting of ammonia and 
saw-dust, acted on by nitro-sulphuric acid. 

DUA'LITY (duulig, containing two). A term expressing the 
existence or quality of two distinct beings or conditions. 

1. Duality of chemical combination. A term denoting the existence 
of two functions of matter, chemically considered, or the combining 
trndency of electro-positive and electronegative radicals; these are 
the acid and the basic functions— functions mutually opposed, but 
correlative, like the functions of north and south in maguetic, and of 
positive and negative in electrical relations. 

2. Duality of electric agency. A term expressive of the theory that 
one kind of electricity cannot be developed without the other : if a 
glass-tube be submitted to friction, tiro substances are rubbed; and to 
estimate the total consequences of such friction, the rubber, as well as 
the tube, must be subjected to examination. 

3. Duality of organs. Duality, as applied to the brain, denotes that 
this organ is composed of two distinct halves : in fact, of two brains, 
performing the same functions, but acting conjointly or independently 
of each other. The term is applicable to all the limbs, and, perhaps, to 
every other organ of the body, if the spleen may be considered as the 
undeveloped liver of the left side. 

DUCHENNE'S DISEASE. A nervous affection indicated by 
" progressive abolition of the co-ordination of movement and apparent 
paralysis, contrasting with the integrity of the muscular power." 
Duchenne terms this affection ataxic locomotrice progressive. It was 
formerly confounded with tabes dorsalis. 

DUCTUS {ducere, to lead). A duct ; a conduit pipe for the convey- 
ance of liquid. 

1. Ductus ad nasum. A duct continued from the lacrymal sac, and 
opening into the inferior meatus of the nose. 

2. Ductus arteriosus. A tube which, in the foetus, joins the pul- 
monary artery with the aorta. It degenerates, after birth, into a fibrous 

' cord. 

3. Ductus communis choledochus. The bile-duct, formed by the 
junction of the cystic and hepatic ducts. 

4. Ductus opticus. The excretory duct, which leads from the neck 
of the gall-bladder to join the hepatic, forming with it the ductus 
communis choledochus. 

5. Ductus deferens. Another name for the vas deferens^ which arises 
from the tail of the epididymis, and enters the spermatic cord. 

6. Ductus ejaculatorius. A duct within the prostate gland, opening 
into the urethra; it is about three-quarters of an inch in length. 

7. Ductus aalactofcii vel latti/eri: Milk-ducts, arising from the 
eland ular grains of the mamma, and terminating in tin uses near the 
base of the nipple. 

H. Ductus kepaticus. The duct which results from the conjunction 
of the proper ducts of the liver. 

9. Ductus incisorius. A continuation of the foramen incisivum 
between the palatine processes into the nose. 

10. Ductus lympkaticus dexter. A duct formed by the lymphatics of 
the right side of the thorax, &c., and opening into the Junction of \b& 
right jugular and subclavian veins. 

186 D U L-D U R 

11. Ductus pancreaticus. The pancreatic duct, which joint the gall- 
duct, at its entrance into the duodenum. Near the duodenum, this 
duct U joined by a smaller one, called ductus pancreaticus minor. 

12. Ductus prostatici. The ducti of the prostate, from twenty to 
twenty-five in number, opening into the prostatic urethra, on each side 
of the veru montanum. 

13. Ductus Riviniuni. From seven to twenty short ducts bv which 
the secretion of the sublingual gland is poured into the mouth. One 
of these, longer than the rest, and opening close to Wharton's duct, has 
been named ductus Dartholini. 

14. Ductus tkoracicus. The great trunk formed by the junction of 
the absorbent vessels. 

15. Ductus tkoracicus dexter. A designation of the right great lym- 
phatic vein, formed of lymphatic vessels arising from the axillary 
ganglia of the right side. 

16. Ductus thymici. The two thymic ducts which convey the fluid 
from the thymus gland into the veins, the left opening into the thoracic 
duct, the right into the root of the right jugular vein. 

17. Ductus venosus. A branch which, in the fcttus, joins the inferior 
vena cava with the umbilical vein. 

18. DuctofSteno. The excretory duct of the parotid gland. 

19. Duct of Wharton. The excretory duct of the submaxillary 

5 land. This aud the last, with the sublingual, constitute the sidivary 

20. Ducts of Bellini. The orifices of the uriniferous canals of the 

DlfLCAMA'RA (dulciSy sweet, amara, bitter). The dried young 
branches of Solomon dulcamara, or Bitter-sweet. From indigenous 
plants which have shed their leaves. — Dr. Ph. 

DULCE'DO SPUTO'KUM (dulcis, sweet). Sweet-spittle ; a form 
of ptyalism in which the saliva is characterized by a sweet or mawkish 
taste. Dulcedo is generally used by authors in a figurative sense ; dul- 
ritudo, though rare, expresses the sense of sweetness. " Gustatus," says 
Cicero, " prater eceteros sensus dulcitudine commovetur." 

DUMB-BELL CRYSTAL. A characteristic designation of the 
crystal of oxalate of lime sometimes occurring in urinary deposits. 

DUODE'NUM (duodetti, twelve). Ventrtculussucornturiaius. The 
twelve-tncA intestine, so called from the supposition of its being equnl 
in length to the breadth of twelve fingers; the first portion of the small 
intestines, beginning from the pylorus. Duodenum means merely 
twelve; the Greeks have £u»dt«a-£aKTu\o« levant, a lengthy but 
correct designation of the intestine in question. 

Duodenitis. A barbarous term for inflammation of the duodenum. 
The classical term is dodccadactylitis (6wdi*,a, twelve, £d*cTu\uc, 
finger), twelve-finger inflammation. 

DUO-STERN A L. The second osseous portion of the sternum, which 
corresponds to the second iutercostal space. 

DUrLO- (d upturn, from duo, two, plica, a fold). A Latin prefix 
signifying two-fold, as in duplo-carburet ; also that the organs of any 
body to which the term is prefixed are twice as numerous or large as 
those of some other body. 

DU'RA MA'TER. Meninx eatcrior. A strong fibrous membrane, 
lining the interior of the cranium and spinal column, serving as the 
periosteum of the component bones of this region. See J'ia ftlatcr. 

D U R— D Y S 187 

DURA'MEN (duramen, hardness, from dura re, to harden). The 
interior, more deeply-coloured, and harder portion of the trunk and 
branches of exogenous trees, commonly called heart-wood, as distin- 
guished from the exterior portion, alburnum, or tap- wood. 

DUST AND DISEASE. The connexion between these has been 
affirmed by Prof. Tyndall, who demonstrated the presence of organic 
matters in the dust of the atmosphere, and considered them the source 
of contagious diseases. 

DUTCH LIQUID. Chloride of oUfiant gas. Chloric ether; 
Darned from its being discovered by Dutch chemists. 

DYEING. The chemical process of staining textile substances with 
permanent colours, by means of dye-stuffs and mordants. See A/or- 

DY'NAMITE (3«/*a/ui«, power). The name given by M. Nobel to 
a new blasting powder consisting of nitroglycerine absorbed in silicious 
earth, and containing 75 per cent, of the former, and 25 of the latter 

DYNAMIZA'TION (6fra/iit, power). A term expressive of 
Hahnemann's theory that the medicinal power of drugs is increased by 
the many poundings and shakings which they undergo in the manufac- 
ture of the successive attenuations. 

DYNAMO'METER (ouyaptv, power, fii-rpov, a measure). A 
measurer of power; an instrument, invented by M. Rcgnicr, for 
measuring the comparative muscular power of man and of the lower 

Dynamometer, medicinal. An instrument, invented by Dr. Paris, 
for ascertaining the quantity of active matter contained in a* given 
weight or measure of any officinal compound, and for determining the 
dose of any preparation which will be equivalent in strength to a given 
quantity of any other preparation of the same class. 

DYS- (£vr). A Greek inseparable prefix, opposed to * Z, and corre- 
sponding to our din-, or mis*, or un-, or in-, or ill-, as in dys- chroxa or 
<fts-coloration, tfys-spermatismus or mis-emission of semen, dyt pepsia 
or m-digestion, and </ys-odes or i£/-savourrd. In the following terms 
the prefix generally denotes Itadly, with difficulty, hard, unlucky, &c. 

1. Dys-cesthesia {&v<rntadt}<ria, from aladdvu^ai, to perceive). In- 
sensibility ; impaired feeling. Dr. Young terms defective memory 
dysesthesia interna. The term is considered by Galen as synonymous 
with anesthesia. 

2. Dyt-akoi (£«otj, hearing). Kophosis ; impaired hearing ; deaf- 

3. Dys-chroia Uvaxpota, a bad colour). Discoloration. There is 
no such word as dyschroma. See Dermato-dyschroia. 

4. Dys-ekpnaa (kicwviw, to expire). Difficulty of respiration. 

5. Dys-enttry (impa, the bowels). A specific inflammation and 
ulceration of the mucous lining of the large intestine. It is also named 
eolonitis ; and in commou language yikr or bloody flux, according as the 
intestinal discharges are free from blood or sanguinolent. 

6. Dys-kataposia (6u<ritaTawoaia, difficulty of swallowing, from 
raTOTi**, to swallow). Difficulty of swallowing liquids ; a term ap- 
plied by Dr. Mead to hydrophobia. 

7. Dys-kinesia (eWjuctjata, difficulty of moving, from kunw, to 
move). Imperfect motion ; difficulty of moving. 

188 DYS 

8. Dys-kophosis (dy<r*c»f/>o*, stone-deaf— //t/7>.). Difficulty of bear- 
ing ; a defect in the organ of hearing. 

9. Dys-krasia (<W*f>u<na, bad temperament of the body). A morbid 
state of* the constitution, from a faulty #r/oa<rir, or blending of matters 
to form a compound, as the blood. See Eucrasia. 

10. Dys-lystn (\vat9 y solution). An ingredient of bilin, which re- 
mains undissolved^ as a resinous mass, during the solution and digestion 
of bilin in dilute hydrochloric acid. 

11. Dyi-menonnoea (/a*J»», a month, p<co,to flow). Difficult or pnin- 
ful discharge of the catamenia. It may be neuralgic, congestive or 
membranous, or mechanical, arising from stricture, tumor, or displace- 

12. Dys-odes (o£f», to smell). Having s bad smell ; a term applied 
by Hippocrates to a fetid disorder of the small intestines ; ana by 
Sauvages, to all diseases characterized by fetid discharges. 

13. Dys-ovia (&uV, on eye). -Dys-opsia. Impaired sight. Hippo- 
crates uses the term ovrovrof, in the sense of hard to see or know. 
Plutarch uses ivatuwia for shyness or shamefacedness. 

14. Dys-orexia (optjfit, appetite). Depraved appetite; diminished 

15. Dys-pepsia (vtirrtt, to concoct, to digest). Indigestion ; diffi- 
culty of digestion ; difficult and imperfect conversion of the food into 

lb'. Dysphagia (<payt* y to eat). Denorandi difficidtas; deglutitio 
impedita. Difficulty of swallowing ; choking. 

17. pys-phonia (dva<pwvia, roughness of sound). Difficulty of speak- 
ing. Vyspkonia clericorum is **clerjnrman*s sore th i oat, M termed by 
Dr. Horace Green, of New York, u follicular disease of the pharyngo- 
larvngeal membrane." 

18. Dys phoria {(pi put, to bear). Pain hard to be borne ; excessive 
pain. Inquietude; a difficulty of enduring oneself; it embraces the 
affections of anxiety and fidgets. See Euphoria. 

19. Dys-pncea Qw»iu % to breathe), tiespiratio difficUis. Difficult 
respiration ; short breath ; short-windedness ; pursiness. 

20. Dys-spermatismus (<rwipfxa, semen). Slow or impeded emission 
of semen. 

21. Dys-teleolopy (tAioc, perfect, Xoyot, an account). A new 
term introduced by Prof. Haeckel to denote the " purposelessnesscs " 
which are observed in living organisms, especially in the numerous cases 
of rudimentary and apparently useless structures. Teleology denotes 
the doctrine of " final causes," or the ends for which things were de- 

22. Dys-thymia (ovoBvpia, from ov?, and Ou/udt, the mind). Dys- 
phrenia. Despondency ; despair. 

23. Dys-tokta (dvaroKiu, a painful delivery ; hard birth). Difficult 

24. Dys-uria (ovpito, to make water). DiJJicultasurina. Difficulty 
in discharging the urine; painful micturition. Total suppression is 
called ischuria; partial suppression, dysuria; the aggravated form, 
when the urine passes by drops, strangury ; when the discharge is at- 
tended with heat or pain, this is termed ardor urinw. 

E A R— E AT 109 


EAR. Aurit. The organ of hearing. It consists of three parts: 
tii., the external ear or auricle ; the middle ear, or tympanum ; and 
the internal ear, or labyrinth. 

EAR-TRUMPET. An instrument to aid defective hearing, by 
collecting and concentrating the waves of sound, so that they may im- 
pinge upon the tympanum of the ear with increased force. Besides the 
common ear-trumpet, the following instruments are employed in aid 
of defective hearing : — 

1. The Auricle. A little scroll-like instrument, resembling a shell, 
formed of gold, and worn in the ear, so that nothing but the expanded 
mouth is visible. 

2. The Ear-cornet. A small instrument somewhat resembling a 
French horn, held in the ear by slender springs, which may be compared 
in their action to the sides of a spectacle- frame. 

3. The Conversation tithe. A flexible, elastic tube of India-rubber 
and silk, kept open by spiral wire-springs, and terminating at one end 
in what may be called an ear-piece, and at the other in an open bell- 
shaped cup which is held before the mouth of the speaker. 

4. The TafiU-aomfer. A powerful acoustic instrument, consisting of 
a revolving, trumpet-shaped cowl, mounted on a pedestal, which may 
be placed upon a table ; it is then capable of being turned towards any 
part of the room where conversation is going on, and of communicating 
the sound through a flexible tube to the ear of the deaf person. 

6. The Ear-conch. A kind of auxiliary ear, made of a metal pecu- 
liarly sonorous, and plated, and held so as to reflect sound into the 

EAR-WAX. Cerumen aurium. An emulsive compound secreted 
in the meatus ex tenuis of the ear. 

EARTH. The general term for the materials which compose the 
crust of the globe. In chemical language the earths are termed metallic 
oxide*; some of these, viz.. baryta, strontia, lime, and magnesia, are 
termed, from their feeble solubility in water, alkaline earth*. 

EARTH-BATH. A bath consisting literally of a bath of earth, 
used on the Continent. 

EARTH-CLOSET SYSTEM. An invention recently founded on 
the fact that dry earth, containing alumina (clayey matter), will readily 
absorb and deodorize human excreta which nil upon it, and simul- 
taneously produce a most excellent manure. 

EARTH OF ALUM. A preparation used in making paints, and 
procured by precipitating the earth from alum dissolved in water, by 
adding ammonia or potass. 

EARTH OF BONE. A phosphate of lime, sometimes called bone- 
phosphate, existing in bones after calcination. 

EATING HIVE. This term, burnt holes, and white blisters, are 
names applied in several counties in Ireland to Pemphigus gangrrno- 
sus or sordid Blain. See Pemphu/un. 

EATON'S STYPTIC. The "name given in this country to Ui* 

190 E A U— E C H 

styptic of Helvctius. Tt now consists chiefly of an alcoholic solution of 
sulphate of iron, with some unimportant additions. 

EAU. The French term for water ; the name of a distilled water. 
Eau de Jar tile is chlorinated potash, a disinfectant; Eau de Luce is 
the tinct ammon. comp. of the pharmacopoeia ; Eau de Ralxd is a kind 
of sulphuric ether; Eau midiexnale de Hanson is a preparation of col - 
chicura ; Eau He vie is ardent spirit of the first distillation. 

EBULLITION {ebullirt, to bubble up). The boiling or bubbling of 
liquids; the production of vapour at the boiling point. Ebullition de- 
notes the motion of water boiling on a fire; effervescence expresses the 
motion that takes place in a liquid wherein a combination of substances 
is made. Boilinc water ebullit ; iron in aqua-fortis ejfervescit. 

EBURNATION (etmr, ivory). Ehurnifiration. A term applied to 
the morbid change which takes place in the cartilages, when they 
become hard and compact like ivory. 

[EC-, EX-] EK-, EK8- («*, •£). A Greek preposition ; the former 
spelling being employed before consonants, the latter before vowels. It 
denotes out of. In composition, the sense of removal prevails ; the 
prefix also expresses completvm, as in our word utterly. In the follow- 
ing terms which are bracketed, the second letter should be a K. 

[ECBA'LIUMJOFFICINA'RUM («*/3aXX», to throw out). The 
name given by Richard to the Momordica Elaterium, or Squirting 
Cucumber, the nearly ripe fruit of which furnishes the claterium of the 
pharmacopoeia. The name is derived from the explosive character of 
the seed-vessel, and is more characteristic than elaterium, which merely 
relates to its purgative property. 

[ECBCL1 A] (itcpokiov, sc. <t>apuaicoVi a drug for causing abortion). 
A term synonymous with amblotica, and applied to drugs employed for 
causing abortion. So we have ItcpoXio* oTwre, wine for causing abortion. 

[ECCHYMO'SIS] (eKX»M«<"e,rrom Uxvp6onai y to shed the blood 
and leave it extra vacated under the skin ; spoken of the small arteries). 
An effusion of blood into the areolar meshes or substance of tissues. 
Hippocrates uses the terms ecchymosts and ecchvmoma indifferently, 
but the distinction should be observed. See Preface, par. 2. 

[ECCOPROTICJ (tiKowpirriicdr, cleansing from dung, from 
SKKthrpMorit, a purging; from c« and «rdirpo«, faces). Covragogtie. 
Literally, fit for expelling faces ; a term formerly applied to aloes, from 
its cathartic operation. 

[ECCRI'TICA] (tVtfptTttfdf, fit for picking out, from «**/>< at?, 
secretion, especially of vapours, of the animal functions, &c). 1 . Agents 
which affect the functions of the ex cement system, by augmenting, 
lessening, or altering the secretions. 2. The title of Mason Good's 
sixth class of diseases, viz., affections of the secreting system, com- 
prising the orders— mpso/ica, affecting the parenchyma ; katotica, 
affecting the internal surface; and akrotica, affecting the external surface. 

[ECCYE'SIS] (Ikkviu, to bring forth, to put forth, as leaves). 
Extra-uterine foetation ; impcifcct foe tat ion in some organ exterior to 
the uterus, as in one of the ovaria, the Fallopian tube, or the cavity of 
the abdomen. See Erfcetation. 

ECHrNOCOCCUS HOMIN1S. The many-headed hydatid of 
the Germans ; one of the entozoa which occurs in cysts in the liver, 
spleen, omentum, and mesentery, constituting the true hydatid disease 
in msn. 

ECL-ECT 191 

[ECLA'MPSISJ (iKXafixf/t*, a shining forth, exceeding brightness, 
from i«Ad/iiru>, to shine forth). Circuit ignei. Convulsive motions, 
especially of the mouth, eye-lids, and fingers, so excessively rapid that 
it is often difficult to follow them. The term is applied to puerperal 
convulsions — membrorum distentio in puerperis — an affection consequent 
on parturition. 

Eclampsia nutans. A rare disease of infants, characterized by a 
frequent bowing of the head, and termed Salaam convulsions of infancy. 

f ECLEl'GMA] (UXuyua, ccligma, an electuary, from i*An'x«s 
to lick up). Linctus; linctuarium. A pharmaceutical preparation of 
oily and sirupy consistence. See Lohoch. 

[E'CPHLYSISJ (i«d>\v«», to burst forth). Blains; "orbicular 
elevations of the cuticle, containing a watery fluid ;'* a vehicular 
eruption confined in its action to the surface, as distinguished from 
emphlysis, which is connected with " internal and febrile affection.** 
Under this generic term Mason Good associated the diseases of the skin 
which compose the order Vesicula of Willan. See Vesical*. 

[ECPHRO'NIA] (t«/>p«v, out of one s mind). Insanity, com- 
prising the species melancholy and madness. 

[JSTJPHYMA] (t«4>vpa, an eruption of pimples, from ix<pvw, to 
■pring up). The name given by Mason Good to his eighth genus of the 
class Eccritica, comprising " cutaneous excrescences, eunerficial, per- 
manent, indolent extuberances, mostly circumscribed," including 
caruncula, verruca, cUvus, and callus. See Emphytna. 

[ECPHYSE'MA; ECPHYSE'SIS] (U<t* v <rdw % to blow out). The 
former term is applied to a pustule, the latter to emission of the breath. 

[ECPYE'SISJ ; EKPYE'MA (f*iroi«, to bring to suppuration). 
Ekpyesis is suppuration, ekpyema, a sore that has suppurated. The 
former term is applied, generically, by Mason Good to certain diseases 
of the skin which are attended by pustules, including impetigo, porrigo, 
ekthyma, and scabies. See Preface, par. 2. 

E CRASEUR {ecraser, to crush into pieces). An instrument for 
removing cancroid growths by a process of rapid strangulation and 
crushing in a linear direction. 

[E'CSTASIS] (sjco-Taatv, any displacement or removal from the 
proper place). Cataiepsia spuria. Ecstasy ; suspension of the external 
sensations, and arrest of the voluntary motions ; trance ; a condition 
analogous to that of catalepsy. We still say of madmen that they are 
beside themselves ; but " ecstasy, 1 * or a standing out of oneself, is no 
longer used as an equivalent to madness. 

[ECTHY'MA] (««0UM«, a pustule, from UeCto, to burst forth). 
Ekpyesis ekthyma. A non-contagious, cutaneous pustular disease, called 
'papulous seal!,** characterized by large, round, prominent pustules, 
occurring upon any part of the body. The varieties are named vulgar*, 
common or acute; infantile, incident to infants; luridum, livid, occur- 
ring in aged persons ; and cacJtecticum, peculiar to persons of cachectic 
constitution. The last three varieties are chronic. 

E'CTODERM; E'NDODERM («kto«, outward, ivtov, inward, 
iipua, skin). The names of two layers of cells, constituting the 
substance of the blastoderm, after the completion of the segmenting 
process. 8ee Yolk-Segmentation. 

1. Ectoderm or EpxUast. This is the outer or upper layer, usually 
composed of smaller, clearer, and more compact nucleated cells. 

192 ECT-EDU 

2. Endoderm or Hypoblast. This is the inner or lower later, con- 
sisting of cells which are somewhat larger, more opaque and granular, 
but also nucleated. 

[ECTOTIJE] (inrroVtov, i. q. firroirof, away from a place, from *«r, 
out, toVo*, a place). Luxations ; morbid displacements of parts, as 
ektnpia cordis, displacement of the heart, ektopia cuii, or protoccle, &c. 
The term ektopia is used as a synonym for hernia in denoting congenital 
displacements and unusual positions of parts of the foetus. 

[ECTOZCA] (ijrrot, outward, £u>op, an animal). A term em- 
ployed to distinguish the forms of animal life which are parasitic upon 
the surface of other animals, from the entozoa, or those which inhabit 
their interior. The former differ from the latter in being very dis- 
similar from one another, and in not presenting any affinity, so that 
their general designation refers simply to their habitation. The genera 
include pediculus, sarcoptes, democfex, phthirius, and pulex. Sec 
Entozoa and Entophyta. 

[ECTROTIUM] (U-rpoiriov, from Urpi-ww, to evert). Eversio 
palpebra, E version of the eye-lid, so that it does not completely cover 
the globe of the eye ; more common to the lower than the upper lid. 
It is opposed to trichiasis, or the introversion of the eye-lids. 

[ECTROTIC] (iirTjMrrtaroc, belonging to abortion). A term 
applied to methods employed for preventing the development, or causing 
tne abortion of a disease, as the employment of nitrate of silver for the 
purpose of arresting the development of the pustules of small pox, and, 
consequently, of preventing the occurrence of cicatrices. 

[ECTYLOTIC] (iic, out, tv\ov, a wart or callosity). A substance 
for removing warts or callosities. 

[E'CZEMA] (««£i/ja, anything thrown out by heat, a heat-spot, a 
pustule). A non-contagious, cutaneous, vesicular disease, called 
" humid scall." Its varieties are named simplex, simple humid tetter, 
or the eczema solare of Willan ; rubrum, red or inflammatory, also 
called mercurials, when caused by the use of mercury ; impeti</inodes, 
when aggravated by impetiginous eruption ; infantile, when it assumes 
the form of a rrusta lactea; chronicum, or psoriasis; and eczema capitis, 
faciei, mammUlarum, pudendi, articulorum, manuum, et pedum — seven 
local varieties Eczematous eruptions constitute a class of cu'aneous 
diseases corresponding with the genus Ekphlysis of Mason Good and 
the order Vesical <r of Willan. 

1. "Eczema rubntm dorsi f nanus disputes with lichen agrius dorsi 
mantis the popular titles of * grocers* itch ' and ' bricklayers' itch ;* and 
it is often a point of nice distinction to determine whether to call a 
given eruption, eczema or lichen agrius, lichen eczematosus, as it might 
with great propriety be called.** — K. Wilson. 

2. Dr. Tilbury fox considers Eczema to be a " catarrhal ** inflam- 
mation of the skin, modified by the constitution of the patient. 

EDA'CITAS (edax, voracious, from edere, to eat). Voracity, 
gluttony. Cicero speaks of " morbus edacitatis," the disease of 


EDU LCOR A'TION {edulcare, to sweeten). The act of sweetening. 
The term is chiefly employed in chemical analysis to denote the separa- 
tion of soluble matters from insoluble precipitates. The process differs 
little from liriviation, except that the former term respects the insoluble 
midue, the latter the soluble portion. 

E D U— E L A 193 

EDULCORATOR. Droopinp-bottle. An instrument for supply- 
' ing small quantities of water to test-tubes or watch-glasses, by causing 
the water to drop from a tube inserted into the mouth of a phial, by 
expansion of the liquid by the warmth of the hand. 

EFFERENT (ffferrc, to carry out). Conveying outwards; as the 
lymphatics, which convey lymph from the lymphatic glands to the 
thoracic duct. The term efferent is also applied to the motor nerves, 
which convey impressions from the central axis to other parts of the 
body, and are thus distinguished from the afferent or sensory nerves. 
See Afferent. 

EFFERVESCENCE (efflrvescere t to boil or foam up). The escape 
of bubbles of gas from a liquid, as when marble or chalk is dropped 
into vinegar, or when the cork of a soda-water or champagne bottle is 
removed. See ElmUition. 

EFFLORESCENCE (efflorcscere, to blow as a flower). A term 
applied to the formation of small crystals on the surface of bodies, in 
consequence of the abstraction of moisture from them by the atmosphere. 
Efflorescent tails, when exposed to the air, part with their water of 
crystallization, and crumble into a white powder, as carbonate of soda 
and sulphate of soda. 

The term efflorescent is applied to erythema, from the general charac- 
ter of the eruption. 

EFFLU'VIA (plur. of effluvium, a flowing out, from effluere, to flow 
out). Exhalations, vapour*, &c. They are distinguished into the con- 
tagion t y as the rubeolous ; marsJi, as miasmata ; and those arising from 
animals or vegetables, as odours. 

EFFUSlbN {effundere, to pour out). The escape of a fluid out of 
its natural vessel or viscus into another part. Also, the secretion of 
fluids from the vessels, as of lymph or serum, on different surfaces. 
Also, the passage of a gas through a small aperture, about jfoth of an 
inch in diameter, into a vacuum. See Transpiration. 

EGE'LIDUS (e, out of, orlu, frost). Lukewarm. This term has 
been thus defined by Gerard, in his Thesaurus : — " Quod gelu amisit, 
et jam non est calidum ncquc frigidum, — tepidum." Eoeltdus (ar, in- 
tensive) sometimes means intensely cold, and is applied in this sense, 
by authors, to the Ister and other rivers. Rivers are not lukewarm. 
See Getidus. 

EG EST A (egerere, to carry out). A Latin term for the substances 
carried out of the bodv, as the faeces, &c. See Ingesta. 

EGYPTIAN OPHTHA'LMIA. Purulent ophthalmia; so called 
from its ravages among the troops engaged in the English and French 
expeditions to Egypt 

EIGHTH PAIR, or PNEUMO-GA8TRIC. The nerve which 
supplies the lungs, the heart, the stomach, &c. — the exciter of respira- 

EISO'L. Ice-oil. Binhvdrate of sulphuric acid, or congeal able 
vitriolic acid. In the solid state, this acid has been called frozen sul- 
phuric acid. 

EJ ACULATO'RRS (ejaculart, to cast out). A pair of muscles sur- 
rounding the whole of the bulb of the urethra. As ejaculatores seminir, 
they act under the influence of the reflex function ; as acceleratorrs 
urines, as voluntary muscles. 

ELABORATION {elaborate, to take puns in doing aA\tai£). K 


194 EL M— E L E 

term denoting the natural processes by which living organs produce 
certain substances in the animal and vegetable economies, as chyle, sap, 
tissues.&c See Assimilation. 

EL/EO'METER {ikatov, oil, fiirpov, a measure). A delicate 
hydrometer for testing the purity of olive and almond oils, by deter- 
miningtheir densities. 

EL&OTTEN (iXaiov, oil). The liquid portion of a volatile oil. 
The concrete portion is called stearopten. 

EUE'OSACCHARA (iXaiov, oil, adicxapov, sugar). The mixtures 
or compounds of volatile oils and sugar. 

ELAIDIC ACID (Jkaiov, oil). An acid related to the oleic acid 
of oils ; it may be considered a solid modification of oleic acid. Elaidin 
is a white saponifiable fat, consisting of elaidic acid and glycerin. 

ELA1N (l\atov % oil). The more fluid part of one of the proximate 
vrinciples of fat. This and stearine constitute the fixed oil*. 

ELA'LDEHYD; META'LDEHYD. Two polymeric bodies 
Yielded by aldehyd when kept for some time in sealed tubes. The 
former is a liquid, the latter a solid body. 

ELASTIC TISSUE. Yellow fibrous tissue ; a component of those 
tissues and organs in which the property of elasticity is important The 
organs into which this tissue enters are the following : — 

1. The elastic ligaments, in which the tissue, with only a slight ad- 
mixture of connective tissue and hardly any vessels and nerves, exists, 
so to speak, in a pure form, as in the ligamentum subflavum of the 
vertebrae, the ligamentum nuchas, the ligament of the larynx, and the 
stylo-hyoid ligament. 

2. The elastic membranes, which appear either in the form of fibrous 
net-works or of fenestrated membraues, and are found in the walls of 
the vessels, especially in those of the arteries, in the trachea and 
bronchi, and in the fascia supcrficialis. 

ELASTICITY. The property or power by which a body com- 

G eased or extended returns to its former state. The cause of elasticity 
longs to the theory of molccularity ; its efects, in aggregate masses, 
to mechanics. 

EXATER (cXariip, a driver). A spiral fibre, found in great 
numbers mixed with the sporules, in the thecse of some cryptogamic 

ELATE'RIUM (iXai-^ptov, sc. Qdpfiaicov, an opening medicine). 
A sediment from the expressed juice of the fruit of the Ecbalium 
Officinarum of Richard, the Momordica Elaterium, or Squirting 
Cucumber, of other writers ; a Cucurbitaceous plant, cultivated in this 

Elaterin or Momordicin. A crystalline substance, constituting the 
activo principle of elaterium. Dr. Paris applied the term elatin to this 
substance combined with the green resin also found in elaterium, 

ELA'TIO. Quixotism ; a species of mental extravagance, so named 
by the rhetoricians, and importing, with them, u elevated, exalted, 
magnificent style or imagery. 

ELECTRICITY (flAtKTpov, amber, the substance in which the 
electric property was first discovered). A name applied to the unknown 
cause of certain phenomena of attraction and repulsion, and of certain 
luminous appearances and physiological effects. It is called into action 
in its simplest form by rubbing ulass t which exhibits the vitreous, 


plus, or positive electricity (i.e. when the substance it overcharged) ; 
and Resin or Amber, which exhibits the resinous, minus, or negative 
electricity (t. e. when the substance is undercharged). 

Phenomena of Electricity. 

1. Excitation, or the disturbance of the electric equilibrium by fric- 
tion, elevation of temperature, contact, &c. Bodies have been dis- 
tinguished into conductors and non-conductors, according to the facility 
with which the electric influence passes, or is conducted along their 

2. Attraction, or the law by which light bodies move rapidly towards 
an excited surface. 

3. Repulsion, or the law by which light bodies fly off from an electri- 
fied surface after contact. 

4. Distribution, or the law by which electrified bodies transfer their 
properties to others with which they come into contact. It is similar 
to the conduction of caloric. 

5. Induction, or the law by which an electrified body tends to pro- 
dace in contiguous substances an electric state opposite to its own. 

6. Tension or intensity, or the degree to whicn a body is excited, as 
estimated by the electrometer. It must be distinguished from quantity. 

7. Electr-ode (o6ot, a way). A term synonymous with pole ; it 
denotes the boundary of the decomposing matter in the direction of the 
electric current. The positive pole is termed antltctrode ; the negative, 

8. The Electric Currents round the earth pursue a course from east 
(Jhvta, up) to west (tcarm, down) ; hence, if a body to be decomposed 
be similarly placed, the Anode is the point or surface at which the elec- 
tricity enters — the part immediately touching the positive pole ; and the 
Kathode, the point or surface out of which it passes— the part next to 
the negative pole. 

°. Substances directly decomposable by electricity are termed Elec- 
trolytes (Av», to set free). The elements of an electrolysed body are 
called ions — that which goes to the anode, anion ; that to the kathode, 
kation. Thus, if water be electrolysed, oxygen and hydrogen are ions 
—the former an anion, the latter a kation. 

10. Electrical Atmosphere. A term denoting the theory that round 
an electrified body there exists a sphere of action within which the 
neutral electricity of unelectrified bodies can be decomposed. 

11. Electrical Column. A species of electrical pile, invented by De 
Luc, composed of thin plates of different metals in the usual order, with 
discs of writing-paper interposed between them. 

12. Electro-otology (/3to», life, \6yo*, an account). Artificial reverie 
or abstraction ; a recent term for Mesmerism or Animal Magnetism, 
suggestive of the connexion of electricity with the phenomena of life. 
The phenomena of the " biologized state " seem to consist in the occu- 
pation of the mind by the ideas suggested to it, to the exclusion of all 
others, and resulting in the exertion of the influence of these ideas on 
the actions of the body ; it is essentially a state of reverie, in which the 
individual becomes, for the time, a thinking automaton. 

13. Electro-chemistry. That branch of science which treats of 
the chemical changes which take place under the influence of elec- 



14. Electro-dynamics (oviw/itc, power). That branch of electricity 
which relates to the action of voltaic conductors on one another. 

15. Electro-genesis (yivtati, generation). A term applied to the 
transmission of electricity along the nerves or spinal marrow. The 
electrogenic state is " that induced in a nervous structure by the con- 
tinuous passage of a current of galvanism, of a force in due physiological 
relation to the excitability of the animal. Its phenomena are observed 
on withdrawing this agency/* — M. Hall. 

16. Electro-lysis (\vto, to decompose). The decomposition of com- 
pounds effected by electricity. The chemical expression equivalent to 
this is xincolysis, the decompositions throughout the circle being re- 
ferred to the inductive action of the affinities of zinc or the positive 

17. Electrolyte (\vw, to decompose). A chemical compound which 
undergoes decomposition or separation into its constituent parts, under 
the influence of the electric current. 

18. Electro-magnetism. Magnetic electricity; the term applied to 
that branch of science which includes the mutual action of conductors 
and magnets. 

19. Electro-metallurgy. The process of depositing a thin metallic 
layer on the surface of some other body prepared for its reception. The 
terms electrotype, galvanotype, voltatvpe, voltaarophy, git I vano plastic*, 
electro-plating and gilding, have all been applied in a somewhat con- 
fused manner to different modifications of the art. The term electro- 
melallurgy has been suggested as a general one, including all or most 
of the varieties. 

20. Electro-meter (hItdov, a measure). An instrument for ascer- 
taining the intensity of electricity, as the quadrant, invented by Mr. 
Henley, and the electrical balance of Coulomb. 

21. Electro-motion, The term applied by Volta to the development 
of electricity in voltaic combinations. 

22. Electro-negatives and positives. These terms denote that, in 
electro-chemical decomposition, bodies exhibit a different electric con- 
dition from that of the pole at which they appear. Bodies which appear 
at the anode, or electro-positive pole, are, accordingly, termed electro- 
negative ; those which appear at the kathode, or electro-negative pole, 
are termed electro-positive. 

23. Electro-positive and Electro-negative Elements. Elements are 
called electro-positive, or electro negative, xcitk regard to each other, in 
any combination, according as they tend to go during electrolysis, re- 
spectively, to the negative or positive electrode in the decomposing 

24. Electro phorus (<t>*pu>, to convey). An instrument invented by 
Volta, for the purpose of collecting weak electricity. 

25. Electro-polar. A term applied to conductors, one end or surfare 
of which is positive, the other negative — a condition which they com- 
monly exhibit under the influence of induction. 

26. Electro-scope (atcon-it*, to examine). An instrument for indi- 
cating excitement, and the electrical state by which it is pro- 

27. Electro-tint. An application of electrotype, in which the required 
subject is painted on copper with a thick varnish or paint ; the plate is 
then prepared in the usual way, and submitted to the voltaic circuit ; a 


plate is thus obtained from which prints are furnished. Seo Glypho- 

28. Electro-type. The science by which ficsimife mcduls are exe- 
cuted in copper by means of electricity. It consists in preparing for 
a negative plate models or moulds of objects to be copied ; and in so 
arranging the battery, or apparatus which generates the voltaic current, 
as to release the metals in a compact and solid form. 

29. Electro vital or Neuro- electric Currents. The name of twoelectiic 
currents, supposed to exist in animals — the one external and cutaneous, 
moving from the extremities to the cerebro -spinal axis ; the other in- 
ternal, going from the cerebrospinal axis to the internal organs situated 
beneath the skin. 

30. Electric Aura. A current or breeze of electrified air, employed 
as a mild stimulant in electrifying delicate parts, as the eye. 

31. Electric Bath, Balneum electricum. A term applied to the 
simple communication established between an individual and the ex- 
cited prime conductor of an electric machine, by means of a chain or 
other metallic communication, with or without insulation. 

32. Electric Clock, Bains. A clock which " performs " by means of 
a* feeble but constant galvanic current, generated by means of a layer 
of coke, a layer of earth, and a few zinc-plates. These are buried in 
the earth, and the current is conveyed by copper wires to an electro- 
magnet, which constitutes the bob of the pendulum of the clock. 

33. Electric Friction. A mode of employing electric sparks as a 
remedial agent, by drawing them from the patient through flannel, as re- 
commended by Cavallo. 

34. Electric Light. An intense light, produced by the passage of 
the electric fluid between the points of two cylinders of carbon placed 
in the direction of the circuit through the wires of a galvanic battery. 

35. Electricus Ictus. The electric shock. Ictusfulminis and ictus 
fulmmeus are classical expressions denoting a stroke of lightning. 

36. Electrization, localized. A term applied by Duchenne to the 
application of electricity in the treatment of disease. By this means 
" the electric current is limited to the skin and tissues immediately 
beneath, or made to past to deeper- seated structures and localized in 
definite muscles or groups of muscles." See Faradization. 

37. Electrizers % Harringtons. Plates of copper and zinc, or silver 
and zinc, of various forms, for medical purposes. The term electrotonus 
denotes a state produced by the positive pole of a battery in diminishing 
the irritability of a nerve. 

38. EUctro-puncturation. The operation of inverting two or more 
needles into a part or organ affected, and then touching them with the 
wires from the poles of a galvanic machine. 

39. Electro stimulation. The name given by Dr. Turnbull to the 
sensation of heat and tingling caused by the application of veratria, in 
the form of ointment, to the skin. 

40. Electrum. A native alloy of 64 parts of gold with 36 of silver. 
Pliny savs that " all gold contains more or less of silver combined with 
it. and that, when the latter amounts to a fifth part of the weight, it is 
called eJectrum. y% 

41. Nomenclature. '• Daniell employed the word plalinode for the 
negative, and zincode for the positive pole ; while Graham introduced 
the terms zincous and chlorous poles, to represent the -\- &tv& \2hfc — . 

198 ELE-ELI 

Much of this nomenclature appears to us to be as uncouth as it i9 
unnecessary : it was introduced at a time when the introduction of the 
constant battery by Daniell, and the splendid discoveries by Faraday, 
had somewhat unsettled the scientific mind on the subject of voltaic 
electricity. The new terms, with a few exceptions, have scarcely 
obtained a footing ; which is not surprising, seeing that the old expres- 
sions, jpontfte and negative poles, and electro-positive and electro-negative 
bodies, are far more simple and quite as accurate as the terms by which 
St is proposed to supersede them. — Engl. Cycl. 

ELECTUA'RIUM (fcXurroir, Hipp.). An Electuary; an extem- 
poraneous preparation, composed of dry powders, formed into a proper 
consistence by the addition of syrup, honey, or mucilage. See Con- 

• ELEE'NCEPHOL. A substance found in the brain of man, but 
now believed not to be a distinct chemical compound, but a mixture of 
oleine, oleophosphoric acid, cerebric acid, and cholesterin. — Engl. 

ETiEMENT. This term denotes, in chemistry, a simple substance 
—one not known to contain more than one kind of matter, as the metal 
iron ; this is also called an inorganic element The rust of iron, on the 
other hand, is a compound, being resolvable into metallic iron, oxygen, 
and carbonic acid. Compound elements are also called organic elements, 
proximate principles, or compounds of organization, as fibrin, albumen, 
Ac Ultimate elements are the last elements into which a body can bo 
decomposed or analyzed ; thus, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and azote, 
are the ultimate elements of all organized matter. There are about 63 
chemical elements. 

E'LEML A concrete, fragrant, resinous exudation from a tcre- 
binthaceous plant of uncertain name, probably the Canarium commune, 
chieflyjroported from Manilla. 

ELEPH ANTI'ASIS (iKifa*, an elephant). Elephant-disease ; a 
blood-disease named from the likeness of the diseased stein to that of the 
elephant, and particularly from its vastness and terrible nature. Mr. 
Erasmus Wilton says — "This term was probably suggested to the 
Greeks by the Arab word da col fit, the elephant disease ; and applied 
to the affection already known to them by the terms lepra leuce and 
lepra melas. The Arabians recognized by daf fit a different disease, 
viz. boucnemia tropica, the Darbadoes leg. Hence we distinguish as 
separate diseases the efep/tantiasis Grtecorum, or lepra, and elephantiasis 
Arahum, or boucnemia." True Elephantiasis is termed tubercular* 
when the morbid deposition occurs in the surface-membranes of the 
body, particularly the skin ; and anaesthetic, when the deport ion occurs 
in and around the nervous centres and nerves. 

ELEVA'TOR (elevare, to raise). A name applied to certain mus- 
cles, whose office it is to elevate any part ; to an instrument for raising 
depressed portions of the cranium ; and to an instrument for Ufiing out 
Stumps of teeth. 

ELIMINATION {elminnre, to turn out of doors ; from e, out, and 
limen, the threshold). The employment of purgative medicines to 
secure the proper action of the bowels, liver, kidneys, and skin. 

ELIQUATION (rfiauare, to clarify, to strain). The separation of 
a mora fusible substance from another* lest fusible by means of a degree 

E L I— E M B 199 

of heat sufficient to fuse the one but not the other, as in an alloy of 
copper and lead. 

ELIXATION (elucare, to boil thoroughly; to seethe). The pro- 
cess of boiling thoroughly or seething ; decoction ; concoction in the 
stomach ; digestion. Sec A ssus. 

ELl'XIR. An Arabic term, denoting an essence, or pure mats 
without any dregs, and formerly applied to compound tinctures, as 
paregoric elixir, or the Tinct. Camph. comp., &c. 

ELl'XUS (lix, ashes). Sodden, boiled, thoroughly soaked ; as ap- 
plied to articles of food. See Assus. 

EliLAGIC ACID (from the word galle read backward). An acid 
which is obtained from galls, in the process for making gallic acid. It 
is sometimes called bezoaric acid from its being a constituent of bezoars. 
See Bezoar. 

ELUTRIA'TION (elutriare, to wash out). The process of washing, 
by which the lighter earthy parts of a substance are separated from the 
heavier and metallic ; or by which any single substance, as chalk, may 
be cleansed and reduced to the form of a fine powder. The blood has 
been said to be elutriated in the lungs. 

ELYTRON (iKvrpov). Elytrum. A sheath ; the hard case which 
covers the wings of coleopterous insects. The vagina. 

1. Elytro-ceic (ioiAi?, a tumor). Colpocele. A tumor in the 
vagina. Vaginal hernia. 

2. Elytro-ides (cI4o«, likeness). Shcath-like ; a term applied to the 
tunica vaginalis, also to the pessary of M. J. Cloquet 

3. Elytro-plasit/ (irX&vaw, to form). The operation for vesico-vagi- 
nal fistula ; it consists in employing a portion of the surrounding parts, 
for the purpose of closing the orifice. 

4. Elytro-rrhaphia [pcupn, a suture). Suture of the vagina; an 
operation for the prevention of prolapsus uteri. 

EM- and EN-. These prefixes are the Greek preposition tV, in, into, 
within. The radical signification is that of a being or remaining within, 
and so is half-way between those of tlx and tV. In its perioral meaning 
it corresponds with the im and in of the English. In composition, 
however, its presence is apt to be masked by the change of its second 
letter, i/, before consonants ; thus, before y, *, £, and x» it becomes y, 
as in kyitltpakov, enkephalum, &c. ; before /3, w, <f>, ^, and p, it 
becomes ft, as in ippmna, emmenia, &c. ; before X it becomes X, as in 
iXXt iuVif , ellipsis ; before p it becomes p, as in Ipptvov, crrhinum. These 
changes are made for the sake of euphony. 

EMACIATION (emaciare, to make lean). Marasmus. The be- 
coming lean ; general extenuation of the body, with debility. 

EMA'NSIO ME'NSIUM (emansio, a staying beyond the time of 
leave or furlough). Retention of tho menses before they have been 
established, called by many writers menoslatio ; and by Frank, ame- 
norrhata tiruncularum. 

EMASCULATION (emasculare, to render impotent). Privation 
of virility ; castration ; removal of the testes. 

EMBOITEMENT (the situation of one box within nnother, from 
boiie, a box). A term used by Bonnet to describe that species of gene- 
ration, by which hundreds and thousands of individuals lie one within 
another, each possessing a complete series of organized parts. See 

200 EM B-E M M 

ETM HOLISM (infioXtafia, that winch is put in, a patch). A term 
applied to the process by which a thrombus, or clot, undergoes disin- 
tegration into minute particles, which are arrested in the capillary 
circulation. The term denotes the conveyance of coagula to a distance, 
and is thus distinguished from thrombosis, which denotes local coagu- 
lation. See Impactio. 

EMBROCATION (i M /V)C«, to moisten). A fluid application for 
moistening and rubbing any diseased part of the body. 

B'MBRYO (!», in, JM «, to bud forth). The ovum in utero, before 
the fourth month, after which it is called foetus. Also, the rudiment 
of the future plant, contained within the seed. 

1. Embryo-ctony («t«iV«, to destroy). The act of destroying the 
fatas in utero, in cases of impossible delivery. 

2. Embryo-logy (Xovot, an account). A description of the embryo, 
and of embryonic development generally. See Development. 

3. Emlnryo-plastic (jrAao-aw, to mould). A term applied to those 
congenital tumors of the auo-coccygeal region which result from 
degeneration of the coccygeal gland. 

I. Embryo-tomy (t*V»"«», to cut). The dismembering of the fetus 
in utero, in order to admit of delivery. 

5. Embry-ulcia (?\«r*», to draw). t*he withdrawal of the embryo from 
the uterus by means of a blunt hook or forceps, termed emltry ulcus. 

6. EmbryO'lega (teyert, to cover). A small callosity observed in some 
seeds, at a short distance from the hilum ; it gives way, like a lid, at 
the time of germination, for the emission of the radicle. 

EMBRYO-BUDS. The name given by Du troche t to adventitious 
buds, found in the form of woody nodules in the bark of some trees. 
Dr. Lank ester calls them abortive branches. 

EMBRYO, FIXED. A name given to a leaf-bud, owing to its 
capability of being removed from its parent-plant, and being grafted 
or budded upon other plants. 

E'METIC (cm«w, to vomit). A substance which causes vomiting. 
Emetics are termed topical, when they act by contact with the stomach 
only, as mustard ; specific, when they act by being introduced into the 
circulation, as emetic tartar, which may bo applied to any other part of 
the bodv, so as to be absorbed into the system. The former class arc 
also called direct, the latter indirect, emetics. 

1. Emetic tartar, potassio- tartrate of antimony or tartarized antimony. 
Tartrate of antimony and potash. 

2. Emetitt, emetia, emeta. A vegetable alkaloid, constituting the 
active principle of ipecacuanha-root. 

3. Emeto+cathartica («ca0a//»M, to purge). Medicines which produce 
both vomiting and purging. 

4. Erne-morphia. The name given by Dr. Matthiesen to a new 
substance — the most active emetic known. It is produced by heating 
morphia with hydrochloric acid, and thereby removing an atom of 

EMME'NAGOGUE {Ifin^ia, the menses, 5y«, to induce). A 
medicine which promotes the emmenia or catamenial discharge, when 
retained or suspended. 

EMME'NIA (f/uftiiviov, monthly). Hippocrates employs the term 
t& itiufivia for the menses, cstimenial or monthly discharge of women. 
See Katamenw. 

E M M-E MP 201 

EMMETROTIA (iMjuTpot, in measure, 6/f», the eye). Normal 
vision. That state of the eye in which the refractive power is normal, 
or in due measure; when a well-defined but inverted image of an 
object, at an ordinarily visible distance, is formed upon the retina. If 
the refractive power is too low, the eye is hyper-metropic ; if too high, 

EMOXLIENT (emoflire, to soften). An agent which diminishes 
the tone of the living tissues, and causes relaxation or weakness. When 
employed for the purpose of sheathing surfaces from the action of in- 
jurious substances, it is called demulcent. 

EMPATHE'MA (•*, and trad nun, affection). Ungovernable pas- 
sion ; including excitement, depression, and hair-brained passion, or the 
manie sans dihre of Pinel. 

E'MPHLYSIS («*, and <f»Xw<rt«, a breaking out, or eruption). 
Ichorous exanthem ; a vesicular tumor or eruption, proceeding from an 
internal and febrile affection, including miliary fever, thrush, cow-pox, 
water-pox, pemphigus, and erysipelas. 

EMPHRA'CTIC (i>/^a«T,*<Jc, liable to obstruct). A term ap- 
plied by Hippocrates to an agent liable to obstruct — as the pores of the 

E'MPHYMA (**, in, «/>t/», to spring forth). Mason Good applied 
this term to a tumor originating below the integument, and treated 
it as a genus including encystis, encysted tumor or wen. "The 
selection," »ars Mr. E. Wilson, " is unfortunate, for encystis is a 
hypertrophy of a follicle or gland, and is produced in and not below the 

EMPHYSEMA (intpCatma, an inflation of the stomach, peri- 
tonaeum, or cellular tissue, from in<puodu>, to inflate). Pneumatosis 
jmlmonmm; Pneumectasis. Literally, that which is blown in; wind- 
dropsy. A swelling produced by air,' diffused in the cellular tissue. It 
is distinguished as traumatic, when the air has been introduced by a 
solution of continuity ; and as idiopathic, or spontaneous, when the gas 
is developed within the cells. 

EMPI RIC. The imrttpiKol, or Empirics, were a sect of physicians 
who contended that Experience (fi iwrnpt*ri) was the one thing need- 
ful in their art. How degraded is the term now : it denotes a dealer in 
nostrums— a charlatan or quack ! 

EMPLA'STRUM (ifiirkdaa^io spread upon). A plaster; a solid 
and tenacious compound, adhesive at the ordinary heat of the human 
bodv. Plasters have been termed solid ointments, as they mav be said 
to differ in consistence only from liniments, ointments, and cerates. 
** Celsus (lib. v. cap. 17) points out the circumstances which distinguish 
emplastra from malapmata and pastilli (called by the Greeks vpoxi** 
Kot). Malagmata were soft vegetable compounds, analogous to our 
cataplasms, applied to the unbroken skin. Pastilli and emplastra 
contained some metallic ingredient, and were applied to wounds. The 
former (pastilli) consisted of dry substances united bv some non- 
oleaginous liquid, and were used either bv friction or with some soft 
ingredient The latter (emplastra) contained fusible ingredients, and 
were simply applied to the part.** — Set. e Pratsciipt. 

EM P RE'S MA (ifjLirptia^ot, i.q. ifiirptiaity a conflagration, from l», 
and irptfits, to bum). Internal inflammation ; a term employed, in its 

202 EM P— E N A 

simple sense, by Hippocrates, and revived by Good as a generic term 
for all those visceral inflammations generally distinguished by the suffix 
-tVss, denoting inflammation. 

EMPROSTHOTONOS (f AnrpooOcv, before, rc/f «, to draw). Epis- 
tkoionos. Clonic spasm bending the body forward. [This term, as also 
opisthotonos and pleurotholono$, is an adjective, and requires the word 
ffiraayidf to be understood. The substantive term is ipirpoo-OoToWa, 
or tetanic procurvation, opposed to dwiadorovia, or tetanic recurva- 

E'MPTYSIS (4>rTiMm, a spitting). The Greek synonym for the 
Latin expeetoratio. A better term would be ekptysis, from ckittum, to 
spit out, but this substantive does not exist. 

EMPY'EMA {ifnrvt}fxa t suppuration, from h, within, xuov, pus). 
Pyotkorar. Abscess of the chest, or suppuration of the pleura. This 
term was originally applied by the Ancients to every collection of 
purulent matter; it was subsequently confined to effusions into the 
pleura and abscesses of the lungs ; it is now applied to a collection of pus 
in one or both of the cavities of the pleura only. Chronic pleurisy 
constitutes the ' purulent empyema 1 of surgeons. 

Some physicians speak of true and false empyema : the first form 
being that in which pus is secreted by the pleura in consequence of 
inflammation ; the second, that in which pus finds its way into the 
thoracic cavitv from rupture of an abscess of the lung. — Tanner. 

EMPY'ESIS (i^truijatt, suppuration). Pustulous exanthem ; a 
term used by Hippocrates, and including, in Good's system, variola or 
small-pox. Empyeris oculi is suppuration of the eye-ball. Strictly 
speaking, empyesis is the cause of empyema. See Preface, par. 2. 

EMPY'REUMA (c/u-rvpevpa, coal to preserve a smouldering fire, 
from ifinrvpt vm, to set on fire, from Tup, nre). A term expressive of 
the peculiar smell of burning which characterizes the vapour produced 
by destructive distillation. Hence the term empvrtumatic is applied to 
the acid, and to the oil, which result from the destructive distillation 
of vegetafile substances ; and, hence, hartshorn is called the empyreu- 
tuatio alkali. 

EMPYREUMATICA. A class of stimulants obtained by the dry 
distillation of substances of organic origin. They comprise ethereal 
oils, oleo-resins, and resins. 

EMU'LGENTS (emulgere, to milk out). A designation of the 
arteries and veins of the kidneys, which were supposed to strain, or 
milk out, the serum. A term also applied to remedies which excite the 
flow of bile. 

EMU'LSIN. Synaptaee. A white, friable, opaque substance ob- 
tained from both sweet and bitter almonds, and possessing the property 
of a ferment. 

EMU'LSIO (emulgere, to milk out}. An emulsion; a mixture of 
oil and water, made by means of mucilage, sugar, or yolk of egg. This 
term is used by the Edinburgh College for the Mistura of the London 

EMU'NCTORY (emuttctorium, a pair of snuffers, from emungere, to 
wipe or snuff out). An excretory duct ; a canal through which the 
contents of an organ, as the gall-bladder, are discharged. 

E'NAMEL OP THE TEETH. Encaustum ; adamas ; cortex 

E N A— E N D 203 

dentium. The thin hard capsule which mostly envelopes the crown of 
the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the human body. 

EXANTHESIS (t», within, cfrflijim, a blossoming). Rash exan- 
thcni ; an efflorescence from within or from internal affection ; fever 
accompanied with rash ; comprising rosalia, rubeola, and urticaria. 
Compare Exanthesis. 

ENANTIOTATHY (sawmoe, opposite, *d6o9, disease). A term 
synonymous with allopathy and heleropathy, denoting the treatment of 
diseases by contraries, as distinguished from homoeopathy, or the treat- 
ment by similars. 

EN ARTHROSIS («V, in, £p0p«<ric, articulation). A species ot 
movable articulation, commonly called the ball-and-socket joint, con- 
sisting of the insertion of the round extremity of one bone into the cup- 
like cavity of another bone. By the older writers, the term enarthrosis 
was used to denote a species of diarthrosis, a joint having extensive 
movement. See Articulation. 

[ENCA'NTHIS] (tV, in, Kaitfo*, can thus). Canthitis nasalit. 
Inflammation of the caruncula lacrymalis ; a morbid growth in the 
canthw, or inner angle of the eye. 

ENCAU'MA (ty*au/L»a, a mark burnt in, a brand). A sore from 
burning ; an ulcer of the cornea, causing the loss of the humors. 

[ENCETHALON] (h, in, «i0a\ij, the head). The brain; the 
contents of the skull, consisting of the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla 
oblongata, and membranes. 

1. Enkephal-iti$. Inflammation of the brain or of its membranes. 
M This term is to be used only when the precise seat of the inflammation 
has not been ascertained by post-mortem examination.** — Norn. of Dis. 
It has also been termed phrenitis and meningo-enkephalitis. See 

2. Enkephalo-cefe («i$An, a tumor). Hernia of the brain, through the 
walls of the cranium, by a congenital opening, a fracture, &c. 

3. Enkepkalo-itl (tliox, likeness). Cerebrtform. A term applied to 
a morhid product, or enkephalosis, the cut surface of which resembles 
brain. Hard enhephaloia is a designation sometimes applied to medul- 
lary cancer of unusually firm consistence. See Cancer. 

4. Enkephalo-lomv (To/uif, section). Dissection of the brain. 
ENCHONDRCMA (i», in, xo»*Po*> cartilage). Tumor cartilagi- 

nosus. A tumor composed of cartilage. 

EN-CYSTED («*, in, *u<rrif, a cyst). A term applied to tumors 
which consist of matter contained in a sac or cyst 

END- ARTERITIS (i\oov, within, arteritis, inflammation of an 
artery). Inflammation of the endothelium of the arteries. 

ENDE'MIC (tp, among, Sijuox, a people). An epithet for diseases 
peculiar to the inhabitants of particular countries — native diseases, as 
ague in marshy countries, goitre in Switzerland, &c. The term is 
somewhat analogous to the term indigenous as applied to plants. See 

EN-DERM IC (I*, in, iipua, skin). A terra indicative of tho 
method of applying medicines to the denuded dermis. It is also called 
the emplastro-endermic method, as suggesting the mode of denuding the 
dermis bv means of a blister. 

END^XOTE'RIC (ivio*, within, *£», without). That which 

204 K N D O- 

results from internal and external causes simultaneously ; that which 
includes both esoteric and exoteric agency. 

EN DO- {iv&ov, within). A Greek preposition, signifying within. 
It corresponds with the old Latin endo- or indu- in composition. 

1. Enao-chrome f XP"M<*' colour). The coloured material which fills 
vegetable cells, exclusive of the green material, which is called chloro- 
p*jfl- The colouring matter of endochrome is called chromulo. 

2. Endo-gaslritis. Inflammation of the inner or lining membrane 
of the stomach. 

3. Endo-gen {yivvdm, to produce). A plant whose stem grows by 
internal increase, as a palm. The name of one of the large primary 
divisions of the vegetable kingdom. See Exoyen. 

4. Endokardiac ; exo-hardiac (tcapiia, the heart). Terms applied 
to diseases, and to sounds heard by auscultation in the region of the 
heart : the former arise from the substance of the heart itself, the latter 
from disessed conditions of adjacent parts. 

5. Ettdo-kardium (*cap^/«, the heart). The transparent and glisten- 
ing serous membrane which lines the interior of the heart, and which 
by its reduplications assists to form the valves. Endo-karditis is inflam- 
mation of this membrane. Endo-perikarditis is inflammation of the 
pericardium, and is more common than simple endo-karditis. 

6. Endo-karp (tap-wot, fruit). The innermost portion of the peri- 
carp. In some fruits it presents a bony consistence, as in the peach, 
and has been termed putamen. See Pericarp. 

7. Endo-lymph (lympha, water). Liquor Scarpa. The limpid fluid 
which fills the cavities of the semicircular canals and the vestibular sac. 
See Perilymph. 

8. Endo-metritis (u J rp it i*, inflammation of the uterus). Catarrhal 
or croupy inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the uterus. 
It is sometimes termed uterine catarrh or uterine leucorrhcsa. 

9. Endo-phlamm (</>\oidc, bark). Another name for liber — the 
innermost layer of the bark of exooens. See Dark. 

10. Endo-pleura (trXtvpd, the side). The internal integument of the 
teed, also termed tunica interna, tegmen, hilofere, &c. 

11. Endo-rrhizous (*>«£«, a root). A term expressive of the mode 
of germination of Endogens, in which the radicle is emitted from the 
substance of the radicular extremity, and is sheathed at its base by the 
substance from which it protrudes. This sheath is termed the coleop- 

12. Endoscope (owotcm, to view). A general term for an instru- 
ment employed in medicine and surgery for the exploration of internal 
organs. As employed for the urethra, it is a urethroscope ; for the ear, 
an otoscope, &c. 

13. Endo-skeleton. The internal bony system of the mammalia, 
birds, &c., as distinguished from the exo skeleton, or external bony 
system, of the Crustacea and testacea. 

14. End-osmose (»?/ud«, impulsion). The property by which rarer 
fluids are attracted through a porous diaphragm into a cavity or space 
containing a denser fluid. M. Du troche t, who introduced this term, 
with a knowledge of the motory principle to which it refers, used 
others explicative of his views of some operations in the animal 
economy : such as hyperendosmose, or the state of things in inflamma- 
tion ; with this are associated adjluxion, or accumulation of the fluids, 

E N K-E N T 205 

and impulsion, or increased flow of the fluid* onwards. Thus, inflam- 
mation is tuid to be " but d'adfluxion, et origins d'impulsion." See 

15. Endosmo-meter (/utrpop, a measure). An instrument con- 
trived by Du troche t for measuring the force of the endosmosmic 

16. Endo-spermium (<nrif>/ua, seed). The name given by Richard 
to the albumen of other botanists. Jussieu termed it perisperm. 

17. End-osteitis. Inflammation of the medullary membrane which 
lines the central canal of long bones, as well as the cells of flat and 
irregular bones. See Osteitis and Osteo-myelitis. 

lo. Endo-stome (otoho, a mouth). The orifice of the inner integu- 
ment of the ovule, in plants. 

19. Endo-thecium (O'iict), a case). The name given by Purkinje to 
the lining of the anther, consisting of fibro-cellular tissue. 

20. Endothelium. A term formerly introduced to designite the 
kind of epithelium (pseudo-epithelium) which is found lining the vas- 
cular, lymphatic, ana serous cavities of the body, in contradistinction 
to the real epithelium of mucous membranes. 

[ENE'CIA] (4viKff«, continuous). A term denoting continued 
action, and applied by Good to continued fever, including the sereral 
■pedes of inflammatory, typhous, and synochal fever. These were for- 
merly called continentes, from their being supposed to be unattended by 
any change or relaxation whatever. 

E'NEMA (JptfiMt, to inject). A clyster, lavement, or injection, 
employed for conveying through the rectum both nourishment and 
medicine into the intestinal canal. 

EN-EPIDE'RMIC. A term indicative of the method of applying 
medicines to the epidermis, unassisted by friction, as when blisters, 
fomentations, Ac, are employed. See Endermio. 

ENGORGEMENT. Congestion. Literally, a being choked up. 
An over-fulness or obstruction of the vessels in some part of the system. 
A designation of the first stage of pneumonia, also termed spfenization, 
in which the affected long is loaded with blood or bloody serum. 

ENNEA'NDRIA (i^ia, nine, Mp, man). The ninth class of 
plants in Linnaeus's system, comprehending those which have nine 
stamens, as butomus or flowering rush. 

ENS. The participle present of the verb sum, employed as a sub- 
stantive in philosophical language, for any being or existence. This 
term formerly denoted, in chemistry, a substance supposed to contain 
all the qualities or virtues of the ingredients from which it is drawn, in 
a small compass. Thus we had ens Martis for ammoniated iron, ens 
Veneris for muriate of ammonia and copper, and ens primum for a tinc- 
ture for transmuting metals. 

E'NSI FORM (ensis, a sword,//rmo, likeness). Xiphoid. A Latin 
term applied to the sword-shaped cartilage of the sternum ; to the straight, 
flat, and pointed leaf of Iris, &c. 

ENSI-STE'RNAL (ensis, a sword, sternum, the chest). Relating 
to the ensiform or xiphoid process of the sternum ; a term applied by 
Beclard to the last osseous portion of the sternum. 

E'NTASIS (irraaiv, a stretching tight, from irrsisw, to stretch). 
A term denoting intention, or stretching, and applied by Good to con- 
strictive spasm, including cramp, wry-neck, locked -jaw, &c Hence 

306 ENT 

the adjective enlatie might he applied to all diseases characterized by 
constrictive spasm. 

E'NTERA (plur. of ivripoir, an intestine, formed as a comparative 
form trro'v, within). The intestine*. 

1. Enter-algia (dXyot, pain). Pain of the intestines ; colic; a term 
synonymous with enter-odynia (oovpii, pain). 

2. Enteric fever. Typhoid fever. " A continued fever characterized 
hy the pretence of rose-coloured spots, chiefly on the abdomen, and 
a tendency to diarrhoea, with specific lesion of the bowels." — Norn, of 
Die. Enteric fever occurring in the child is often named Infantile 
remittent fever. See Entero-mesenteric. 

& Enterica. The designation of a class of diseases of the intestines; 
also of medicines which act on the alimentary canal, as stomachics, 
tonics, anaesthetics, &c 

4. Enter-itis. Inflammation of the intestines; acute inflamma- 
tion of the external or peritonaal coat of the intestines, as distin- 
E Dished from inflammation seated in the mucous coat. By some writers, 
owever, this term is defined as " inflammation of the mucous coat of 
the small intestine.** 

6. Entero-cele (*»iXtj, a tnmor). Abdominal hernia which contains 
a portion of intestine only. If the hernia contains omentum as well 
at intestine, it is called enter-epiplo-ctle (ixt-rXoop, the omentum) ; 
and if the umbilicus is involved in the hernia, the term lengthens into 
enter-empl-omphaloctle (6[A<pa\6t, the umbilicus). The student can- 
not fail to admire the plastic nature of the Greek language. 

6. Enlero-lUhus (Xutot , a stone). An intestinal concretion, as a 
bezoar, a calculus, &c. See Bczoar. 

7. Entero-tnesenteric. A term suggested by Dr. Harley as more 
characteristic than enteric, when applied to fever, as marking out the 
disease from all others, and pointing to a constant feature. For these 
reasons, the terms " typhoid,** " abdominal typhus,** " gastric,** and 
" pythogenic,** are considered objectionable, as applied to this kind of 

8. Entero-rrhaphia (pa<p$, a suture). The operation of making a 
suture of the divided edges of an intestine. 

9. Enter-oscheo-cele (oox*ov, the scrotum, Kt/Xt|, a tumor). Hernia 
in which a portion of intestine descends into the scrotum. 

10. Entero-tomy (Wpy», to cut). Dissection of the intestines; 
incision of the intestines in operation for hernia, for artificial anus, 

E'NTOMOLINE (tirropop, an insect). A peculiar chemical prin- 
ciple, found in large quantities in the wings ana elytra of Coleopterous 
insects, and termed chitine by M. Odier. 

ENTOMOLOGY (tVropa, insects, Xoyot, an account). That part 
of Zoology which treats of insects. The Greek term enloma is synony- 
mous with the Latin word insecta, both having reference to a striking 
character of the insect tribe, that of having the body insected t or cut or 
divided into several segments. 

ENTO'NIC (tVrovo*, strained). A term applied by Hippocrates to 
persons who are sinewy and well-strung. In pathology, it is synony- 
mous with entatic. See Entasis. 

ENTOTHYTA (irro's, within, AvTo*,aplant). Entophytes; crypto- 
j»mic plants found living on the skin and the mucous membranes of 

E N T— E P H 4 207 

animals, or in the contents of cavities lined by mucous membrane. See 

ENTO'PTICS (cvto'v, within, otrrind, optics;. The investigation 
of those conditions in which light, on entering the eye, causes us to see, 
under certain circumstances, a series of objects which exist in the organ 
itself. This investigation has been employed, in physiology and medi- 
cine, by Dr. Jago. 

ENTOZO'A (eirrof, within, £a»op, an animal). A subdivision of 
human parasites, comprising the classes coelelmintha or hollow worms, 
stertlmintha or solid worms, and accidental parasites, having the habits 
of, but not referable to, the class of entozoa. The orders are, Cystica 
or hydatids, Cestoidea or tape- worms. Tremaioda or fluke- worms, 
Acanthocepha J a or hooked worms, and Nematoidea or round worms. 

ENTROTIUM (i», in, vpiirm, to turn). Inversio palpebrce. In- 
version of the margin of the eye-lid, caused by a boat-shaped incurvation 
of the lower border of the tarsal cartilage. Compare Eciropium. 

ENUCLEATION (enucleate, to take out the kernel). The opera- 
tion of removing a tumor, as a kernel may be removed from its en- 
veloping husks. 

ENURE'SIS (ivovpiu, to make water in— in bed, Aristoph.). Hy- 
peruresis. Incontinence of urine; involuntary discharge of urine, 
from mechanical cause, or from functional derangement of the 

EP-, EPH-, EPI-. These prefixes all represent the Greek preposition 
•VI, upon, denoting all sorts of relations of place. In composition, it 
frequently conveys the idea of increase, addition, accompaniment, 
repetition, reciprocal action, &c. 

EPA'CTAL (tvaKTof, brought on or in, added). The name given 
by Fischer to the inter-parietal bone of Geoffrey St. Hilaire. It is only 
developed after birth, and is only occasionally met with. 

EPA'NETUS (sVawTof, remitting, sc. irvptrov, fever). A term 
denoting remittent, and applied by Good to remittent fever, including 
the mild form, the malignant form, and hectic fever. 

EPE'NDYMA VENTRICULO'RUM (iirirtvpa, an upper gar- 
ment). The lining membrane of the ventricles of the brain, a serous 
layer, distinct from the arachnoid. 

EPENKETHALON (1*1, upon, iyci<pa\oir, the brain). The 
posterior primary division of the brain, including the medulla oblongata, 
pons varolii, cerebellum, and fourth ventricle. The epenkephalic arch 
is the neural arch of the occipital vertebra, which embraces and protects 
the epenkephalon. 

ErHE'LIS (totfXtv, an iron band on a box's cover; in plur. spots 
or freckles which stud the face; and so from frAov, a stud, though 
also referred to fjXtot, the sun — Liddell and Scott). Sun-burn; a 
•pot or freckle of the skin, produced bv exposure to the rays of the sun. 

The Varieties are ephelis umbrosa, in which the spots are brown and 
irregular ; ephelis lentigo, in which the spots are yellow and circular, 
somewhat resembling those of lentigo ; and ephelis ignealis, a term for 
the mottled appearance seen upon the legs and thighs of women who sit 
over a charcoal brazier. 

EPHE'MERA (i<pj,itpot, daily, sc vvperot, fever). Sub. febris. 
A fever which runs its course of the cold, hot, and sweating stages in a 
period of twelve hours. 

208 EPH—KPI- 

Ephemera Puerperarum. Weed. "A fever consisting of one or 
more paroxysms, occurring a few days after delivery, generally attended 
by diminution of the milk and lochia, and unaccompanied by local 
lesions.*' — Norn, of Dis. See Puerperal Fever. 

EPHIA'LTES (lfptd\rti*, the night-mare, strictly, one who leapt 
upon). Incubus, or night-mare ; the imaginary being which seems to 
leapwpon the chest of the sleeper. 

KPHIDRO'SIS (c4>/ty>c0<ric, superficial or slight perspiration — 
Hipp.). By ephidrotis profusa Mason Good designates morbid in- 
crease of the perspiratory secretion, or the hypcrhidrosis of Swediaur; 
by ephidrosis olens, alteration as regards odour, or osmidrosis ; by 
epkidrosis omenta, harmidrosis or bloody sweat. Other varieties are 
named discolor, partialis, and arenosa, or sandy sweat 

EPH1TPIUM (i4>iVriov, for putting on a horse, as a saddle). 
Sella turcica. A depressed portion of the os sphenoides, so called from 
its saddle-like shape. 

ETIAN. Pian. A term denoting a raspberry, and applied on the 
American coast to frambama. On the African coast this affection is 
termed yaws. 

EPIBLE'MA {iwlfiXnua, that which is thrown over, a cloak). The 
imperfectly formed covering which supplies the place of the epidermis 
in submerged plants and on the extremities of growing roots. 

rEPICA'NTIIlS] (iwtffarfiv, i.q. iyKaudh)'. Piojection of the nasal 
fold of the eye-lid. The term is similar to encanihis, which denotes a 
tumor on the inner corner of the eye. 

ETIOARP (ix/, upon, xapirot, fruit). The exterior portion of the 
pericarp, commonly termed the skin of fruits. See Pericarp. 

EPICHRCSI8 (IwlxpMaity a surface-stain). A coloured or spotted 
surface of any kind ; a term applied to macula?, or blemishes of the 
•kin, as freckles, sun -burn, moles, piebald-skin, albino-skin, &c. 

EPICRA'NLUM (t-ri, upon, xpaviov, the skull). The integuments 
and epineurotic expansion which lie over the cranium. 

EPICRA'NIUS (nrf, upon, xpaviov, the cranium). Another name 
of the occipito-frontalxs muscle, which covers the whole side of the 
vertex of the skull, from the occiput to the eye-brow. 

EPIDE'MIC (cTtdtf/uiov, prevalent among a people). An epithet 
for a popular, prevailing, but not native disease, arising from a general 
and temporary cause, as excessive heat. (See Endemic.) The phrases 
u Epidemic constitution" "Epidemic influences" belong to the earlier 
ages of physic, and are suggestive of mystical notions. " It is the disease 
that constitutes the epidemic, and not the ep'demic the disease. The 
evil always remains the same, the number of those affected being alone 

EPIDEMIOLOGY (Iwitjfuov, prevalent among a people, \6y09, 
a description). A description of the remote cause of epidemic diseases 
in the animal and the vegetable creation. See Epidemic. 

EPIDERMIC METHOD Uiri, upon, dipua, the skin). latralip- 
tie method. The application of remedies to the skin, aided by friction. 
This is sometimes called anatripsologia and espnoic medicine. The 
application of remedies, unaided by friction, as of blisters, lotions, &c, 
it termed the en-epidermic method. 

EPIDERMIDO-MYCO'SIS (L*ittpul* y iirtttpnitot, the outer 
skin, /tviofv, a fungus). A generic term for mouldiness of the epider- 

EPI 209 

■ait. The species are E. versicolor, or chloasma; E. decalvans, or 
baldneai ; and £. tonsurans, or ringworm of the icalp. See Derma- 

EPIDERMIDCX-PHYTON (*T»3»p„fc, iirtiipfiio^t, epidermis, 
<pvr6v t a plant). A plant or fungus of the epidermis ; the microsporon, 
•r dermopnyte of chloasma. 

EPIDERMIS (i-rtttpfil*, from M, upon, oipua, the skin). The 
external layer of the skin, lying upon the derma, or true skin. It is 
also called cuticle, to distinguish it from the cutis, or true skin. Its 
internal surface presents a soft cell-tissue, termed rele nmcosum ; its 
external surface, a horny layer, called pars cornea. See Scarf -dun. 

EPIDE'RMOSE (iVf, upon, iipp.a, the skin). The name given 
by Bouchardat to the few fiocculi of fibrin or albumen which resist 
eolation, when these substances are placed in water acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid. See Albuminose. 

EPIDI'DYMIS (iviitdvuiti the outer membrane of the testis). 
The small oblong body which lies above the testis, formed by the con- 
volutions of the vasa efferentia, external to the testis. 

Epididymitis. Inflammation of the epididymis, as distinguished from 
orchitis or inflammation of the body of the testis. The disease is also 
termed gonorrheal orchitis. 

EPl6A'STRIUM (tirf, upon, ya<rrnp % the stomach). The superior 
part of the abdomen ; the part situated above the stomach. The epi- 
gastric region is the middle region of the upper zone situated imme- 
diately over the small end of the stomach. 

EPiGE'NESIS (cwi, a preposition denoting addition, and yivtatv, 
feneration). A term applied to a theory of generation, in which each 
germ is an entirely new production of the parent organism, as opposed 
to the theory of mere expansion of pre-existent germs. Compare 

E'PIGEOUS (iw/, upon, yrj, the earth). Growing upon the earth ; 
a term applied to cotyledons which emerge from, and grow upon, the 
ground. See Hypogeous. 

EPIGLOTTIS (t*i, upon, yXwrrit, glottis). A fibro-cartilage 
placed immediately in front of the glottis, to protect this opening of the 
tarrnx from the intrusion of foreign bodies. 

1. Epiglottic gland. This is merely a mass of alveolar and adiposo. 
tissue, situated in the triangular space between the front surface 
of the apex of the epiglottis, the hyo-epiglottidean and the thyro- 
hyoidean ligament. 

2. Epiglottic ligaments. These are five in number, three named 
gloseo-epiglottic, or fraena epiglottidis, one hyo-epiglottic, and one 

EPl'GYNOUS («xi, upon, yvri, the pistil or female organ of 
plants). That condition of the stamens of a plant, in which they adhere 
both to the calyx and the ovarium, as in Umbelliferous plants. 

E'PILEPSx fiVUii^tf, a taking hold of, a convulsive seizure). 
Falling sickness. Sudden loss of sensation and consciousness, with tome 
convulsions lasting a few seconds, followed by clonic spasms of voluntary 
muscles, frequently preceded by a shriek, ending in a state of sopor, 
and recurring in paroxysms more or less regular. This affection has 
been called morbus divinus, morbus saccr, morbus comitialis, morbus 
caducus, &c. 


S10 B P I 

The term Epilepsy has been applied to a disease of the kidney and 
to an affection or the retina, but very incorrectly. " Renal astnma," 
•ays Dr. J. R. Reynolds, "would be a term aa pathologically correct 
•• * renal epilepsy,' and dyspnoea of the fingers as justifiable aa the 
expression ( epilepsy of the retina.' " 

EPINY'CTJS [iirivvKTit). A pustule which is most painful at 
night The term is applied by Sauvages to ecthyma. 

EPI-PETALOUS f Jirf, upon, *<TaW, a leaf). That condition 
of the stamens of a plant, in which the filaments are united to the 
petals, so as apparently to spring from them, as in honey-suckle. 

EPIPHLCE/UM (/*»(, upon, <t>\oi6t, bark). A layer of bark, situ- 
ated immediately beneath tne epidermis, termed by Mohl phlceum or 

EPI'PHORA (i-TKpopa, a sudden burst of rain, of tears). The 
watery eye; & redundancy or undue secretion of tears, which run over 
the cheek. It is distinguished from itillicidium lacrymarum, which 
consists in an obstacle to the absorption and conveyance of the tears 
from the lacus lacrymarum into the sac, causing thereby an overflow of 
tears, not redundant nor unduly secreted. 

EPI'PHYSIS {i-ritpuai*, an ongrowth, an excrescence). An arti- 
cular extremity of a bone ; a process of a bone attached by cartilage to 
a bone, 'and not a part of the same bone. It differs from apophysis, 
which is a process of a bone, and a part of the same bone ; and from 
diaphysiSy winch is the central portion of a long bone. 

EPI'PH YTA (iw/, upon, g>vtoV, a plant). Epiphytes ; plants found 
growing upon other plants, principally those Orchidaceous plants which 
grow upon trees. Epiphytes are also found on the skin and mucous 
membranes, in the stomach, &c. 

1. Epipliyla are frequently confounded with entophyta, and the dis- 
tinction is sometimes perplexing, because it may happen that a plant 
whose spores are deposited in the interior of an animal body (an enio- 
phyteY may in the course of growth find its way to the surface (an cpi- 

2. Epiphytes are sometimes confounded with parasites, but their 
mode of growth is different : epiphytes adhere to the bark of other 
plants and root into the surrounding soil ; parasites, as mistletoe 
and the various species of Loranthus, strike their abortive roots into 
the wood, and flourish upon the sap of the individual to which they 
attach themselves. 

EPI'PLOON (iirLirXoov, omentum, from i-KnrXiw, to sail upon). 
The omentum ; a membranous expansion which floats upon the in- 
testines. Epiplo-itis is inflammation of the epiploon or omentum; 
epiplo-cele («?j\»j, tumor), hernia of the epiploon ; and cpipl-oscheo-ceU 
(ocrx<ov, the scrotum), hernia in which the epiploon descends into the 

EPIRRHEO'LOGY (ixiiipon, a flowing on, \6yo* % an account). 
That branch of science whicn treats of the effects of external agents 
upon living plants. 

EPFSCHESIS (sVfoxao-if, a checking, from t-ri<rx«, to hold back). 
Obstruction ; suppression of excretions. 

EPISEIO'RRAPHY (iirl<T*iov, the region of the pubes, pao>if, 
suture). Suture of the external parts of the pudenda. See Cotporra- 

EPI 2J1 

EPISPADIAS (iirttnraodai, to draw the prepuce forward, become 
at if uncircumcised). That malformation, in which the urethra is 
fissured on the upper surface of the penis, not far from the pubes. See 

EPISPA'STICS (IvHrxavTiKSi, drawing to oneself, as of drugs in 
drawing out peccant humors). Vesicatories ; blisters ; external appli- 
cations to the skin, which produce a serous or puriform discharge, by 
exciting inflammation. When these agents act so mildly as merely to 
excite inflammation, without occasioning the effusion of serum, they 
are denominated rubefacients. 

" What the Ancients called epispastics were such external applica- 
tions as only reddened the skin, and, according to the different degrees of 
effect, received different names : the slightest were called phamigmoi, 
the next sinapismi, the more active vesicatorii, and the strongest 
cowtu*."— Parr, Med. Diet. 

E'PISPERM (M, upon, otripfia, seed). This, and perisperm, are 
terms applied by Richard to the testa of seeds— the spermodcrm of 

BPISTA'XI8 (iirtVragtv, a dropping). WUnorrhagia. Nasal 
hsnnoirhage ; an effusion of blood from the pituitary membrane. 

EPrTASIS (iwlTao-tv, a stretching). J. A Greek term denoting 
stretching, as of the nerves (Hipp.), and opposed to anesis (d*>c <ti?) or 
relaxation. 2. The term is sometimes used synonymously with the 
Latin accessio, and then denotes a paroxysm of a disease. See Acces- 

EPITHELIOMA. Abnormal development of the epithelium ; a 
disease, according to some pathologists, sm generis, consisting of an in- 
filtration of cells of scaly epithelium. The term has been employed as 
a synonym of epithelial cancer (p. 97), which it resembles, inasmuch as 
it returns after excision, is prone to incurable ulceration, affects the 
lymphatics seated near it, ana destroys the patient. — Tanner. 

EPITHELIUM (twiTiu* nm, to place upon). The superficial, horny, 
insensible, and bloodless layer of the mucous membrane — the part cor- 
responding to the epidermis of the skin. Its varieties are — 

1. Squamous epithelium ; so named from the conversion of its super- 
ficial cells into squama or scales. When several layers exist, the terms 
lameUated, tesselated, stratified \*na pavement epitheltumhm been given 
to this variety. 

2. Columnar epithelium, or cylinder-epithelium ; consisting of elon- 
gated or pvriform cells, their bases directed to the free surfaces, their 
apices to the corium, and all ranged side by side like columns. 

3. Spheroidal epithelium ; consisting of spheroidal cells somewhat 
polyhedral from compression. This variety, from its occurring in 
situations where the two preceding varieties are continuous, has been 
called transitional epithelium. 

A. Ciliated epithelium ; so named from its vibratile filaments, or cilia, 
surmounting tne broad ends of the columnar, or the free surface of the 
spheroidal variety. 

ETITHEM (iirlBtfia, a later form for MBtifia, an external appli- 
cation). A general term for any external topical application to the 
body, except ointments and plasters ; a lotion. 

EPIZOKA (tVf, upon, {wo», an animal). Parasitic animals, which 
live upon, or in the structure of, the skin of other animals, as the acarus. 

p 2 

212 E P I— E R £ 

(See Parasite.) The term ertixoa is also applied to those singular crus- 
taceans which afford a striking example of retrograde or recurrent 
development: in the larval form they swim freely, have locomotive 
limbs, and well-developed organs of vision ; in the adult state, they are 
swollen and deformed, sedentary, deprived of organs of sense, and lead 
an almost vegetable life. 

EPIZOO'TIC (Jwe, upon, g&or, an animal). A term applied to 
diseases which prevail among the lower animals, and corresponding 
with the term endemic as applied to man. 

EPSOM SALT. Sal catharticus amarus. Sulphate of magnesia, 
formerly procured bv boiling down the mineral water of Epsom, but 
now prepared from the bittern of sea-water, which is left after the crys- 
tallization of common salt 

EPU'LIS fiwovA/t, a gum-boil). A tumor springing from the 
periosteum and edge of the alveolus of the maxillary bones, and impli- 
cating the osseous walls. Simple epulis is a fibrous tumor; malignant 
epulis is usually fibro-plastic, and is occasionally cancerous. 

EPULOTICS (4irovXttTtK<fo, promoting the healing of wounds; 
from iiri, upon, ou\»j, cicatrix). Medicines which promote the cica- 
trization of wounds. They are also called doatrizantia. 

EQUILIBRIUM (opte*, equally, librare, to balance). A term ex- 
pressive of the equality of temperature, which all bodies on the earth 
•re constantly tending to attain (see Caloric), and of the equal distri- 
bution of the electric fluid in its natural undisturbed state. 

EQUI'NIA (eouinus, belonging to the horse). Glanders. " An in- 
flammatory affection of the nasal mucous membrane, produced by the 
contagion of matter from a glandered horse.** 

Equmia mitis. Grease. " A pustular eruption, produced by the 
contagion of matter from a horse affected with the grease. — Nom. of 

E'QUITANT (eauitare, to ride). A term descriptive of a form of 
vernation in which the leaves overlap one another parallelly and 
entirely, without involution, as in Iris. 

EQUIVALENTS, CHEMICAL (ami, equally, valert, to avail). 
A term applied by Wollaston to the combining proportions of elementary 
and compound substances, as the quantities of acid and base, in salts, 
required to neutralize each other. Thus 57*68 of arsenic acid, 37 of 
muriatic, 54 of nitric, and 40 of sulphuric, combine with 28 of lime, 
forming, respectively, a neutral arseniate, muriate, nitrate, and sulphate 
•of lime. &c, &c. 

1. Tne term ''chemical equivalent,** though frequently used as 
^synonymous with atomic weight and combining proportion, is not strictly 
-ao, since the equivalent of a body may be, ana occasionally is, different 
from its atomic weight or combining proportion. 

2. The chemical equivalent of a metal expresses the weight which is 
required to be substituted for one part by weight of hydrogen in its 

ERBIUM. A rare metal found, associated with yttris, in gadoli- 
isto. a mineral silicate occurring at Ytterby in Sweden. Erbia is its 

ERE'CTILE TISSUE (erigere, to erect). A peculiar ccllulo-vas 
eular tissue, forming a considerable portion of the organs of generation. 
That of the vagina has been termed, by Dr. Graaf, retiformis, and 

ERE— ERO 213 

Utterly, corpus cavernosum vagina. The term it also applied to a 
similar tissue, constituting nacviis, Ac. 

ERE'CTILE TUMORS. Another teim for vascular navi, indica- 
tive of the slightly elevated state of the tumors. 

ERECTOR (erigcre. to raise). A muscle of the clitoris and of the 
penis, so named from it* office. Under the term erector spina i are 
been associated the sacrolumbalis, longissimus doroi, and spinalis dorsi 

ERKM ACAU'STS (#oc/uoc, slow, navtnv, hum ing). A term applied 
bv Liebig to the slow combustion or oxidation of organic matters in 
air, as in the conversion of wood into humus, the formation of acetic 
acid from alcohol, nitrification, &c. See Putrefaction. 

ERETHrSMUS (*p«0tfcd, to exrite). Constitutional irritation, or 
excitement Erethismus mere ur talis, or mercurial erethism, is a pecu- 
liar state of erethism produced by mercury. 

Erethism and Katalysis. Terms proposed by Marshall Hall for de- 
noting the two classes into which every disease of the nervous system 
appears to resolve itself, the former denoting irritation ; the latter, 
abolition of function : — 

" If a sentient nerve be erethised, there is pain ; \f katalysed, there is 
numbness ; if a muscular nerve be erethised, there is convulsive action 
of the muscles : if the nerve be katalysed, the muscle is inert, it is 
paralysed ; if the cerebrum be erethised,' there is delirium ; if katalysed, 
there is coma or insensibility; if the spinal marrow be eiethised or 
katalysed, there are convulsive movements, or paralysis, respec- 
tively. " 

E'RGOTA {ergot, French, a spur, smut). Ergot; a parasitic fungus, 
consisting of "the sclerotiura (compact mycelium or spawn) ofClavi- 
ceps purpurea, Tulasne, produced within the palese of the common rye, 
Sccale ccreale."— Br. Ph., 1867. 

1. Ergottetia {ergot a, and air in, origin). The generic name given 
by Mr. Quekett to the ergot fungus, to which was added the specific 
appellation of abortifaciens, in allusion to its destroying the germinating 
power of the grain of grasseo. 

2. Ergotin. A peculiar principle discovered in ergot, by M. Bon- 
jeau, who formerly termed it hemostatic extract, from its beiug a real 
specific for haemorrhages in general. 

3. Ergotism. An epidemic occurring in. moist districts, as in that of 
8ologne, from the use of ergota, in rye-bread. Its forms are — the 
convulsive, a nervous disease, characterized by violent spasmodic con- 
vulsions; and the gangrenous, a depraved state of the constitution, 
terminating in dry gangrene, and known in Germany by the name of 
the creepin g sickness. 

ERIO'METER (cfuop, wool, ftirpov, a mca«ure). An instrument, 
invented bv Dr. Thomas Young, for measuring the diameter of minute 
fibres, as tho*e of wool. 

ERO'DENTS (erodere, to gnaw off). Substances which eat away, 
as it were, extraneous growths, as caustics. 

EROSION {erodere, to jrnaw off). Destruction by ulceration ; the 
name applied bv Galen to the phenomena of ulcerative absorption. 

EROTO-MANIA (ipwt, ipmrot, love, navia, madness). Insanity 
occasioned by excessive affection ; a form of partial moral mania, 
known as nymphomania in females, as satyriasis in males. 

214 £ R R-E R Y 

ERRATIC (erraticus, wandering, from errare, to wander). Wan- 
dering ; irregular; as applied to gout, erysipelas, gestation, aud several 
forms of pain. 

E'RR JUNES (lv, in, piv % the nose). Sternutatories. Medicines 
which, when applied to the nostrils, produce an increased discharge of 
nasal mucus, frequently attended by tneczing and an unusual secretion 
of tears. 

E'RROR LO'CI (error of place). A term formerly applied to 
certain derangements in the capillary circulation. Bocrhaavc con- 
ceived that the vessels were of different sizes for the circulation of 
blood, lymph, aud serum ; and that, when the larger-sized globules 
passed into the smaller vessels by an error loci, an obstruction took 
place which gave rise to the phenomena of inflammation. 

ERUCTATION (eructare, to belch forth). Flatulency, with 
frequent rejection upwards, — as from a volcano. Ructamen has the 
same meaning. Cicero says, " Cui ructarc turpc esset, is vomuit." 

ERU'PTION (erumpere^ to break out). A breaking out ; a term 
applied to acute cutaneous diseases. Eruvtive fevers are continued 
fevers, with an eruption superadded, as small-pox, measles, &c. 

ER VALE'NTA. A substance consisting of the farina or meal of the 
Ervum lens, or common lentil. See R evident a. 

ERY'NGO. The candied root of the En/ngium campestre, reckoned 
by Boeihoavc as the first of aperient diuretic roots. 

ERYSl'PELAS (if>v<nir«\a«, from f^vtfpov, red, irtWa, skin). 
Emphlysis erysipelas. " Inflammation of the integument, tending to 
spread indefinitely."— Nom. of Dis. An acute specific disease 
characterized by fever of a low type and a peculiar inflammation of tho 
tkin. It was called by the Latins Ignis sacer ; more recently, St. 
Anthoriy's fire, either from its burning heat, or from the reputed power 
of St. Anthony to cure it; and tho Rose, from the colour of the skin. 
[The etymology given abovo is confirmed by the fact that iovtift- is 
actually changed into i/>t»<r- in other Greek compounds, as in ipvaiftti, 
red blight; and by the occurrence of the word airtXov (a, priv., and 
irAXa, pellis, skin), a wound not yet skinned over.] 

1. Varieties. — Erysipelas is termed simple or cutaneous, when it 
scarcely extends beyond the skin ; traumaticum, when it is the result 
of a wound or other injury; erraticum, when it is diffusive; metastati- 
csfm, when it changes its seat; miliare* when vesicular; phlyctanodes, 
when attended by bulla?; o*dematod>s, when characterized by swelling; 
pMegmonodes, when marked by phlegmonous inflammation ; and ery- 
sipelas faciei, capitis, mammae umlrilicale, local sub-varieties of simple 
erysipelas. The last occurs in infants, and is then called erysipelas 
neonatorum. But these distinctions are generally unscientific and of 
no practical utility. 

2. Inflammatio diffusa memhrana cellulosa. " Inflammation of the 
cellular tissue, tending to spread indefinitely." — Num. of Dis. In 
slighter cases, occurring on the surface of the body, diffuse inflammation 
is identical with phlegmonous erysipelus. 

ERYTHE'M A (ipvtiima % redness of the skin). A non-contagious 
superficial inflammation of the skin, called " inflammatory blush/ It 
is termed fugax % when of a fleeting, evanescent character ; circinatum t 
when marked by annular patches; marginatum, "when the margins of tho 
circles arc well defined ; tare, when the inflamed surface is smooth and 

E R Y— E S S 215 

swollen ; intertrigo, when the inflammation is caused by chafing of sur- 
faces ; papulatum, when accompanied by papulae or pimples; tuberosum, 
when distinguished by its circular patches; and nodosum, when oc- 
curring in oval patches. These are all acute varieties; the chronic 
varieties are explained under Pityriasis. 

1. Erythema folliculorwn. Inflammation of the hair-follicles, as 
indicated by an erythematous blush of redness of the skin, dryness, and 
the production of furfuraceous scales. 

2. Erythematous eruptions. A group of eruptions, corresponding 
with the Exanthemata of Willau. 

ERY'THROGEN {ipvBpot, red, viinrdw, to produce). A green- 
coloured substance found in the gall-bladder, in a case of jaundice. 

ERYTHROID (ipvOpos, red, «Wo«, likeness). Red-like; a term 
applied to the cremasteric covering of the spermatic cord and testis. 

titmin and spaniolitmin, are the four colouring principles obtained from, 
litmus. These, in their natural condition, are red, and the blue of 
litmus is produced by combination with a base. 

ERYTHROPHYLL {ipvdpo*, red, <pv\\ou, a leaf). The red 
colouring matter of fruits and leaves which appears in autumn. 

ERYTHRO'SIS (<pv0po'?, red). Plethora artenosa. A form of 
plethora, in which the blood is rich in fibrin and in bright red pigment; 
a state corresponding in some measure with what has been termed the 
arterial constitution. 

E'SCHARA («<rx a P a » tne hearth; the scab or eschar on a wound 
canted by burning). An eschar; a dry slough ; a gangrenous portion, 
which has separated from the healthy substance of the body. 

Eseharotics. Caustics ; substances which form an eschar, or slough, 
when applied to the skin. See Caustic. 

E'SCULENT (esculentus, eatable ; esca, food ; escare and edere, to 
cat). A term applied to anything that is fit for eating. Cicero speaks 
otesculenta and poculenta, eatables and drinkables. 

E'SCULIN. Polychrome. An alkaloid obtained from the bark of 
the AZsemlus Hippocastanum, or horse-chestnut. It is remarkable for 
\\M fluorescence. 

E'SEKINE. The active principle of the Physostigma venenosum, or 
Calabar bean ; called also phrsostigmine and calabarine. 

ESO-ENTERITIS (*>«,' within, and enteritis). Inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the intestines. 

ESO-GASTRI'TIS (taw, within, and ydarptTi^ inflammation of 
the stomach). Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach. 

E'8PN0IC MEDICINE (te or tl«, into, wyori, a blast, a vapour). 
A term sometimes used synonymously with iuiruleiptic method and 
epidermic method, denoting treatment of disease by the use of friction 
and ointments. 

ESSE'NTIA (es, root of Sum; oturia, being). The being or es- 
sence of anything. The term is very vaguely used, being sometimes 
applied to volatile oil, sometimes to fluid extract, at other times to 
strong solution, to concentrated preparation, to decoction, &c. "The 
word essence scarcely underwent a more complete transformation when, 
from beine the abstract of the verb * to be, it came to denote some- 
thing sufficiently concrete to be enclosed in a glass bottle."—*/. S, 

216 E S 8— E U C 

ESSENTIAL OILS. Oils obtained by distillation from odoriferous 
vegetable substances. They are alto called volatile oils, to distinguish 
them from the non-volatile or fixed oils. 

ESTHIO'MENON (Icdiontvo*, part met]. ofivBLu,, to eat). Eat- 
ing ; hence, an eating sore, as lupus exedens, or " herpes esthiomenos." 
Hippocrates has IXxta iodto/itva, of caustics, &c. 

ESTIVATION (astivus, belonging to summer). Prajtoration. A 
term applied, in botany, to the disposition of the petals in the unopened 
flower-bud. See Vernation, 

ETjERI'O (iratpcta, an association). A term applied by Mirhel 
to an aggregate fruit, the parts of which are achenia, as in ranunculus, 
or minute drupes, as in raspberry. 

ETHAL. A peculiar oily substance, obtained from spermaceti ; 
also termed hydrate of oxide of cctyl and cetylic alcohol. This term is 
formed of the first syllables of ether and alcofiol. 

ETHER (aiaiip, ether). Ethyl oxide. A liquid produced by tho 
decomposition of alcohol by an acid. See jEther. 

ETHEREAL OIL. The Oleum Vint, found in the residuum of 
sulphuric ether, and forming the basis of Hoffmann's anodyne liquor. 

ETHE'REAL SALTS. These organic bodies, called also ethers 
and compound ethers, differ from the true ethers, inasmuch as one of 
the radicals replacing hydrogen is a negative radical. 

ETHERIZATION. 1. The production of anesthesia by the 
administration of ether. 2. The state of the system when under the 
influence of ether. 

ETHMOID (h%t*b\ % a sieve, tlooc, likeness). Cribriform, or sietv- 
like ; a term applied to a bone of the nose, perforated for tho trans- 
mission of the olfactory nerves. The ethmoid crest, or crista galli, is 
a sharp process of the ethmoid bone. 

ETHMOID A'LIS SUTU'RA (see Ethmoid). The designation of 
a suture belonging to or connected with the ethmoides os, or sieve-liko 
bone. Compare Lamltdoiduiis. 

ETHNO'LOGY (idvot, a race, \6yoi, an account). The science 
** which determines the distinctive characters of the persistent modifica- 
tions of mankind, their distribution, nnd the causes of their modifica- 
tions and distribution." The term is carelessly used as synonymous 
with ethnography ; correct writers, however, denote by the latter term 
the strictly descriptive part of the subject, by the former the philosophy 
of it See A nthropology. 

ETHYL (al0>jo, ether. v\n, matter). The organic radical of the 
alcohol series of compounds. It is a colourless gas, consisting of carbon 
and hydrogen. 1. Ethylic alcohol, or hydra ted oxide of ethyl, is the 
common alcohol of wines and spirits. 2. Ethylene is a common gaseous 
product of destructive distillation and of the illuminating constituents 
of coal-gas. 3. By the term ethylates of sodium and potassium, some 
chemists denote the sodium and potassium alcohols. 

ETIOLATION. The process of blanching plants, as celery, kale, 
Ac., by sheltering them from the action of light. The natural colour 
of the plants is thus prevented from being formed. 

ElTCHLORINE (iu, brilliant, x*«P««« greenish-yellow). Pro- 
toxide of chlorine; a deep yellow, dangerously explosive gas, consisting 
of a mixture of chlorine with one of its oxides. 
EU'CHROIA {tOxpoia). Goodness of complexion, healthy look; 

E U C-E V A 217 

a term opposed to &xP° la * «0&rota, or want of colour, and oWxpota, 
dyschroia, or had new of colour. 

EUCRA'SIS (litKpaaia, good temperature). A good mixture or 
blending of qualities, inducing a healthy habit of body. See 

EUDIO'METER («uo7a, ralm weather, nirpov, a measure). An 
instrument for analyzing atmospheric air, and mixtures that contain 
oxygen or hydrogen, or other gases that are decomposed by combustion 
with either of these, and for explaining the composition of water. See 
Analysis, gasomeirie. 

EUPE ; PSIA (#5, well, *t>T», to digest). Good digestion; a 
healthy state of the digestive organs. See Dyspepsia. 

EUPHO'RBIUM. A concrete resinous juice supposed to be yielded 
by the Euphorbia Canariensis, a native plant of the Canaries, &c. It 
is improperly called a gum or gum-resin, as it is entirely destitute of 
gum in its composition. 

EUPHO'RI A (tu<popia, the power of bearing easily). This term is 
used by Hippocrates, to denote the power of bearing pain or anxiety 
easily. See Dysphoria. 

EUTION (i v, well, wt»i>, fat). A colourless liquid, obtained by 
distillation from vegetable tar, especially from that of beech-wood, and 
named from its great limpidity. It is a constituent of petroleum. 

EUPLA'STIC (<v, well, vXaati, formation). A term applied by 
Lobstein to the elaborated organizable matter, by which the tissues of 
the body are renewed, or the analogous tissues of English authors. The 
same writer speaks of another animal matter, the tendency of which is 
to softening and disorganization ; this he terms kako-plasttc. 

EU'RHYTIIM (cvputf/uia, good rhyme, time, or proportion). Good 
rhythm or regularity, as of the pulse. Hippocrates has tvpv&fiia 
Xcipwr, delicacy of touch in a surgeon, a Greek phrase corresponding 
with the tortus eruditus of the Latins. 

EUSTACHIAN TUBE. The Iter a potato ad aurem ; a canal 
which extends from the tympanum to the pharynx, called after Eusta- 
chius, its discoverer. According to Mr. Toy n bee, the orifice of tho 
canal is always closed, except during the act of swallowing. 

1. Musculus tubal Eustachian^ nanus. The circumflexui palati 
muscle, named from its arising in part from the Eustachian tube. 

2. Eustachian Valve. A fold or the lining membrane of the auricle, 
which in the foetus is supposed to conduct the blood in its two different 

EUSTRO'NGYLUS GIGAS. A coelelminthous parasitic worm, 
infesting the kidney and intestines of man. 

EU'TROPHY {ti>rpo<pla, good nurture). Healthy nutrition; 
health v action of the organs of nutrition. 

EUXA'NTHIC ACID (.D, well, £a»0ov, yellow). Purrtic acid. 
An acid procured from the purrie or Indian yellow of commerce. 

EVA'CUANTS (evacuarc, to empty). Medicines which increase 
the secretion or evacuation from different organs. By different writers 
they have been referred to the heads of eccritica eliminantia^ local 
stimulants, special stimulants, &r. Some of the milder evacuants are 
called alteratives, or purifiers of the blood. 

EVAPORATION. The production of vapour at common or 
moderate temperatures. Spontaneous Evaporation is the production of 

218 EVE-EX A 

vapour by tome natural agency, without the direct application of heat, 
ai on the surface of the earth or ocean. 

EVENTRATION (e, out of, venter, the belly). 1. A tumor con- 
taining a large portion of the abdominal viscera, and occasioned by 
relaxation of the walls of the abdomen. 2. A wound, of large extent, 
in the abdomen, through which the greater part of the intestines pro- 

EVENTUALITY. A term in phrenology indicative of the faculty 
which observes phenomena, occurrences, and events, and is devoted to 
history and natural knowledge. " Individuality takes cognizance of 
things which are, the names of which are nouns; and Eventuality, of 
things which happen, the names of which are verbs/ 1 Its organ is 
situated in the middle of the forehead, and, when much developed, 
imparts a peculiar prominence to this part of the skull. 

EVOLUTION (evolvere, to roll out). A term applied to a theory 
of non-sexual generation, according to which the first created embryos 
of each species must contain within themselves, as it were in miniature, 
all the individuals of that species which shall ever exist ; and must 
contain them so arranged, that each generation should include not only 
the next, but, encased within it, all succeeding generations. Hence 
this theory has also received the name of the emboitement theory. 
Compare Epigenesis. 

1. Evolution, spontaneous. A term applied by Dr. Denman to 
natural delivery, in cares in which the shoulder is so far advanced into 
the pelvis, as to preclude the possibility of relief by operation. 

2. Evolution of Species. A doctrine propounded by Mr. Charles 
Darwin, and explained under the term Darwinian Hypothesis, 

BVU'LSIO {evtdsio, a pulling out). A term used in surgical opera- 
tions in the same sense as det radio ; thus, in removing calculi, erulsio 
fnurmentorum is extraction of fragments. Cicero has evulsio dent is. 

EXACERBATION (exacerbare, to make very sharp,to exasperate). 
A term applied to the return of the hot fit in intermitting fever, when 
the interval has been a remission only, instead of a perfect intermission. 
Dr. Good uses the term to signify the paroxysm of a disease whose 
intervals are merely imperfect. 

EXjE'RESIS (fgaipiw, to remove). One of the old divisions of 
surgery, implying the removal of parts. 

of the action of organs, especially in cases of inflammation. 

EXANGI'A (i£, out, AyytZov, a vessel). A term sometimes 
applied to diseases in which the large vessels are iuptured or unnaturally 

EXA'NIA (ex, and anus). Archoptosis. A prolapsus, or falling 
down of the anus. 

EXANTHE'MA (J£d»6wia, an efflorescence, eruption). Efflo- 
rescence ; an eruptive disease ; a term formerly equivalent to erujrtions 
generally, but now limited to rasftes, or u superficial red patches, irre- 
gularly diffused, and terminating in cuticular exfoliations/ 1 Under 
the term Exanthemata, Bateman comprehends rubeola, scarlatina, 
roseola, urticaria, purpura, and erythema. 

EXANTHE'SIS (f£a*0i|«rt*, an efflorescence, eruption). A super- 
ficial or cutaneous efflorescence, as rose-rash; it is opposed to en- 
anthesis, or efflorescence springing from within. Thus, Mason Good 

E X A-E X C 219 

employs Exanikens as a generic term for Roseola., and Enanthesis for 

Exanihesis and Exanthema. These terms are similarly rendered, in 
Liddell and Scott, "an efflorescence, eruption," and are used by 
Hippocrates, probably without distinctive meanings. If the former 
term is not wanted, let it be discontinued; but if retained, a distinction 
should be observed. See Preface, par. 2. 

EXARTICULATION (ex, out, articultu, a joint). The removal 
of a limb at the Joint. 

EXCl'PIENT (excipere, to take up). A medicinal substance em- 
ployed to give a convenient or agreeable form, or to impart a particular 
character, to the ingredients of a prescription. 

EXCISION (excisio, a cutting out, from exddere, to cut out by the 
roots). Total extirpation of an articulation, or the entire removal of 
all the bones which form a joint, with as much as possible of the capsular 

EXCITABI'LITY. Sensibility of organized beings to the action 
of stimulants or excitants ; irritability. 

E'XCITANTS (excitare, to stimulate). Stimulants; mediciues 
which excite nervous power. These are termed general, when they 
excite the system, as spirit; and particular, when they excite an organ, 
as in the action of diuretics on the kidneys. 

E'XCITO-MOTORY. A designation of that function of the ner- 
vous system, discovered by Marshall Hall, by which an impression is 
transmitted to the central nervous organ by the afferent or sensory 
nerves, and reflected along the efferent or motor nerves, so as to produce 
contraction of a muscle, without sensation or volition. This has also 
been termed the Reflex Function, and, more recently, the Diastolic 
Nervous System. 

EXCORIATION (excoriare, to take off the skin). The act of 
flaying. Abrasion of tho epithelium or epidermis. 

E'aCREMENT (excernere, to separate from). Matter excreted, at 
the alvine feces. Excremcntitious fluids are the urine, the catamenial 
discharge, Ac. 

Excreta animalia. Animal excretions. But the term is applied to 
certain excretions used in medicine as stimulants, as musk, casto- 
reum, &c. 

EXCREMENTITIOUS FLUIDS (excemcre, to separate from). 
Those secreted fluids which are expelled from the body, as the urine, 
the catamenial discharge, &c. 

EXCRESCENCE (exerescere, to grow from). A term applied to a 
preternatural growth, as a wart, a wen, &c. 

EXCRETIN. A new organic substance procured from the excre- 
ments of man and the lower animals in the healthy condition. It pos- 
sesses an alkaline reaction. Excretolic acid is an acid, olive-coloured 
substance, of a fatty nature, obtained from the same source. 

EXCRETION (excemcre, to separate from). The/unction of dis- 
charging the waste products of the body by means of the excretory 
organ*, viz., the skin, the lungs, and the kidneys. The discharged 
matter is properly termed excrttum. 

EXCRETORY DUCT (excemcre, to separate from). The duct 
which proceeds from a gland, as the parotid, hepatic, &c, and transmits 
outwards, or into particular reservoirs, the fluid secreted by it 

290 EX E-E X O 

EXENKE'PH ALON (i£, out, JyttyoAov, the brain). Protrusion 
of the brain ; cerebral hernia. 

EXFCETATION («*, outward, and foetus). Extra-uterine feta- 
tion, or imperfect floatation in some organ exterior to the uterus. See 

fiXFOLIA'TION (ex/hliare, to cast the leaf). Necrosis and separa- 
tion of a thin mpcrficial layer of bone, which is not encased in any 
shell of new bone ; the shedding, as it were, of a leaf of bone. See 

EXHALATION (erhaiare, to exhale). Effluvia. The vapours 
which arise from animal and vegetable bodies, marshes, the earth, &c. 
Vapor is said of aqueous particles only, rarefied ; exhalation of any kind 
of subtle emanations. 

EXINAN1T10 VI'RIUM (exinanire, to empty, or make empty). 
Literally, an emptying or evacuation of strength. Muscular exhaustion. 
Taylor speaks of " fastings to the exinanition of spirits." There is a 
difference between exhaustion and exinanition : a drunkard exhaurit 
poculs, a thief exinanit crumenat. 

E'XO- (•£», outward). A Greek preposition, signifying outward. 

1. Exo-gastritis {yaimjp, the stomach). Inflammation of the outer 
coats of the stomach. See Endo-gastritis. 

2. Exo-gen (yivvaw, to produce). A plant whose stem grows by 
external increase, and which exhibits, on a transverse section, a series 
of concentric circles or zones. The name of one of the primary 
divisions of the vegetable kingdom. Compare Endogen. 

3. Exo-aenous (yiVoftat, to be produced). A term applied by Prof. 
Owen to those parts of a vertebra which grow out from parts previously 
ossified. These are the " processes, 11 as distinguished from the (i ele- 
ments," which are autogenous. 

4. Exo-rrhizous (pi&t, a root). A term expressive of the mode of 
germination in Exogens, in which the radicle appears at once on the 
surface of the radicular extremity, and consequently has no sheath at 
its base. See Endorrhixous. 

5. Exo-stome (ar6fin y the mouth). The orifice of the outer integu- 
ment of the ovule in plants. 

6. Exo-theeium (tfff«tf , a case). The name given by Purkinjie to the 
outer coat of the anther. 

EXOCCPPITAL BONE. In anthropotomy, the condyloid process 
of the occipital bone; its homologue in the archetypal skeleton is called 
the "neurapophvsis." See Vertebra. 

EXCMPH ALOS (<g, out, outfiaAo*, umbilicus). Umbilical hernia. 
Hernia at, or near, the umbilicus. 

EXOPHTHA'LMIA (i£, out, 6<pda\n6*, the eve). Ophthalmoptosis. 
Proptosis bulbi oeuli. A swelling of the bulb of the eye ; protrusion of 
the globe from between the lids, so that the lids cannot cover it. 
BlBR proposes to call the affection cxophihalmus, when the protruded 
eye is in its natural state ; exophthalmia, when it is inflamed ; and 
ophthalmoptosis, when the displacement is caused by division of tho 
nerves and muscles of the orbit, or by paralysis of the latter. See 
Bronehocele exophthalmica. 

Exophthalmic goitre. Protrusion of the eye-ball, or proptosis oculi, 
accompanied with goitre. 

EXO'RMIA (ifop/utj, a going out). A terra used by the Greeks 

E X O— E X S 221 

■i synonymous with ekthyma, or papulous tkin. It was adopted by 
Mason Good as a generic designation of the three affections, lichen, 
strophulus, and prurigo, and corresponds with the order Papula of 

EXOSMO'SE (*'£, out, axr/uos, impulsion). The property by which 
rarer fluids are attracted through a porous diaphragm, out of a cavity 
into a denser fluid — * dehors impulsion. 1 See Endosmose. 

EXOSTOSIS (t£do"r«0<rtf, a tumor of a bone). Tumor osseus. 
This term, though applied to all tumors of bone, osseous or not, denotes 
•imply a tumor formed by irregular hypertrophy of bone. The varieties 
are the trory, the cancellated, and the diffused. 

EXPANSIBILITY. Expansile power. These terms are employed 
by physiologists to denote a vital property more or less observable in 
several organs, as the penis, the nipple, the heart, the uterus, the retina, 
perhaps even the cellular substance of the brain. 

EXPECTATION OF LIFE. By this term is meant the mean 
number of years which, at any given age, the members of a community, 
taken one with another, may expect to live. An easy rule has been 
established for determining this value: — The expectation of life is 
equal to two-thirds of the difference between the see of the individual 
and 80. Thus, a man is 20 vears old ; 6*0 is the difference between this 
ape and 80 ; two-thirds of 66 is 40, and this is the sum of his expecta- 
tion. By the same rule, a man of 60 will have a lien on life for nearly 
14 years ; a child of 5 for 50 years. — Wiilich. 

EXPECTORANTS {ex peciore, from the chest). Medicines for 
promoting the discharge of mucus or other matters from the trachea 
and its branches. Vapours are the only direct expectorants. 

EXPECTORATION (expectorc, from the chest). The act of dis- 
charging any matters from the chest, through the air-lubes. The 
matters so expectorated are termed sputa. 

EXPLORATION (explorare, to examine). Examination of the 
abdomen, chest, &c., with a view to ascertain the physical signs of 
disease, in contradistinction to those signs which are termed sym- 

EXPLO'SION (explosio, from exploders, also explaudere, to drive 
out or off by clapping ; orig. of a player, to hoot off). See Combustion 
and Explosion. 

EXSANGITNITY (rx, out, sanguis, blood). Anhamia. A state 
of bloodlessness. 

EXSICCATION (exsiccare, to dry up). A variety of evaporation, 
producing the expulsion of moisture from solid bodies by heat ; it is 
generally employed for depriving salts of their water of crystallization. 

EXSPIRATION (exspirare, to breathe). That part of respiration 
in which the air is expelled from the lungs. Exspirare (sub. animam), 
to breathe one's last, to expire. Compare Inspiration. 

EXST1RPATION (exstirpare, to eradicate, from stirps, a root). 
The entire removal of any part by the knife, or ligature. 

EXSUDATA {exsudata, from exsudare, to come out by sweating). 
Exudative diseases; diseases which come out by sweating; a general 
term for numerous skin- diseases. 

EXSUDATION. Transpiration. The flow of liquid from the 
surface of the skin or membiane, an ulcer, &c. The term is applied 
to he " inflammatory lymph/* or "coagulable lymph," which is 

222 EXT 

exuded from the blood-vessels during inflammation. See Kako- 

1. Exsudation-cclls. The nam© given to certain corpuscles found, 
under the microscope, in the lymph or exudation resulting from in- 
flammation. See Pus-cells. 

2. Exsudationes cutanea. The designation of Hebra's fourth class of 
cutaneous diseases, comprising eruptions attended with exudation from 
the blood-vessels, an expression for inflammation and the production 
of inflammatory products. 

3. Exsudare, in a neuter sense, means to come out by sweating, to 
exude : " exsudat inutilis humor." — Virg. In an active sense, it meant 
to discharge by sweating, to sweat out : a tree is said succnm 

E'XTA, -orum. The entrails, aa the heart, lungs, and liver ; whereat 
viscera denotes also the stomach and lower intestines. It was from the 
exta of animals that the haruspices drew their divinations. 

EXTE'NSION (extender*, to stretch out). 1. This term denotes, 
in physics, the property of occupying a certain portion of space. 2. In 
surgery, it signifies the act of pulling the broken part of a limb in a 
direction from the trunk, in order to bring the ends of the bone into 
their natural situation. 8. In physiology, it denotes the straightening 
out of a limb, and is opposed to flexion. 

Counter-extension. The act of making extension in the opposite 
direction, in order to hinder the limb from being drawn along by the 
extending power. 

EXTE'NSOR (extender*, to stretch out). A muscle which extends 
any part It is opposed to flexor, or that which bends a part. 

EXTENUATIO (extenuate, to make thin). A thinning out; 
absorption, as of the alveoli of the teeth, &c. See Attenuatio. 

E'XTINE. The outer membrane of the pollen-frrain in plants. The 
membrane situated between the extine and the inttno is called exintine. 
See Inline. 

EXTRA-U'TERINE GESTATION. Partus extra uterum gestatus. 
A term applied to those cases of pregnancy in which the foetus is con- 
tained in some organ exterior to toe uterus. See Gestation. 

EXTR A'CTION (extrahere, to draw out). Au operation for cataract, 
consisting in the removal of the opaque lens, by division of the cornea 
and laceration of the capsule. Linear extraction consists in removing 
the lens through a small opening in the cornea. 

EXTRACTIVE PRINCIPLES. The general designation of a 
variety of compounds, most of which crystallize and have a bitter taste, 
but are neutral, and cannot yet be referred to any particular series of 
compounds. They comprise all the non-azotized vegetable com- 

EXTRA'CTUM (extrahere, to draw out). An extract ; a prepara- 
tion obtained by the evaporation of a vegetable or animal solution, or 
a native vegetable juice, in alcohol or water. Its basis is termed extrac- 
tive, or extractive principle. 

EXTRAVASATION (extra, out of, vas, a vessel). The passage 
of fluids out of their proper vessels, and their infiltration into the sur- 
rounding tissues. Tne term is nearly synonymous with effusion, but 
is less comprehensive, not including the cases of fluids poured out by 
secretion, or any of the products of inflammation. 

E X T— F AC 223 

B'XTRORSE (quasi extra versus). Turned outwards; turned away 
from the axis to which it belongs ; a term applied to the anther of cer- 
tain plants. See Introrse. 

EXTROVE'RSION (extra, without, vertio, a turning). An abnor- 
mal position, in an outward direction, of a viscus or other part of the 

EYE Oculus. The organ of vision, consisting of three tunics, viz. 
the sclerotic and cornea, the choroid, iris, and ciliary processes, and the 
retina and zonula ciliaris; and of three humors, the aqueous, the 
crystalline (lens), and the ritreous. 

EYE, ARTIFICIAL. A thin scale of enamel, coloured to imitate 
the natural eye. It is vulgarly called " eye-limpet. 1 * 


F, or FT. Abbreviations of fiat or fiant, let it, or them, be made ; 
used in prescriptions. 

FABA SANCTI IGNATIL St. Ignatius 1 * Bean ; the seed of the 
Strychnos Ignatii, a Loganiaceous plant, growing in the Philippine 
Islands, and containing strychnia. 

FACE- AG U E. Tic douloureux. A form of neuralgia, which occurs, 
at intervals, in the nerves of the face. 

FA'CET (/acetic, a little face). A small plane surface ; a term 
applied to an articular cavity of a bone, when nearly plane. 

FACIENT (Jadens t making). A suffix, denoting the cause of some 
effect, as of heat in cs\e-/arient, redness in rube-facient, &c. 

FA'CIES (facere, to make). A term primarily denoting, according 
to its etymology, the make, form, figure, or shape ; but applied, in a 
restricted sense, to the /ace, including the nose, mouth, eyes, and cheeks 
— the lower and anterior part of the head. Fades is thus distinguished 
from vuUus, which relates to the look, the countenance, and indicates 
the sentiment of the mind ; and from front, which is limited to the 
forehead, the part of the head which extends from the root of the hair 
to the eye-brows. 

1. Fades Hippocratica. The peculiar cadaverous appearance of the 
face immediately before death, described by Hippocrates. 

2. Fades rubra. The red face ; another name for the gutta rosacea, 
rosy drop or carbuncled face. See Acne. 

3. Facial angle. An angle composed of two lines, one drawn hori- 
zontally in the direction of the basis of the skull, from the ear to tho 
roots of the upper incisor teeth, and the other from the latter point to 
the most projecting part of the forehead. This angle was invented by 
Peter Camoer to measure the elevation of the forehead. 

' 4. Facial nerve. The Purtio dura, or Seventh Pair of Soemmering. 
The motor nerve of the face. 

5. Facial vein. A vein which commences at the summit of the head 
and forehead, and passes, together with the facial artery, under the 
angle of the jaw. 

224 PAC-PAL 

6. Face grippke. The pinched-in face ; • peculiar expreision of fea- 
tures in peritonitis. See Physiognomy. 

FACTITIOUS (faditius, made by art, from /adit are, freq. of 

factor*, to make). Made by art. as factitious cinnabar, in distinction 

from the natural production. This terra is also applied to diseases 

which are produced wholly or in part by the patient ; and to xcaiert 

prepared in imitation of natural wateis, as those of Brighton. 

FA'CULT Y, MEDICAL. The term Faculty, derived UomfacuUas, 
denotes capability, innate or acquired. It was afterwards applied to a 
privilege or licence to exercise certain functions. Subsequently, it 
served to designate a body of men upon whom such privilege or licence 
was conferred. Hence, the term " Medical Faculty " denotes the 
members of the medical profession, not the profession itself; an abstract 
term employed for a concrete. 

FJEX, F^CIS. Grounds, sediment, lees, dregs of liquids, dregs of 
the people. " We meet with faces vim, fasces aceti, &c, in classical 
authors, but nowhere faces homint's. The word in this sense is alto- 
gether unnecessary and improper/ 1 — Hor. Subseciva. 

Fax sacchari. Treacle ; the viscid, uncrystallizable syrup which 
drains from refined sugar in the sugar-moulds. 

FAINTS. The weak spirituous liquor which runs off from the still, 
after the proof spirit has been reinovea. See Fax. 

FA'LCIFORM (Jalx, folds, a scythe, forma, likeness). Drepa- 
noides. Scythe-like ; a term applied to a process of the dura mater, and 
to the iliac process of the fascia lata. 

FALLING SICKNESS. Caducus morbus. Epilepsy; an affection 
in which the patient suddeuly falls senseless to the ground. 

FALLOT! AN TUBES. Two trttmpet-MVe ducts, about three 
inches in length, arising from the sides of the fundus uteri, and extend- 
ing to the ovaria ; so called from Gabriel Fallopius, the anatomist, who 
first accurately described them. The commencement of each is termed 
ostium uterinum ; the termination, ostium abdominale ; the fimbriated 
extremity, morsus diaboli ! 

FALSE CONCEPTION. Abnormal conception, in which, instead 
of a well-organized embryo, a mole or some analogous production is 
formed in the uterus. 

FALSE JOINT. In fracture of the articular end of long bones, 
the plastic matter which is thrown out developcs into fibrous tissue 
only, without undergoing osseous transformation. A false joint is then 
formed, the ends of the bone being covered with synovial membrane 
and surrounded with a ligamentous capsule. 

FALSE MEASLES. Cutaneous blush ; Rose-rash. Popular terms 
for Roseola infantilis and astiva, from the resemblance of these affections 
to Rubeola or Measles. 

FALSE MEMBRANE. The coagulation of a highly tenacious se- 
cretion poured out on membranes of free surface. This is caused by 
inflammation, as in pleurisy, in peritonitis, in croup, &c. 

FALSE WATERS. Fausses eaux. A term applied by the French 
to a serous fluid which accumulates between the chorion and the 
amnios, and is discharged at certain periods of pregnancy. This must 
be distinguished from the liquor amnii, which they term simply the 

FALSIFICATION. A term synonymous with adulteration and 

F A L— F A S 225 

sophistication, in reference to the frauds practiced in preparing articles 
of food and of medicine. 

FALX, FALCIS. A scythe, sickle, or reapiug-hook. A scythe- 
or sickle-like process of a membrane of the brain. 

1. Falx cerebri, or fait major. The sickle-WVe process or lamina of 
the dura mater, situated between the lobes of the cerebrum. 

2. Falx cerebelli, or /ale minor. The small sickle-Wke process of the 
dura mater, situated between the lobes of the cerebellum. 

FAMES. Famine, hunger, starvation. Hence the terms eura 
/sums, or abstinence from food, and fames canina, voracious or canine 
appetite. See Bulimia. 

FAMILY OF PLANTS. A group of plants, also called Natural 
Order, comprising genera which are connected together by common 
characters of structure. The term is, however, differently used by 
different writers. 

FAMINE-FEVER. A designation of relapsing fever, excited, in 
certain cases, by a specific poison generated in the system when subject 
to a state of starvation. See Relapsing Fever. 

FARADIZATION. A mode of applying electricity in the treat- 
ment of disease, by means of an apparatus called Volta-Faradaic, the 
object being to bring the muscles, by means of the Faradaic cm rent 
(induced electricity), into full and energetic contraction. The reaction 
of the muscles against the current is termed their electro-mot ility. 

FARCl'MEN (Jarcimenj a sausage, from farcire, to stuff). The 
name given by Sauvages to the eaume species of scrofula, commonly 
called farcy. The porcine species he denominated chalasis. 

F ARC^MINUM (farciminum, farcy, from farcire* to stuff or cram). 
Farcy. " An inflammatory affection of the skin and of the absorbent 
system, produced by the contagion of matter from a horse having 
glanders or f*Kj" — Nom. of Dis. 

The term Farcinoma is an unclassical combination of the Latin 
farcin-are, to stuff or cram, and the Greek suffix -ma. The terui/arct- 
minum, from farcire, to stuff, is found in our best dictionaries, and its 
derivatives appear in the Italian farcino, and the French farcin. 

FARI'NA (far,farris, a sort of grain; spelt). Ground corn, meal, 
flour. Hence the term farinaceous is applied to the cerealia, legumes, 
Ac., which contain farina. The pollen of plants is sometimes termed 
farina. See Amylum. 

Farina tritici. The grain of wheat, Triticum vulgare, ground and 
sifted; used in preparing cataplasma fermenti. — Br. Ph. 

FAR-SIGHTEDNESS. Visus senilis. The capacity of seeing 
remote, but not near, objects distinctly ; an affection occurring in in- 
complete amaurosis. See Prcs'tyupia. 

FA'SCIA. The Latin term for a scarf or bandage; applied, in 
anatomy, to a lamina of variable extent and thickness, employed for 
investing or protecting the soft and delicate organs of the body. The 
areolo-fibrous fascia consists of areolar and elastic tissue, and is well 
illustrated by the superficial fascia, or common subcutaneous invest- 
ment of the entire body. The apuneurotic faicia consists of tendinous 
fibres, and constitutes the deep fascia in the limbs, enclosing and 
forming distinct sheaths to all the muscles and tendons. See Apo- 

FA'SCJCLE (fasciculus, a little bundle). A form of inflorescence 

226 F A S-F A V 

resembling a corymb, but having a centrifugal, instead of a centripetal, 
expansion of its flowers, as in ai an thus barbatus. It is a kind of com- 
pound corymb. 

FASCrCULUS (dim. of fascis, a bundle). A small bundle, as of 
muscular fibres, constituting a muscle; of nerve- fibres, constituting a 

FA'SCIOLA (dim. of fascina, a bundle of brushwood). A small 
bandage. Hence the term fasciolm cinerece, applied to toe gray sub- 
stance derived from the interior of the medulla, and spread out 
on the fasciculi teretes or innominali of the fourth ventricle of the 

FA'SCIOLA HEPATIC A. Distoma hepaticum. One of the 
Trematoda or flukes ; a sterelminthous parasite infesting the gall- 
bladder, and found in the vena porta. 

FATS. Oils which are solid at ordinary temperatures. Human 
fat consists of two proximate principles, elaine and stearin*, the former 
constituting the otly or liquid, the latter the fatty or solid substance. 
Fatty or unctuous bodies are divisible into — 

1. The Oils, which are liquid at the ordinary temperature, and are 
common to both the vegetable and the animal kingdom ; and 

2. The Fats, which are concrete at the ordinary temperature, and 
belong principally to the animal kingdom. The Croton Sebiferum is 
the only vegetable known which produces a real fat. See Oils. 

FATTY ACIDS. A group of acids extracted from fats and fixed 
oils in the process of saponification. The fatty acid series is a term 
synonymous with the acetic series of adds. 

FATTY DEGENERATION. Fatty metamorphosis. The desig- 
nation of a certain class of diseases which, during life, are marked by 
ansemia with great prostration ; and which, after death, are found to bo 
distinguished by the more or less perfect transformation into fat of 
various important textures, but especially of the muscular fibres of tho 
heart. — Tanner. 

FATTY GROWTH. A condition in which the fat normally 
deposited upon the heart is increased on and amongst the muscular 
fibres to a morbid extent 

FATUITY (fatuitas, foolishness, from fatuus, without savour ; 
figuratively, nonsensical). Foolishness, weakness of understanding, 
utter mental vacancy. Cibifatui, insipid food. 

FAUCES (plur. of faux). The throat, pharynx, or gullet; the 
space surrounded by the velum palati, the uvula, the tonsils, and tho 
posterior part of the tongue. The sides of the fauces are skirted by 
double muscular pillars, called pillars of the fauces. 

FAUNA (Fau*i, the supposed patrons of wild animals). A con- 
ventional term applied by naturalists to all the members of the animal 
kingdom occupying a particular district or at a particular time. Thus 
we speak of the British Fauna, the Terrestrial Fauna, the Marine 
Fauna, &c. See Flora. 

FAUX. The assumed singular nominative case of fauces, the 
throat, pharynx, or gullet The term faux is used, in botany, to denote 
the orifice or throat of the tube formed by the cohering petals of a 
gamopetalous corolla. 

FA'VOSE (Javus, a honeycomb). Honeycombed ; excavated like 
a honeycomb, as the receptacle of onopordum, the seeds of poppy, &c. 

F A V— F EC 227 

FATVVS (a honeycomb). Tinea favosa. Porrigo lupinosa. Crusted 
or honeycomb ringworm, in which the fungus grows into a mass re- 
sembling honeycomb ; a disease of the scalp, characterized by the pro- 
duction of yellow crusts, covered with epidermis. In /arms dispersus, 
the crusts are exactly circular in shape ; m/avus con/erlus, they are 
bounded by an outline representing numerous arcs of circles. See 

FAYNARD'S POWDER. A celebrated powder for stopping 
haemorrhage, said to have been nothing more than the charcoal of 
beech-wood, finely powdered. 

FEATHER- ALUM. A hydrous sulphate of alumina, not mixed 
with any other sulphate. It occurs more frequently than the true 
alums, which are double salts. 

FEATHER-ORE. A dark, lead-gray sulphuret of antimony and 
lead, occurring in fine capillary crystallizations like a cobweb. 

FEBRI'CULA (dim. o( febrts, fever). A slight fever. Simple 
fever, of not more than three or four days' duration ; often running its 
course in twenty-four hours. 

FE'BRIFUGE {febris, a fever, fugare, to dispel). A dispellcr of 
fever ; a remedy against fever. 

Febrifugum magnum. The name given by Dr. Hancocke to cold 
water as a drink in ardent fever. The same remedy has been termed 
artkritifugum magnum, from its supposed efficacy in gout. 

FE'BRIS (Jervere, or ferbere, to be hot). Pyrexia. Fever ; a 
class of diseases characterized by increased heat, &c. It is termed idio- 
pathic, i. e. of the general system, not dependent on local disease ; or 
symptomatic, or sympathetic — a secondary affection of the constitution, 
dependent on local disease, as the inflammatory. The hectic is a 
remote effect. Pinel distinguishes the following varieties : — 

1. The Angeiotenic (Ayyiiov, a vessel, none, to stretch), or in- 
flammatory fever, situated in the organs of circulation. 

2. The Meningo- gastric (nfjviy£i a membrane, yatrrnp, the bellv), 
or bilious fever, originating in the mucous membrane of the in- 

3. The Adeno-meningeal (aMv, a gland, fifj*ty£, a membrane), a form 
of gastric fever, depending on disease of the mucous follicles. 

4. The Ataxic (a, priv., *r4|ftf, order), or irregular fever, in which 
the brain and nervous system are chiefly affected. 

5. The Adynamic (a, priv., ouca/uc, power), or fever characterized 
by prostration or depression of the vital powers. 

FE'CUL A (/far, the grounds or settlement of any liquor). Facula. 
Originally, any substance derived by spontaneous subsidence from 
a liquid, as the lees of wine deposited in the form of a crust; the 
term was afterwards applied to starch, which was thus deposited by 
agitating the flour of wheat in water ; and, lastly, it denoted a pecu- 
liar vegetable principle, which, like starch, is insoluble in cold, but 
completely soluble in boiling water, with which it forma a gelatinous 

FECUNDATION (Jecundare, to make fruitful). Impregnation. 
The effect of the vivifying fluid of the male upon the germ or ovum of 
the female, which is then called the embryo. The term fecundus is 
probably dented from the old verb /wo for sum, and the common suffix 


228 F E I-F E R 

FEIGNED DISEA8ES. Morbi ficti, vel simulati. Alleged 
affections, which are either pretended or intentionally induced, as 
abdominal tumor, animala in the stomach, &c. The practice of 
feigning disease for the purpose of escaping conscription is tech- 
nically termed in the British navy skulking, and in the army 

FEL, FELLIS ; plural FELLA. Gall or bile ; a secretion found in 
the cystis fellea, or gall-bladder. The term is synonymous with the 
X©A»$, cWe\ of the Greeks. Fel hovinum purificatum is the purified 
ox-bile of the pharmacoDoeia. 

Felliflua passio. Gall-flux disease ; an old name for cholera. 

FELON. Paronychia. The name of malignant whitlow, in which 
the effusion presses on the periosteum. 

FELSPAR. A constituent of granite, used extensively in the 
manufacture of porcelain. See Kaolin. 

FELTING OF THE HAIR. Trichiasis coacta. A tangling or 
derangement of the hair, arising from neglect ; it is merely a state of 
excessive interlacement. 

FEMUR, FE'MORIS. Os/emoris. The thigh-bone, the longest, 
largest, and heaviest of all the bones of the body. 

1. Femoral. The name given — 1. to the external iliac artery, imme- 
diately after it has emerged from under the crural arch ; 2. to the crural 
rem, or continuation of the popliteal ; 3. to the arch, or space, included 
between Poupart's ligament and the border of the pelvis ; 4. to the 
canal, or sheath of tne femoral vessels ; and 5. to the ring, or superior 
opening of the space occurring between the vein and the inner wall of 
the sheath. See Hernia, femoral. 

2. Femorants. Another name for the entrants muscle — an extensor 
of the leg. 

FENESTRA. Literally, a window ; an entry into any place. 
Hence the term* fenestra oralis and rotunda are respectively synony- 
mous vrilh foramen ovale and rotvndttm, or the oval and the round aper- 
ture of the inner wall of the middle ear ; the former situated in the wall 
of the vestibular cavity, the latter forming the open end of the scala 
cochleae. The latter of these apertures, however, is not round, but 

** Fen -est ra, prob. connected either with root rf>ov ( <pa i vw), whence 
ipavtpov, or with the root ven in vent us, like the English word window/* 
—Smith's Dictionary. 

FENESTRATED MEMBRANE (fenestra, a window). A term 
applied to that form of the elastic tissue of the middle or contractile 
coat of the arteries, in which it presents a homogeneous membrane, the 
meshes of which appear as simple perforations. 

FENUGREEK. The vernacular name of the Trigonella fernum- 
Gracum, a Leguminous plant known to the Greeks under the name 
'Rdvaapov, and to the Latins as Fcenum Graecum or Greek hay. The 
«eeds were used as a medicine. 

FER BRAVAIS. Bravais* Dialysed Iron ; a pure neutral concen- 
trated solution of neroxide of iron in the colloid form, prepared by 
Raoul, Bravais, ana Co., of Asnieres. 

FERMENTA'TION (Jermentum, contr. from fcrvimentum, from 

fenoere, to boil). A term expressive of certain changes which take 

place in animal or vegetable substances, when reduced to the moist or 

FER 229 

liquid state by water, and supposed to depend upon the presence of 
minute organisms in the fermenting fluid, the source of all such or- 
ganisms being the atmosphere. See Yeast. 

1. Saccharine fermentation consists in the change of starch or fecula 
into sugar, which occurs in the ripening of fruit, in the process of 
germination, and in the operation of malting. 

2. Vinous fermentation consists in the production of alcohol and 
carbonic acid gas at the expense of sugar, as in the production of wine 
from the juice of the grape. To this head may be referred the penary 

fermentation, which takes place in the conversion of flour into 

3. Acetous fermentation consists in the conversion of alcohol into 
vinegar, as in that of wine into vinegar. 

4. Putrefactive fermentation consists in the evolution of ammonia 
during the putrefaction of animal substances. 

6. Viscous fermentation occurs in the process of brewing, when the 
sugar is transformed into a mucilaginous substance, and the beer 
becomes ropy. 

6. Spontaneous fermentation occurs in the fermentation of wine, in 
which the process of crushing the grapes impregnates the juice with so 
many germs that it is left to ferment without further treatment. 

FERMENTS DE M ALADIE. The name given by M. Pasteur to 
the organisms found in deteriorated beer. In putrid beer the organism 
is a vibrio ; in other cases the organisms present a more or less fila- 
mentary outline very different from the spherical granules of true beer 

FERME'NTUM (contr. from fervimentum, from fervere, to boil). 
A ferment; a substance which possesses the power of commencing 
fermentation, by raising and swelling the mass in which it is con- 
tained, as yeast. The ferments belong to the albuminous group, or such 
as contain much nitrogen in their composition, as gluten. 

Fermentum cervisia (cervisia or cerevisia, beer). Barm or yeast ; a 
ma»s of microscopic cryptogamic plants, consisting of minute nucleated 
cells ; the nuclei appear to consist of a mass of granules or nucleoli ; 
the latter are called bv Turpi n globuline. 

FERRICYA'NOGEN. Ferrvlcyanogen. The hypothetical radical 
of the ferrit yanides or ferridcyanides. It consists of two equivalents of 
ferrocyanogen and is tribasic. 

FERRO-CY'ANIC ACID. A compound of cyanogen, metallic 
iron, and hydrogen ; also called ferruretted chyazic actd. Its salts, 
formerly called triple Prussiates, are now termecf/fcrro-cyo/ta/M. 

FERROCYA'NOGEN. The hypothetical radical of the ferro- 
cyanide of potassium, or prussiate of potash. It is bi basic, combining 
with two equivalents of hydrogen or of metals. 

FERRO'SUM and FE'RRICUM. The former of these names hss 
been given by some chemists to the diatomic, the latter to the triatomic, 
iron existing in ferrous compounds. 1. The ferrous and the ferric 
sulphates are terms synonymous with the protosulphate and the per- 
sulphate, respectively ; ferroso-ferric sulphate being the name given bv 
Berzelius to a combination of the proto- and per-sulphates of iron. 2. 
The ferrous and ihe ferric oxides are terms often substituted for the 
protoxide and the sesquioxide of iron, respectively. 

FERRU'CO (ferrum, iron ; like arugo from as). The hydrated 


F E R— F I B 

•CMuioxide of iron; the best antidote in cases of poisoning by arsenious 
acia. The term ferruginous is applied to certain salts and mineral 
waters which contain iron ; also to a deep blue or green colour, and is 
then synonymous with carulean. 

FE RRUM. Iron; the Mars of the alchemists; a whitish gray 
metal, found native, extracted from iron ores, existing in vegetables, in 
the blood of animals, and in most mineral substances. 

1. Ferrum redadum. Ferri pulvis. Reduced iron. " Metallic 
iron, with a variable amount of magnetic oxide of iron." 

2. Ferri scobs. Steel-filings; a mechanical irritant. Sec Scobs. 

3. Ferric acid. An acid known only in combination with a base 
called ferrate .as that of potash, baryta, &c. 

FERTILIZATION {fertilis, from ferre, to bear). The function 
of the pollen of plants upon the pistil, by means of which the ovules are 
converted into seeds. 

Cross-fertilization. The process bv which a pistil is fertilized, not by 
pollen of its own, but by that of another, flower. 

FEUVOR (fervere, to boil). A violent and scorching heat Ardor 
denotes an excessive heat ; color, a moderate or natural heat Calor 
expresses less than fervor, and fervor less than ardor. 

FESTOONED RINGS. A popular designation of the fibrous 
zones or tendinous circles which surround the orifices of the heart 
Mr. Savory states that these rings are the result of the attachment of 
the bases of the valves to the arterial coat, and are formed by an inti- 
mate union of the fibrous tissue composing the valves with the elastic 
coat of the artery. 

FEU VOLAGE. Literally, flying fire ; the French term for the 
ssstus volaticus of the earlier writers, for the erythema volaticum of 
Sauvages, and for the strophulus volaticus of other writers. 

FEVER. An affection characterized by rigors, increased heat of the 
skin, ouick pulse, languor, and lassitude. The varieties of fever are 
defined, each under its respective designation. The following tabular 
arrangement is taken from Tanner's *' Index of Diseases :" — 

I. Continued Fkver. 

1. Simple Fever, or Febricula. 

2. Typhus Fever. 

8. Typhoid^ Enteric, or Pytho- 

genic Fever. 
4. Relapsing, or Famine Fever. 

II. Intermittent Fever, or 


III. Remittent Fever. 

1. Simple Remittent Fever. 

2. Yellow Fever. 

i IV. Eruptive Fevers. 

1. Small-pox or Variola, 

2. Cow-ttoje or Vaccinia. 

3. ChicKenpox or Varicella. 

4. Measles or Morbilli. 

5. Scarlet Fever or Scarlatina. 
6*. Frysijxlas. 

7. Plague. 

FEVER-POWDER, JAMES'S. Pulvis Jacobi verus. A popular 
medicine commonly called James* s Powder , and consisting of phosphate 
of lime and oxidized antimony. It is similar to the pulvis antimonii 
compositus of the pharmacopoeia, 

FI'BRjE AR01FORMES. Arciform fibres; nerve-fibres of tho 
medulla oblongata, which cross the corpus olivare obliquely — the 
** superficial cerebellar fibres" of Solly. 

F 1 B— P I C 231 

FIBRE (fibra, a filament, perhaps connected with fides, a string). 
A filament, or thread, of animal, vegetable, or mineral composition, as 
of muscle, of flax, of amianthus. 

1. Animal fibre. The filaments which compose the muscular fasciculi, 
&c. The epithets corneous and tendinous are sometimes added, to mark 
the distinction between fleshy and sinewy fasciculi. 

2. Woody fibre^ or lignin. The fibrous structure of vegetable sub- 
stances, one of the most elementary forms of vegetable tissue. 

FIBRIL. A small filament, or fibre, as the ultimate division of a 
nerve. The term is suggestive of a diminutive form of fibra. 

FI'BRIN {fibra, a fibre). A nitrogenous animal compound, closely 
allied to albumen, existing in ifiuid form in the blood, and occurring, 
in a slightly modified state, in muscle. Fibrin occurs also in plants ; 
when obtained from wheaten flour, it is called gluten. 

FlBRl'NOGEN (fibrin, and yivvaw, to produce). An unclasstcal 
term for a substance contained in the plasma of the blood and other 
fluids, resembling globulin, and contributing to the development of 

F1BRO-. This term, occurring in the compounds fihro-ccllular, 
fibro-eystie. &c, as descriptive of varieties of tumor, is explained under 
the term Tumor, fibrosus. 

FI'BRO-CARTILAGE. Membrani/orm cartilage. The substance, 
intermediate between proper cartilage and ligament, which constitutes 
the base of the ear, determining the form of that part, and composes 
the rings of the trachea, the epiglottis, &c. By the older anatomists it 
was termed ligamentous cartilage or cartilaginiform ligament. It ap- 
peal* to be merely ligament inciusted with gelatin. 

FI'BROID TtJMOK. A tumor in which the cell-elements have 
developed themselves into a coarse resemblance of fibres. The term 
recurrent, sometimes applied to this variety of tumor, is perhaps appli- 
cable to any other variety. 

FIBROIN. The name given by Mulder to the nitrogenous substance 
composing the fibre of silk. Sponge consists of a similar material. 

FIBRO'MA (fibra, a fibre). An unclassical term for a disease in 
which tubercles are formed by hypertrophy of the white fibrous tissue of 
the skin. Fibroma corii is synonymous with molluscum areolo-fUtrosum. 

FI'BULA. The Latin term for a clasp or pin, corresponding with 
the Greek irtp6v%), peroni, a bodkin. 1. It denotes, in anatomy, the 
small, slender bone of the leg, which swells out at both ends, by which 
it it firmly attached to the outer side of the tibia, or main bone of 
the leg. 2. The term fi/mla is also applied to a surgical instrument for 
drawing together the edges of a gaping wound (Celsus). 

Fibular aspect. An aspect towards the side on which the fibula is 
situated. The term fibulad is used, adverbially, to signify " towards 
the fibular aspect/' See page 32. 

FICU8. A fig-tree; the fruit of the fig-tree ; and, hence, a fig-Wke 
growth, characterized by a peduncle, and occurring on the chin (men- 
tagra) and other parts of the body. See Sycosis. 

1. Ficus, in pharmacy, is the dried fruit of Ficus Carica; imported 
from Smyrna. Used in pre|>aring Conf. Sennas — Br. Ph. 

2. Ficus unguium is a term applied to a disease of the nails, in which 
the epidermis of the margin of the nail-follicle recedes, and exposes the 
root of the nail. 

232 F I D— F I R 

FIDGETS. Titdbatio. A popular term derived from fidgety, pro- 
bably a corruption ot fugitive, and denoting general restlessness, with a 
desire of changing the position. 

FIDICIN AXES (./£/«*», a harper). Fidicirtii. Fiddler's muscles; 
a designation of the lumbrioales of the hand, from their usefulness in 
playing upon stringed instruments. 

FIERY SPOTS. The popular name for erythema chronicum, 
characterized by the appearance of red patches on the face. 

FI'LAMENT (filum, a thread). A small thread-like structure, or 
fibre, as that of a nerve, &c\ Also, the thread-like portion of the 
stamen, which supports the anther, in plants. 

FILA'HI A MEDINE'NSIS. A coelelminthous worm which burrow* 
under the skin and sub-cutaneous tissues, in southern countries, par- 
ticularly in India, producing the irritation called malts filaria. The 
specific name of the worm is derived from its prevalence in the country 
of Medina, in Arabia.. It is also called dracunculus Medinerisis, or 
Guinea-worm. See Dermatozoa. 

FILIX MAS. The Male Shield Fern ; a species referred to Aspi- 
dium, to Nephrodium, and to Lastrea. It formed the basis of Madame 
Nouffer's remedy for expelling tape- worm. Batso found an acid, and 
an alkali, called filicina, in the rhizome. This article denotes, in the 
Br. Ph. 1867, the dried rhizome with the bases of the footstalks and 
portions of the root-fibres of the Aspidium Filir mas. 

FILM. A thin skin or pellicle. The popular term for opacity ot 
the cornea. See Leucoma. 

FILTRATION (filtrum, a filter). The oDeration of straining fluids 
through funnels and filters, for the mechanical separation of a fluid from 
the solid particles floating in it. Chemical filters are usually made of 
unsized or blotting paper; household filters generally depend upon the 
passing of water through sand or small pebbles and charcoal. 

FILTRUM. A filter. The superficial groove along the upper lip, 
from the partition of the nose to the tip of the lip. 

FI'LUM TERMINA'LE. A terminal thread; the slender liga- 
ment formed by the prolongation of (he pia mater at the lower conical 
extremity of the spinal cord. 

Fl'MBRI«fl2. A plural noun connected with fibra, and denoting tin* 
extremity of anything, especially if separated into shreds and filaments; 
a border, edge, or fringe ; and, hence, tbe/Hwpe-like extremity of the 
Fallopian tube. 

FINCHAM'S SOLUTION. A solution of chloride of lime for 
purifying and disinfecting purposes. To be diluted with forty waters. 

FIRE ANNIHILATOR. An apparatus for extinguishing flame by 
the production of steam and carbonic acid. 

FIRE-DAMP. A gas evolved in coal-mines, consisting almost 
solely of light carburet ted hydrogen. See Choke-damp. 

FIRE-DAMP INDICATOR. A small apparatus, constructed on 
the law of the diffusion of gases, by which the presence of very small 
quantities of fire-damp or light carburetted hydrogen may be detected 
in mines. 

FIREMAN'S RESPIRATOR. A combination of Dr. TyndalPs 
respirator of cotton-wool moistened with glycerine, and Dr. Stenhouse's 
charcoal respirator. Armed with this apparatus, a man may remain a 
long time in the densest smoke. 

F I R—F I S 233 

FIRMNESS. A term in phrenology, indicative of determination, 
perseverance, and steadiness of purpose. Its oigan is situated at the 
very top of the head, extending to an equal distance on each side of the 
median line. 

FISH-GLUE. Isinglass; a glue prepared from the air-bladder or 
sound of different kinds of fish. See Ichthyocolla. 

FISH-SKIN DISEASE. A characteristic designation of a horny 
condition of the skin. See Ichthyosis. 

FISSION (fissio, a cleaving). Fissurat'on. A process of non-sexual 
reproduction, by which the new structures are produced bv a division of 
the body of the original organism into separate parts, which may remain 
in connexion, or may undergo detachment. See Gemmation. 

FISSU'RA (findere, to cleave). A cleft or fissure. In Anatomy, 
the term is applied to a slit which traverses the substance of a bone, or 
which separates the two portions of a soft part. In Pathology, the term 
denotes certain lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. 

1. Fissura Glaseri. A fissure situated in the deepest part of the 
glenoid fossa. 

2. Fissura longitudinalis. A deep fissure observed in the median 
line on the upper surface of the brain, occupied by the falx cerebri of 
the dura mater. 

3. Fissura palpebrarum. The elliptical space left between the eye- 
lids when these are drawn open. The angles of this fissure are the 

4. Fissura Sifvii. The fissure which separates the anterior and 
middle lobes of the cerebrum. It lodges the middle cerebral 

5. Fissura transversa magna. The great transverse fissure, which 
extends beneath the hemisphere of one side of the brain to the same 
point on the opposite side. 

6. Fissura umljilicalis. The groove of the umbilical vein, situated 
between the large and small lobes, at the under and fore part of the 
liver, which, in the foetus, contains the umbilical vein. 

7. Fissure o/Bichat. The name given to the transverse fissure of the 
brain, from the opinion of Bichat that it was here that the arachnoid 
entered into the ventricles. 

8. Fissure of Rolando. A fissure of the brain forming the line of 
demarcation between the frontal and parietal lobes. 

9. Fissures of the spinal cord. These are the anterior median, on 
the anterior surface ; and the posterior median, corresponding to the 
preceding, but existing only in the upper part of the cervical and in the 
jumbarportion of the cord. 

10. Fissure of the spleen. The groove which divides the inner surface 
of the spleen. It is nlled by vessels and fat. 

FI'STULA. A pipe to carry water; hence it denotes % pipe-like 
•ore, with a narrow orifice, and without disposition to heal. 

1. Fistula in ano. A fistulous tract by the side of the rectum, the 
result of abscess. Those cases in which the matter has made its escape, 
by one or more openings through the skin only, are called blind external 
fistula ; those in which the discharge has been made into the cavity of 
the intestine, without any orifice in the skin, are named blind internal; 
and those which have an opening both through the skin and into the 
gut, are called complete fistula. 

234 F I T— F L A 

2. Fistula inperinmo. Fistula in the course of the perineum, some- 
times extending to the urethra, bladder, vagina, or rectum. 

3. Fistula cornem. This is the result of a penetrating wound of the 
cornea, which has remained unhealed, but has become closed over by the 
conjunctiva. The consequence is, that the aqueous humor escapes from 
the anterior chamber, and elevates the conjunctiva in the form of a vesicle. 

4. Fistula, focal. Artificial anus. A name given to that state of the 
parts in artificial anus, in which the external aperture is very small, 
and the passage communicating from it to the intestine is rather long. 
This is also termed fistula stercorosa and anus nothus. 

6. Fistula lactymalis. A fistulous opening at the inner corner of the 
eye, communicating with the lacrymal sac. 

6. Fistula lympkalis. Lymphatic fistula. Fistula of the absorbent 
system, connected with foreign bodies and concretions. 

7. Fistula, rectal. A fistulous opening between the rectum and the 
bladder in men ; between the rectum and the vagina in women. The 
varieties are termed rectovesical, entero-vaginal, and recto-vaginal. 

8. Fistula vesicant inter et intestina. Vesicointestinal fistula. A 
fistulous opening between the bladder and the intestines. 

9. Fistula saiivosa. Salivary fistula. Fistula occasioned by perfora- 
tion of the Stenonian duct by a wound or ulcer, allowing the saliva to 
dribble out on the cheek. 

FIT. A fact or feat, an act t affect, or effect ; and hence applied to 
particular acts or effects, as to a sudden attack of disease, as of apoplexy; 
to a transient impulse, as of passion or of laughter. Or, the term may 
be derived from fight, indicating a struggle or conflict with nature. 
Life is said to be a "fitful fever.** 

FIXED AIR. A name formerly given bv chemists to the air which 
was extracted from lime, magnesia, and the alkalies, now called carbonic 
acid gas. 

FIXED BODIES. Substances which do not evaporate by heat, as 
the fixed, opposed to the volatile, oils ; or non-metallic elements, which 
can neither t>e fused nor volatilized, as carbon, silicon, and boron. This 
property of resistance is called fixity. 

FIXED OILS. A class of oils which may be heated to nearly 500° 
Fahr., without undergoing material change, and are thus distinguished 
from the essential oils, which undergo perfect volatilization at much 
lower temperatures. 

FLAGE'LLUM (Lat. a young branch or shoot). A runner ; a long, 
•lender, procumbent branch, which developes a leaf-bud from its upper 
surface, and roots from its under surface, at each node, each vegetating 
node becoming a perfect plant, as in strawberry. 

FLAME (fiamma). The combustion of an explosive mixture of 
inflammable gas, or vapour, with air. A simple flame, as that of hydro- 
gen, involves only one phenomenon of combustion ; a compound name 
involves more than one phenomenon ; thus, the flame of olefiant gas 
involves the conversion of hydrogen into water and of carbon into car- 
bonic acid. 

FLASHING-POINT. The temperature at which a substance, as 
petroleum, must be warmed before its vapour can be ignited. 

FLAT FOOT. Valgus spurius. Splay foot. A deformity of the 
foot owing to a sinking of the tarsal arch, from relaxation of the sup- 
porting ligaments. See Club-foot. 

F L A— F L O 235 

FLAT ULENCE (flatus, a gentle breeze). Tympanites ; Meteorism. 
The state of being flatulent, or affected with an accumulation of flatus, 
or gases in the alimentary canal. 

FLAX. A substance prepared from the fibrous portion of the bark 
of Linum usitatissimum. The sliort fibres which are removed in heck- 
ling constitute tote. Of flax is made linen, and this, when scraped, 
constitutes lint. 

FLESH-FORMING FOODS. Substances found in both the 
animal and the vegetable kingdom, which, being taken into the body, form 
those tissues by means of which we think and move. These foods are 
called nutritious ; and they are not only nutritious, but also nitro- 
genous, so called from the fact that they contain, in addition to carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen — nitrogen in combination, as a distinct element 
of their composition. The three most important forms of these foods 
are albumen, fibrinc, and caseine. 

FLEXIBILITY (Jbxibilis, pliant). The property by which bodies 
yield transversely, on the application of force. It must be distinguished 
from elasticity, as flexible bodies do not necessarily recover their origi- 
nal figures and positions on the removal of the force. 

FLEXION (flexio, a bending). The bending of a limb, as opposed 
to extension. " That motion of a joint which gives the distal member 
a continually decreasing angle with the axis of the proximate part." — 

FLEXION, FORCIBLE. A mode of treating certain cases of 
aneurysm, by compressing the artery and the aneurysm by forcible 
flexion of the contiguous joint. See Compression, digital. 

FLE'XOR (flectere, to bend). A muscle which bends the part into 
which it is inserted. Its antagonist is termed extensor. 

FLINT. Silrx. A mineral, consisting of silicious earth, nearly 
pare, Liquor of flints, or liquor silicum, is a name formerly riven to 
the solution of si heated alkali. It is sometimes called silicate of potash, 
silica being regarded as an acid. 

FLOCCI VOLITA'NTES. Muse* Voliiantes. A symptom con- 
sisting in the appearance of objects, such as locks of wool, or flies, 
before the eyes. 

FLOCC1TATIO (floccus, a lock of wool ). Carphologia. Picking 
the bed- clothes; an alarming symptom in acute diseases. 

FLO'CCULENT SPUTA. That condition of the sputa in phthisis, 
in which they resemble irregular balls of flock or wool. 

FLODCULUS (dim. of floccus, a tuft of wool). Loins nerri 
pneumogastrici. A term applied to the pneumogastric lobule of the 
cerebellum ; its form is that of a small foliated or lamellated tuft. 

FLOODING. Uterine hemorrhage; an excessive discharge of 
blood from the uterus, occurring cither in the puerperal state, or from 

FLO'RA (Flora, the goddess of flowers). A conventional term 
applied by naturalists to all the plants of a particular district, and 
subject to the same specialities as the term Fauna. See Fauna. 

FLO'RES (pi. of flos, Jhris). Flowers; a term formerly used 
to denote such bodies as assume a pulverulent form by sublimation 
or crystallization, wflores benzoes, benzoic acid ; fores sufpkuris, sub- 
limed sulphur ; /lores Mariiales, ammoniated iron \ flares xinci, oxide 
of zinc ; floret antimonii, the teroxide of antimony, &c. 

236 F L 0— P L U 

FLORES UN'GUIUM. A figurative designation of tbe small, 
white, roundish spots, frequently observed upon the nails. They are 
less elegantly termed mcndacia, lies. 

FLORET. Diminutive of /lower; a term applied to tbe small 
flowers which compose the capitula, or flower- head 3, of the Com posit a. 
They are sometimes ca\\cd floscules, a diminutive of the Latinjfo/rs. 

FLOS ASRUG1NIS. Cupri acctas, or acetate of copper, commouly 
called distilled or crystallized verdigris. 

FLOS FERRI. " Flower of iron ; M a term applied to arragoniU, 
or prismatic carbonate of lime, consisting of numerous fibrous crystals, 
of a satin-like lustre, radiating from a centre ; and further interesting, 
in a chemical point of view, as presenting carbonate of lime differing 
in its system of crvstallization from that of the common calc-spar. 

FLOWER. filos. That part of a plant which contains the organs 
of reproduction. It consists generally of a calyx, a corolla, stamens, 
and a pistil ; the latter two organs are essential to a flower ; the former 
two are unessential. Composite flowers are collections of flowers, or 
florets, in a dense head, constituting a capitulum or anthodium. 

FLOWERS. A term invented by the alchemists, and still in use 
to denote the light flocculent sublimates obtained by heating volatile 
solids in close vessels, as flowers of sulphur, of benzoin, and of anti- 

FLU ATE. A term formerly applied to a compound of "fluoric 
acid ;" but this acid is now termed hydrofluoric, and its compounds are 
called fluorides. 

FLUCTUATION {fluctuate, to rise in waves). The perceptible 
motion communicated to pus or other fluids by pressure or percussion. 
The possession of the tactus eruditus constitutes the practitioner's skill 
iu ascertaining the presence of fluids in parts. 

Fluctuation, superficial (peripherique). A new mode of detecting 
abdominal effusions, described by M. Tarral. 

FLUID OF COTU'NNIUS. A thin, gelatinous fluid, found in the 
bony cavities of the labyrinth of the ear; so called from the name of 
the anatomist who first distinctly described it. It has been also called 
aqua lahyrinthi ; and, by Breschet, the perilymph. 

FLUIDITY (fluere. to flow). The state of bodies when their parts 
are very readily movable in all directions with respect to one another. 
There is a partial fluidity, in which the particles are condensed or 
thickened into a coherent, though tremulous mass; jellies are of this 
kind, and may be considered as holding a middle place between liquids 
and solids. The heat requisite to the fluid condition of a body is 
termed heat of fluidity. 

FLUIDS. Substances which have the quality of fluidity, and are, 
in consequence, of no fixed shape. They are divided into the gaseous 
and the liquid— otherwise expressed by the terms elastic and inelastic 
fluids, respectively. The term permanently elastic is no longer applied 
to certain fluids, formerly so considered, carbonic acid gas having been 
reduced to the liquid, and even to the solid form. 

FLUOR ALB US. Literally, white flow or discharge. A Latin 
expression for the Greek term leucorrhaea, or English whites. 

FLUORE'SCENCE. A phenomenon discovered by Prof. Stokes, 
in 1852, by which the invisible chemical rays of the blue end of the 
solar spectrum become luminous, when sent through uranium glass, or 

F L U— F L 237 

solutions of quinine, horse-chestnut bark, or datura stramonium. The 
blue colour is owing, according to Brewster, to interned dispersion ; 
Herschel refers it to epipolio dispersion {i-wncokn, surface). See 

FLU'ORINE. A gaseous element obtained from fluor-spar, related 
to chlorine and hydrogen. Combined with calcium, it formnfuor-spar, 
Derbyshire spar, or fluoride of calcium. See Hydrofluoric Acid. 

FLUOR-SPAR. Fluor, Fluate of lime, Derbyshire Spar, or, more 
strictly, fluoride of calcium, a mineral substance, found in the teeth, in 
bones, and in the ashes of plants. 

FLUX (/lucre, to flow). A discharge ; another term for diarrhoea. 
Bloody /hue is synonymous with dysentery. 

FLUX, CHEMICAL (Jluere, to flow). A substance or mixture 
frequently employed to assist the fusion of minerals. Alkaline fluxes 
are generally used, which render the earthy mixtures fusible by con- 
verting them into glass. 

1. Crude Flux. A mixture of nitre and crystals of tartar, which is 
put into the crucible with the mineral intended to be fused. 

2. White Flux. A mixture formed by projecting equal parts of nitre 
and tartar into an ignited crucible. 

3. Black Flux. This differs from the preceding in the proportion of 
the ingredients : the tartar is double of the nitre. 

FLU'XION {Jluere, to flow). A name for catarrh. A determina- 
tion or flow of blood with unusual force to any part, as to the head. 

FLUXUS CAPILLO'RUM. A term applied by Celsus to 
Alopecia, or the falling off of the hair. Parts entirely deprived of hair 
were called by him area; by Sauvages, this affection was termed 
alopecia areata; and by Willan, vorriyo decalvant. When universal, 
it is designated, in French, la pelade. 

in contradistinction to the uterine or maternal surface. 

FOETICIDE {foetus, and cadere, to kill). The destruction of the 
foetus in utero, commonly called criminal abortion. 

FCETOR (Jhetere, to stink). Dysodia. A strong offensive smell. 

FCETUS. The young of any animal. The child in utero, after the 
fourth month. At an earlier period, it is commonly called the embryo. 
The term fatu$ is also applied adjectively to animals which are 
pregnant The term is probably derived from the old verb /no, for 
sum, and the common suffix -(us. 

Foetus syreniformis. Syren-like foetus; a congenital malformation 
resulting from coalescence of the lower extremities of the foetus. 

FOLIA CEREBE'LLI ( folium, any sort of leaf)- An assemblage 
of gray lamina? observed on the surface of the cerebellum. 

FOLIATION {folium, a leaf). Vernation. The manner in which 
the young leaves are arranged within the leaf- bud. 

FO'LLICLE {folliculus, a small bag or sack ; dim. of follis, a pair 
of bellows). Literally, a little bag, or scrip of leather ; in anatomy, a 
very minute secreting cavity. 

1. Follicles of Licberkuhn. Microscopic foramina, depressions, or 
•mall pouches of the mucous membrane of the tmall intestine, so nu- 
merous that, when sufficiently magnified, they give to the membrane 
the appearance of a sieve. 

2. Sebaceous Follicles. Small cavities, situated in the skin, which 

238 F O L-F O li 

supply the cuticle with an oily or sebaceous fluid, by minute ducts 
opening upon the surface. 

3. Mucous Follicles. These are situated in the mucous membranes, 
chief! v that of the intestines. See Gland. 

FOLLICLE IN PLANTS. A one-celled, one-valved, superior 
fruit, dehiscent by one suture, usually the ventral, as in caltha. The 
term double follicle is applied by Mirbel to the concept acul um of other 
writers, and consists of a two-celled, superior fruit, separating into two 
portions, the seeds of which do not adhere to marginal placentae, as in 
the follicle, but separate from their placentas, and he loose in each cell, 
as in Asclepias. See Capsule. 

FOLLICULAR ELEVATIONS. The name given by Rayer to 
the miliary or pearly tubercules of other writers. Mr. E. Wilson terms 
them sebaceous miliary tubercles. 

FOLLICULAR ENTERITIS. A synonym for enteric fever, de- 
rived from the ulceration which always commences in the solitary or 
rinated glands. But these are not the only " follicular glands*' in 
intestinal canal. 

FOLLICULAR TUMORS. Empkyma encystis. Sebaceous 
tumors, comprising the atheromatous, the melicerous, and the stealo- 
matous varieties. 

FOLLICULITIS (folliculus, a small W or sack ; a follicle). An 
unclassical term for inflammation of a follicle. 

FOMENTA'TIO (fovere, to keep warm). Fomentum; Fotus. 
The application of flannel, or spongio-piline, wet with warm water, or 
some medicinal concoction, to a part of the body. Dry fomentation 
consists in the application of warmth without moisture, by means of a 
hot brick wrapped in flannel, of a bag of hot chamomile flowers, &c. 

FOMES (Joverty to warm, keep warm). Literally, touchwood, fuel. 
This term is generally applied to substances imbued with contagion. 
Fomes venlriculi is another name for hypochondriasis. 

FONTANE'LLA (dim. of fontana, a spring). Bregma, A littlo 
fountain. The space left in the head of an infant, where the frontal 
and occipital bones join the parietal ; it is also called fbns pulsatilis, and 
commonly mould. The term fontanel is sometimes applied to an issue 
for the discharge of humors from the body ; in this sense it is syno- 
nymous vrilhfonticulus. 

FONTl'CULUS (dim. of fans, a fountain). A little fountain ; an 
issue; a small ulcer artificially produced for keeping up a discharge. 
See Issue-peas. 

FOOD-STUFFS, VITAL. A general term for the animal and 
vegetable substances which are used as food. These are the proteids, 
the/ufr, and the amyloids. Water and salts constitute the mineral 
food-stuffs. The amyloids and fats are, moreover, termed heat-pro- 
ducers ; the proteids, tissue-formers. 

FORA'MEN (forare, to bore). Literally, an opening made into 
any substance by boring ; and, hence, an opening made into various 
parts of the human body — without boring. In the beautiful language of 
the great Roman orator, the organs of tne senses are not only " fenestras 
animi," the windows of the mind, but "foramina ilia quae patent ad 
animum a corporc." See Fossa. 

1. Foramen cacum. The blind hole at the root of the spine of the 
frontal bone, so called from its not perforating the bone, or leading to 

FOR 239 

any cavity. Also, the designation of a little sulcus, situated between 
the corpora pyramidalia and the pons Varolii. 

2. Foramen cacum of Morgagni. A deep mucous follicle situated 
at the meeting of the papillae circum vallate upon the middle of the root 
of the tongue. 

3. Foramen commune anterius, or foramen of Monro. An opening 
under the arch of the fornix, by which the lateral ventricles communi- 
cate with each other, with the third ventricle, and with the infundibu- 
lum. From the last circumstance it is also called iter ad infundi- 

4. Foramen commune posterius. An opening between the middle 
and the posterior commissure of the brain — the origin of the aqueduct 
of 8ylvius or tier a tertio ad quartum ventriculum. 

5. Foramen incUivum. The opening immediately behind the incisor 

6. Foramen magnum occipitis.* The great opening at the under and 
fore part of the occipital booe. 

7. Foramen obturator, or thyroid. A large oval interval between 
the ischium and the pubes. 

8. Foramen ovale. .An oval opening situated in the partition which 
separates the right and left auricles, in the foetus ; it is also called the 

foramen of Botal. This term is also applied to an oval aperture com- 
municating between the tympanum and the vestibule of the ear. 

9. Foramen rotundum. 1 he round, or, more correctly, triangular 
aperture of the middle ear. This, and the preceding term, are, respec- 
tively, synonymous with fenestra oralis and rotunda. 

10. Foramen saphenum. An oval opening in the fascia lata, which 
gives passage to the internal saphenous vein. 

11. Foramen supra-orbitarium. The upper orbitary hole, situated on 
the ndge over which the eye-brow is placed. 

12. Foramen Vcsalii. An indistinct hole, situated between the 
foramen rotundum and foramen ovale of the sphenoid bone, particu- 
larly pointed out by Vesalius. 

13. Foramen of Soemmering, or foramen centrale. A circular 
foramen at the posterior part of the retina, exactly in the axis of vision. 

14. Foramen of Window. An aperture situated behind the capsule 
of Glisson, first described by Winslow, and forming a communica- 
tion between the large sac, of the omentum and the cavity of the 

15. Foramina Thebesii. Minute pore-like openings, by which the 
venous blood exhales directly from the muscular structure of the heart 
into the auricle, without entering the venous current. They were 
originally described by Thebetius. 

FORA'MEN, IN BOTANY (forare t to pierce). An opening; a 
paasage observed at the apex of the ovulo in plants, and comprising 
both the exostome and the endostome. 

FORCEPS. A pair of tongs, or pincers; an instrument for ex- 
tracting the foetus. The artery or dissecting forceps is used for taking 
up the mouths of arteries, &c. Celsus uses the word fotfex for a pair 
of pincers for the extraction of teeth. 

" For-cept, from forts and caper e, the first syllable referring to the 
'opening* or 'door' which this instrument makes in order to grasp 
the object."— Smith's Dictionary. 

240 FUR 

FORCEPS CO'RPORIS C ALLOW. A designation of the fibres 
which curve backwards into the posterior lobes from the posterior 
border of the corpus callosum. 

FORCES OF MEDICINES. The active forces of medicines, or 
those which reside in the medicines themselves, as distinguished from 
those which reside in the organism, are of three kinds : — 

1. Physical forces. These act by weight, cohesion, external form, 
motion, &c, and produce two classes of effects — the physical and the 
vital ; the entire effect may be termed nhysioo-vital. 

2. Chemical forces. These act by their mutual affinities, combine 
with the organic constituents, and act as caustics, escharotics, or irri- 
tant! ; the entire effect may be termed chemico-vital. 

3. Dynamical fprces. These are neither physical nor chemical 
merely, but exercise a powerful influence over the organism, as mag- 
netism, electricity, &c. 

FORENSIC MEDICINE. Medtiial Jurisprudence. The science 
of the application of anatomy, physiology, and therapeutics to the 
determination of cases in law. 

FORGE- WATER. The water into which the blacksmith has 
plunged his hot iron, for the purpose of cooling it. It is a popular 
remedy as a lotion for Aphthae, &c. It contains sulphate of iron. 

-FORM (forma, likeness). A Latin termination, denoting resem- 
blance, and synonymous with the Greek term -id. Thus ali-/orm, 
wing-like, is the same as ptcrygo-sci ; Odc'iform, scythe-like, as dre- 
pano-ttf ; and ensi-/brm, sword-like, as xipho-uf. 

FORMI'CA. Literally, an ant. A term applied by the Arabians 
to Herpes, from its creeping progress. 

1. Formication. A sensation of creeping in a limb, or on the surface 
of the body, occasioned by pressure or affection of a nerve. 

2. Form ; c Acid. The acid of ants ; a transparent colourless liquid ; 
it is the first term of a series of homologous acids formed by the oxida- 
tion of the alcohols. 

3. Formyl. A hypothetical radical of a series of compounds, one of 
which is formic acid:. 

FCRMULA (dim. of forma, a form). A prescription; the mode 
of preparing medicines. Formula) are of two kinds: extemporaneous 
or magistral formulae are those constructed by the practitioner on the 
instant ; officinal formula* are those published in pharmacopoeias or by 
other authority. 

1. Formula are also termed simple and compound. A simple 
formula consists of only one officinal (simple or compound) prepara- 
tion. A compound formula consists of two or more officinal preparations. 
See Prescription. 

2. Formula, chemical. 1. The name given to symbols employed in 
chemistry to represent elements, as C, for carbon, II?, for mercury, 
&c. 2. A chemical formula of a compound body, which merely ex- 
presses the elements present and their total respective quantities, is 
said to be an irrational or empirical formula. 3. A chemical formula 
which represents the structure of a compound or the grouping of the 
elements of which it is composed, is called a rational formula. 

FO'RNIX. Literally, an arched vault. A triangular lamina of 
white substance, extending into each lateral ventricle and terminating 
in two crura, which arch downwards to the base of the brain. 

F O 8— F O X 241 

FO'SSA (fossus, from fodere, to dig). A ditch or trench, mtde by 
digging. Hence the term is applied to a little depression or sinus made 
in the human bodv— ttilkomt dtgt/ing. See Foramen, 

1. Fussa hyaloidea (uaAot, glass, ai&w, - likeness). The cup-like 
depression on the anterior surface of the vitreous humor in which the 
crystalline leos is embedded. 

2. Fossa innominata. The space between the helix and an ti helix. 

3. Fossa ischio-rectalis. A depression in the deep layer or proper 
perineal fascia, bounded externally by the ischia and internal obturator 
muscles, and behind by the g'utei maximi. 

4. Fossa lacrymulis (lacryma, a tear). A depression in the frontal 
bone for the reception of the lacrymal gland. 

6. Fossa navicularis (navicula, a little boat). The superficial 
depression which separates the two roots of the antilielix. Also the 
dilatation towards the extremity of the spongy portion of the urethra. 
Also, the name of a small cavity immediately within the fourchette. 

6. Fossa oralis. The oval depression presented by the septum of 
the right auricle. 

7. Fossa jpUuOaria (pituita, phlegm). ( The sella turcica, or cavity in 
the sphenoid bone for receiving the pituitary body. 

8. Fossa seapkoides (axa<f*n y a little boat, tlfor, likeness). A term 
synonymous with | /bssa navicularis. 

9. Fona Sglviu A designation of the fifth ventricle of the brain. 
FC8SIL A'LKALI. The monocarbonate or neutral carbonate of 

soda, also termed mild mineral alkali, subcarbonate of soda, or com- 
monly carbonate o/toda. 

FOTUS (fovere, to warm). Fomentum. A warming, a fomenting. 
Pliny writes, u Decoctum eomra cceliacos juvat et potione et fotu." 

FOUR-TAILED BANDAGE. A bandage for the forehead, face, 
and jaws. The terms head and tail are used synonymously by writers ; 
hence, this bandage is sometimes called the ding wttk/our heads. 

FOURCHETTE (a fork). 1. Framum labiomm. The name of 
the thin commissure, by which the labia majora of the pudendum unite 
together. 2. An instrument for raising and supporting the tongue in 
the operation of cutting the framum. 

FCrVEA. Literally, a pit-fall. Hence, fovea oralis, an oval open- 
ing of the fascia lata, at the upper and inner extremity of the thigh 
nnAfbvea poplitea, the popliteal spate. 

BvVE'OLA (dim. of /uvea, a small pit). Literally, a very small 
pit. A dark red spot observed in the centre of the macula lutea, sur- 
rounded by a light bluish halo. 

FOVI'LLA. An extremely fine molecular matter existing in the 
"pollen-grains" of plants, and probably constituting the essentia) 
generative elements by which the influence of the male is transmitted 
to the female. 

FOWLERS SOLUTION. Liquor arsenicalis. A solution of the 
arsenate of potassa, coloured and flavoured by the compound spirit of 
lavender, one fluid drachm of which contains half a grain of anemone 
acid. It was introduced into practice by Dr. Fowler of Stafford, as a 
substitute for " The Tasteless Ague Drop/* 

FOXGLOVE. The common name of the Digitalis purpurea, pro- 
bably derived from the fanciful resemblance of its flowers to finger- 
— quasi folks' or fairies glove. Ste Digitalinum. 


24Q FRA 

FRA'CTURE (Jrangere, to break). A solution of continuity of 
one or more bones. It is termed transverse, longitudinal, or oblique, 
according to its direction in regard to the axis of the bone. 

1. Fractures are termed simple, when the bone ouly is divided, 
without external wound ; compound, when attended with laceration of 
the integuments ; comminuted, when the bone is broken into several 
pieces; and complicated, when an artery is lacerated, or some other 
injury is added to the fracture. 

2. Fracture ; Rupture. Terms denoting two kinds of breaking — the) 
former, of a hard substance, as bone ; the latter, of a soft substance, aa 
an artery. 

3. Fracture, spontaneous. Fracture of a bone by muscular action, 
without external violence. 

4. Fracture, Greenstick. Fractura surcularia. Flexura oasis. A 
bending and partial fracture of a bone. 

5. Fracture, imperfect. Fracture, so called, of the soft and cartilagi- 
nous bones of young infants, before the earthy matter has been com- 
pletely deposited ; in such cases, though the limb is flexible at a cer- 
tain point, no ciepitation can be felt, and, in point of fact, there is no 
actual separation of the ends of the bone. 

FRACTURE, BARTON'S. A fracture of the lower extremity of 
the radius, commencing at the articular surface, extending upwards for 
an inch or more, and terminating on the dorsal aspect ; described by 
Dr. Barton of Philadelphia. 

FRACTURE, UNUNITED. The result of the absence of proper 
union in cases of fracture of the shafts of long bones ; and this occurs, 
1, from non-formation of a uniting material stronger than fibro-cellular 
tissue ; or 2, from absorption of callus and loosening of the fracture, 
in cases in which true bony union has taken place. See False Joint. 

FRENULUM (dim. of franum, a bridle). A little bridle. Hence, 

franulum labiorum, the fourchette or lower commissure of the labia 

pudendi ; and franulum veli medullaris anterwris, a narrow slip given 

off by the commissure of the testes, by means of which the connexion 

of the velum with these bodies is strengthened. 

FRJE'NUM (franare, to curb a horse). A bridle ; a part which 
performs the office of a check or curb. A small membranous fold 
attached to certain organs, and acting like a bridle. 

1. Frama epiglotttdis. Three folds of mucous membrane which 
unite the epiglottis to the os hvoi'des and the tongue. 

2. Frama of the valvule oflkutkin. The name given by Morgagni 
to the ruga*, or lines observed at the extremities of the lips of the val- 
vule of Bauhin, or ileo-colic valve. 

3. Franum lingua. A fold formed at the under surface of the 
tongue, by the mucous membrane lining the mouth. Infants are said 
to be tongue-tied when the frsnium is very short, or continued too far 

4. Franum praputii. A triangular fold, connecting the prepuce 
with the under part of the elans penis. 

5. Franum of the under lip. A fold of the mucous membrane of the 
mouth, formed opposite to the symphysis of the chin. 

FRAGILITAS OSSIUM. Fragile vitreum. A morbid brittle- 
nets of the bones, depending on atrophy and degeneration. See Molli- 
ties Ostium. 

F R A-F B I 243 

FRAMBCE'SIA (framboise, French, a raspberry). Morula. A 
Latinized form of the French term for raspberry, applied to the disease 
called Yaws, which signifies the same in Africa ; it is termed Sibbens 
(a corruption of the Gaelic Sivvens, wild rash) in Scotland, and proved 
by Dr. Hibbert to be the same as the Great Gore, Pur, or Morbus 
Gallicus, of the fifteenth century. It consists of imperfectly suppurat- 
ing granulations, gradually increasing to the size of a raspberry, with a 
fungous core. See Morula. 

1. Master- or Mother yaw, termed Mama- pi an by the Negroes; the 
designation of the largest tumor. 

2. Crab-yaws. Tedious excrescences which occur on the soles of 
the feet, called tuftba in the West Indies. 

FRA'NKINCENSE. Formerly Olibatutm, a gum-resin of the 
Juniperus Lycia ; but now the Abietis retina, or resin of the Spruce 
Fir, mixed with oil of turpentine. 

FRECKLES. Lentigo, lentiginis. A popular term for the lentil- 
shaped spots which are seated in the rete mucosum, and appear in great 
abundance on the parts of the body which are exposed to the influence 
of light. The term /rate** or frekens occurs in Chaucer, and is said to 
mean spots ; yock-fretten denotes eaten by small pocks, from the Saxon 
fretan, to eat 

FREEZING APPARATUS. An air-pump contrived by Leslie 
for the purpose of freezing liquids in vacuo. In Carre's freezing 
apparatus, the gas ammonia is liquefied by its own pressure. 

FREEZING MIXTURE. A mixture for producing intense cold, 
by the absorption of caloric during the liquefaction of bodies, as when 
snow and common salt, or snow and nitric acid, are mixed together. 
For therapeutic purposes, five ounces of sal ammoniac, five ounces of 
nitre, and a pint of water, may he placed in a bladder, and applied to 
a part of the body. 

FREEZING POINT. The degree of temperature at which water 
is changed into ice, or 32° Fahr. For temperatures above that at 
which water becomes solid, the term freezing is not usually applied, but 
rather the point of solidification, or the fusing point. 

FRE'MITUS (fremere, to emit a dull, roaring sound). A designa- 
tion of a dull roaring sound. 

1. Fremitus, pectoral. Vocal vibration ; the sound of the voice trans- 
mitted through the chest, and perceptible to the touch. 

2. Cardiac friction fretnitus. A friction-fremitus sometimes per- 
ceived in inflammation of the pericardium, especially in the absorption- 
period of the disease. 

3. Pulmonary friction-fremitus. The crackling sensation or rubbing 
movement conveyed to the hand, in many cases of pleurisy, by friction 
of the roughened surface of the costal, upon the roughened surface of 
the pulmonary, pleura. 

FRIABILITY (friability easily broken or crumbled, from friare, to 
crumble). The property by which a substance is capable of being 
crumbled and reduced to powder. Textures may befrtalile. 

FRICTION-SOUND. A sound heard in auscultation of the ab- 
domen, caused by the rubbing together of two peritoneal surfaces 
roughened by deposits of lymph. 

FRIGIDA'RTUM (frigid us, cold). The cooling-room in a bath 
The cold bath. 8ee Bath. 

ft 2 


F K I— F R U 

FRIOOHIFIC (frig**, coldness, /a cere, to product). Having the 
quality of producing extreme rold, or of converting liquids into ice, at 
applied to certain chemical mixtures. 

FRIG US (friger* t to be cold, akin to rigere % also to the Gr. <ppi*9m, 
to have an ague-fit). Cold; trembling with cold ; exposure to cold. 
This term differs from algor, which denotes a starving with cold, and is 
derived from 6\yot, pain, because cold causes pain. 

FROND (frons, a branch). A term applied to the leaf-like oi-gana 
of Ferns, and other Cryptogamic plants, from their partaking at once 
of the nature of a leaf and of a stem, combined. 

FRONS, FRONT1S. The forehead ; the part of the face extend- 
ing from the roots of the hair to the eye-brows. See Fades and 

FROST-BITE. Gelatio. A state of numbness, or torpefaction of 
anr part of the body, occasioned by exposure to cold, and followed, 
unless relieved, by the death of the part 

FROZEN SULPHURIC ACID. A term applied to the binhv- 
drate of sulphuric acid, when in the solid state. In the liquid state it 
is sometimes called Exs'ol or ice-oil. 

FRUCTOSE (fructus, fruit). A variety of sugar, contained in ripe 
fruits and in new honey, and termed fruit-sugar ^ and, in reference to 
its characteristic feature, unciystallizaUe sugar. 

FRUIT. Fructus. This term strictly denotes the pistil arrived at 
maturity. It is sometimes applied to the pwtil and floral envelope* 
taken together, whenever they are all united in one uniform mass, 
as in pine-apole. The various forms of fruits may be thus classified 
and botanicall y described : — 

€ 1. Utriculus. 
f\. One- or two- seeded •< 2. Nux. 

1. Sim pl b J I 3. Drupa. 

Fruits j f 4. Folliculua. 

V2. Many-seeded < 5. Legumen. 

I 6*. Lomentum. 

2. Aggregate f 1. Ovary superior 7. Etatrio. 

Fruits \ 2. Ovary inferior 8. Cynorrhodon. 

3. Compound 

. Ovary I 

superior / 

2. Ovary 






4. Collective Fruits. 

9. Caryopsit. 

10. Samara. 

11. Siliqua. 

12. Silicula. 

13. Capsula. 

14. Nuculanium. 

15. Hesperidium. 

16. Glans. 

17. Achscniuin. 

18. Polachaeniuir 

19. Pomum. 

20. Pepo. 

21. Bacca. 

22. Svconus. 

23. Strobilus. 

24. Sorosis. 

F R U-F U L 245 

FRUME NTUM. A term contracted from fruffimentam, from the 
rw>t frug in fruges, the fruits of the earth ; applied especially to com, 
grain, and the various kinds of cereals. 

FRITSTU M. A piece (of food). It differs from/ragmentum, which 
is a piece broken, ana from tegmentum, which is a piece cut off. Frui- 
tion is probably derived from a rooty /rut, to break. 

FRUTEX (probably connected with /9/»vo>, to sprout forth). A 
shrub ; a plant, of which the branches are perennial, proceeding directly 
from the surface of the earth without any supporting trunk. When 
verr small, the plant is termed fruiiculus, or little shrub. 

FUCUS VKSICULCTSUS. A sea-weed, termed vernacularly 
bladder-wrack, first described by Clusius, under the name quercus marina, 
mnd used as a popular remedy for goitre on the sea-coast of England. 
Burnt in the open air, and reduced to a black powder, it forms the 
vegetable csthiop; a species of charcoal. 

'FUELS, ARTIFICIAL. Artificial compositions of coal and other 
natural fuel. Thus, Azalay's hard shining blocks of fuel are simply 
coal-dust, subjected to intense compression by means of the hydraulic 
press. Warlich*s patent fuel, in the form of bricks, weighing about 
twelve pounds each, consists of the dust of various kinds of coal. 
Oram's patent fuel is a condensed mixture of small coal, bitumen, 
and tana. Williams's fuel is a mixture of dried peat and bitu- 

-FUOE (fugare, to expel). A termination denoting a substance 
which expels another substance, or a disease, as in Uhri-fuge, a 
remedy against fever ; \&ct\-fuge, a medicine which checks or diminishes 
the secretion of milk ; vermifuge, or anthelmintic, a remedy for worms, 

FULI'GO. Soot or smoke. Wood-soot, or fuligo ligvi, is the con- 
densed smoke of burning wood, used as a species of charcoal. 

FULLERS* EARTH. A variety of clay, containing about 25 per 
cent, of alumina, and so named from its being used by fullers to remove 
the grease from cloth before the soap is applied. 

FUXMINATES (fulminare, to thunder). Compounds of the 
fulminic acid. They detonate powerfully by heat, friction, or percus- 
sion, as fulminating silver, &c. 

FULMINATING MIXTURE (fulminare, to thunder). A term 
applied to certain mixtures which detonate by heat or friction. 

1. Fulminating gold. A brown powder, generally considered to be 
s combination of sesquioxide of gold with ammonia, possessing fulmi- 
nating properties. 

2. Fulminating mercury. A compound of fulminic acid and prot- 
oxide of mercury, employed for making percussion caps. 

3. Fulminating silver. A black powder prepared by leaving oxide of 
silver for ten or twelve hours in contact with a strong solution of 

4. Fulminating ammoniuret of silver. A combination of oxide of 
silver and ammonia, of violently explosive character. 

5. Fulminating platinum. A suostance piepared by the action of 
ammonia on a solution of sulphate of platinum. 

6. Fulminating poicder. A mixture of three parts of chlorate of 
potass, and one of sulphur ; or three parts of nitre, two of carbonate of 
potass, and one of sulphur, in powder. 

346 TV L— F U N 


FULMINATION (Jnlminare, to thunder). The explosion which 
take* place in chemical bodies by friction or heat. 

FU LMINIC ACID. A compound of cyanogen, which explodes 
when heated, rubbed, or struck. It is said to differ from cyanic acid in 
the ratio of its elements, and in containing hydrogen. 

FUMA'RIC AC I D. A monobasic arid, produced by heating malic 
icid, and also existing in fumitory, and in Ireland moss. It was first 
procured from the Boletus pseudo-igniarius, and has hence been called 
bolstic acid. 

FUMIGATING PASTILLES. Trochisci sen candela fumales. 
Benzoin generally constitutes the chief ingredient in these compositions, 
to which mav he added any odoriferous substances. 

FUMIGA'TION (fumigare, to smoke, to fumigate). The use of 
fames, chiefly chlorine, nitric acid, or vinegar, for the removal of 
effluvia or miasmata. Also, the application of fumes, as of water to 
the throat, of mercury or sulphur to sores, &c. 

FU'MING LIQUOR (fumns, smoke). A chemical mixture, which 
emits fumes or vapour on exposure to the air. 

1. Boyle's fuming lif/uor. The proto-sulphuret of ammonium; a 
volatile liquid, formerly called hepar sulpnuris volatilis, &c. The 
vapour is decomposed by oxygen, producing fumes. 

2. Cadef 8 fuming liquor. A liquid obtained by the dry distillation 
of equal weights of acetate of potash and arscnious acid. It is remark* 
able for its insupportable odour and spontaneous inflammability in air. 
It is also called alcarsin. 

3. Ltbavius's fuming liquor. The anhydrous bi-chloride of tin ; a 
colourless limpid liquid, which fumes strongly in humid air. 

4. Fuming liquor of A rsenic. The sesquichloride of arsenic, a colour- 
leas volatile liquid, fuming strongly on exposure to the air. 

FUNCTION (fungi, to discharge an office). The office of an organ 
in the animal or vegetable economy, as of the heart in circulation, of 
the leaf in respiration, &c. 

1. Physiological functions. These are functions comprising the vital 
processes observed in animals and plants, and arc referable to three 
neads : 1. Functions of nutrition, including all those processes whereby 
the individual organism lives, grow6, and maintains its existence against 
all the hostile forces constantly at work upon it. 2. Funriiotis of re- 
production, including those processes whereby the perpetuation of the 
species is secured, while the individual perishes. 3. Functions of rela- 
tion, including those proecsset, such as sensation and locomotion, 
whereby the organism is brought into relation with the outer world, 
and the outer world in turn reacts upon the organism. — //. A. Nicliol- 

2. Reflex function. A term applied by Marshall Hall to that action 
of the muscles which arises from a stimulus, acting through the medium 
of their nerves and the spinal marrow : thus, the larynx < loses on the 
contact of carbonic acid, the pharynx on that of food, the sphincter ani 
on that of the fares, &c. 

FUNCTIONAL DISEASE. This term, like idiosvncrasv, merelv 
expresses our ignorance of the cause and nature of disease Tetanus is 
sometimes called functional, berausc its pathology is obscure; but no 
one calls coma a functional disease. Dr. J. R. Reynolds understands 
by the term functional disease " such changes as have no recognized 

P U N— F UR 347 

morbid anatomy, but depend upon corresponding changes in the finer 
processes of nutrition." 

FUNGATING SORE. A variety of excoriated chancre in which 
the surface is covered with large fungous granulations. 

FUNGI. Under this name botanists comprehend not only the 
various races of mushrooms, toadstools, and similar productions, but a 
large number of microscopic plants, presenting the appearances called 
mouldiness, mildew, smut, rush, brand, dry-rot, &c. 

FU'NGIFORM (fungus, a mushroom, forma, likeness). Fungus- 
like; a term applied to the papillae near the edges of the tongue; also 
to parts of plants which have a rounded, convex head, like that of a 

FUNGIN. A nutritious substance, resembling cellulose in its pro- 
perties, and consisting of the fleshy substance of mushrooms. 

FU'NGUS. A mushroom. A morbid growth of granulations in 
ulcers, commonly termed proud Aesh. Granulations are often called 
fungous when they are too high, large, flabbv, and unhealthy. 

FUNGUS FOOT OF INDIA. Podelkoma. Madura foot. A 
destructive parasitic disease of the foot and hand, occurring in India, 
and caused by the development of the fungus Mycetoma or Chionyphe 
Carteri. 8ee Dermatophyte*. 

FUNGUS HjEM ATO'DES (ai/ua-rtMijc, bloody). Hssmatode can- 
cer. Bleeding fungus; a term applied to some cases of medullary 
cancer, which are more than usually vascular. It sometimes protrudes 
through the skin in the form of a large vascular mass, somewhat resem- 
bling a clot of blood. See Hcemalodes. 

FUNICULUS (dim. of funis, a thick rope). A term applied to the 
spermatic cord, consisting of the spermatic artery and vein, &c. ; also 
to the sulk, or podosperm, of certain ovules in plants. 

Funiculus oiivaris. The larger portion of the anterior column of the 
medulla oblongata. It divides into two subordinate portions, called the 
funiculi or fasciculi tilunuB. 

FUNIS UMBILICA'LIS. The umbilical cord ; the means of com- 
munication between the foetus and the placenta. 

FUR. A term applied to a characteristic appearance of the surface 
of the tongue y in almost all severe diseases, presenting various modifica- 
tions of colour and density. 

FU'RFUR. Furfur trUici. Bran; the husk of ground wheat. 
Panis furfuraceus is brown or bran-bread. Furfurin is a vegetable 
alkali procured, together with furfurol, from bran. 

FU'RFUROL. A peculiar oily substance produced by the action of 
a mixture of dilute sulphuric acid and peroxide of manganese upon 
sugar or starch. 

FU'RFURE8 CAPITIS {furfur, bran). Another name for dan- 
driff, dandruff, or scurhness or the head. 

FU'RNACE {J'urnus). A fire-place employed for pharmaceutical 
operations, as fusion, distillation, sublimation, the oxidizement, and 
the deoxidixement, or reduction, of metals. Furnaces have accordingly 
been termed ecaporcUory, when emp'oyed to reduce substances into 
vapour by heat ; reoertieratory, when so constructed as to prevent the 
flame from rising; and/btys, when the current of air is determined by 

FUROR (furere, to rage). Rage; fury; madness. Hence, furor 

248 F U R-G A Q 

uterinus, uterine madness, or nymphomania ; and furor Iransitorius, or 
thort maniacal fuiy. 

FURUNCULO'SIS (funiculus, a boil). A constitutional dispo- 
sition to the formation of furunculi ; a furuncular diatliesit. 

FURU'NCULUS (dim. of/«r, a thief). Phyma furtmculut. A 
little thief, and hence, a boil or tmall tumor, suppurating imperfectly, 
and containing a central core or slough. It ii named, according to some 
writers, from /urere t to rage, suggesting the severity of the pain by 
which it is often accompanied. In funmculu* anthracoides the boils 
assume the character of small carbuncles. 

FU'SEL OIL (fusel, Germ, bad liquor). Fousel oil. An alcohol 
of the amylic series, produced in the fermentation of potatoes, grain, 
Ac. ; also called hydrate of oxide of amyl. See Amylic Alcohol. 

FUSIBILITY (fusus, melted or poured out). The property by 
which bodies assume the fluid state on the application of heat 

FUSIBLE CA'LCULUS. A variety of urinary concretion, con- 
sisting of the mixed phosphates of magnesia and ammonia, and of 

FUSIBLE METAL. An alloy of bismuth, lead, and tin; it melts 
at about the temperature at which water boils. 

Rose's FusiUe Alloy. An alloy consisting of 2 parts by weight of 
bismuth, with 1 of lead and 1 of tin. 

FU 'SI FORM {fusus, a spindle, forma, likeness). Spindle-shaped ; 
thickest in the middle and tapering to both ends, as the eel Is composing 
woody fibre, certain roots. &c. 

FUSION (funis, melted, from f under e, to pour out). The state of 
melting. Substances which admit of being fused are termed fusible, 
but those which resist the action of fire are termed refractory. Fusion 
differs from liquefaction in being applied chiefly to metals and other 
substances which melt at a high temperature. 

1. Aqueous fusion. The solution of salts, which contain water of 
crystallization, on exposure to increased temperature. 

2. Dry fusion. The liquefaction produced by heat after the water 
has been expelled. 

3. Igneous fusion. The melting of anhydrous salts by heat without 
undergoing any decomposition. 


GADUS MORRHUA. Morrhua vulgaris. The common cod, 
yielding the well-known oil of commerce. A brown matter, termed 
aadmn, is said to be contained in this oil, but its composition is un- 
known, and its existence as a distinct compound is very doubtful. 

GAGE or GUAGE. An apparatus for measuring the rtate of a 
phenomenon. But the term is usually restricted to some particular 
instruments, as the gage of the air-pump, which indicates the degree of 
exhaustion in the receiver ; the tteam-gafje, for measuring the pressure 
of steam ; the gas-gage, for that of gas; the tcind-gage or anemometer, 
for measuring the force of the wind, &r. 

GAL 2i$ 

GALA, GALA'CTOS {ya\a t y<i\ air-rot, milk). The Greek term 
for milk, sometimes confounded with its Latin synonym, Lac, lac Us, in 
certain compounds. 

1. Galactic acid; lactic acid. The acid of milk, supposed to be 
merely animalized acetic acid. 

2. Galact-idrosis (io>f»«, sweat). Lactescent or milky perspira- 
tion. The Latin svnonym would be lactisudatio. 

3. Gulacto-celc («tj\jj, a tumor). Milk- tumor; a tumor of the 
mamma occurring during lactation. The unclassical synonym is 

4. Galado-meter (uirpov, a measure). An instrument for measuring 
the quantity of cream which rises to the surface of milk. The un- 
classical synonym is lactometer. 

5. Galacto-pkorous (0»Vo>, to carry). Milk -conveying, as applied to 
the duets of the mammary glands. Lactiferous is an appropriate Latin 
aynonvm. The term galactaphora denotes remedies which increase the 
secretion of milk. 

6. Galacto-fhyga (<ptvy», to shun). Remedies which arrest the 
secretion of milk. Lartifuge is the Latin synonym. 

7. Galacto-voteHc (wottrrurof, capable of forming). Milk-forming ; 
a substance which causes, or increases, the formation of milk. 

8. Galacto-rrhwa (p#«, to flow). Profluvium lactis. A milk-flow; 
an excessive flow of milk ; a disease of the breast in nursing women. 
See Agalactia. 

GA LB A NUM. A fetid gum-resin, procured from an unascertained 
Umbelliferous plant, imported from India and the Levant. The Greek 
name x"*tf«»"? Mid the Hebrew ehelbenah are supposed to indicate the 
same substance. 

GA'LBULUS (galbulus, the nut of the Cypress-tree). A kind of 
cone, differing from the strobile only in being round and having the 
heads of the carpels much enlarged, as the fruit of Juniper. 

G A'LEA. Literally, a helmet. The name of the arched upper lip 
of the qaleate corolla of several labiate plants, as Lamium, &c. 

GAXEA CAT1T1S {galea, a helmet). A term applied to the 
tendinous expansion which unites the two portions of the occipitofron- 
tal is muscle, from its covering the whole vertex of the skull. 

GALE AMAUROSIS {ya\in % contr. ya\ij, a weasel, apau- 
p*»<rif, a becoming dull — of sight). Amaurotic cat's eye. See Amau- 

GALEN'S BANDAGE. A term sometimes applied to the four- 
tailed bandage, or tingle split-cloth. See Bandage. 

GALE'NA. Sulphuret of lead ; an ore occurring in attached 
crystals and massive. The lead of commerce is obtained from this ore, 
and it it often worked for the silver it contains. 

GALIPGT. Barras. A resinous substance yielded by the different 
pines which produce common turpentine. 

GALL. A bitter liquid found iu the gall-bladder, and consisting of 
the secretion of the liver or bile mingled with that of the mucous 
membrane of the gall-bladder. 

GALL-BLADDER. Cystis fellea. A membranous reservoir, 
lodged in a fissure on the under surface of the right lobe of the liver, 
and containing the bile. 

GALL-DUCTS. These arc the cystic, proceeding from the gall- 

160 GAL 

Madder ; the hepatic, proceeding from the lrrer; and the ductus com- 
munis ckoUdochtiSy resulting from the union of the two preceding. 

GALL-SICKNESS. A popular name for the Walcberen fever of 
1809, which was attended with a vomiting of bile. 

GALL-STONES. ChololUhi. Biliary calculi ; concretions found 
in the gall-bladder, sometimes in the substance of the liver, and in 
branches of the hepatic duct. They consist of calculi composed of 
cholesterine, nearly in a state of purity; meUitic calculi, so named from 
their likeness to honey, in colour ; and calculi entirely composed, of 
inspissated bile. 

Gall-stone colic. Hepatic or biliary colic. Severe pain occasioned 
by the passing of gall-stones from the gall-bladder into the cystic 

GALLA2. Galls. Excrescences on Quercus infectoria, Olivier, 
caused by the punctures and deposited ova of Diplolepis Gall® tinctoriae, 
Latr. Hard, heavy, globular oo>1ies, varying in size from half an inch 
to three-fourths of an inch in diameter ; intensely astringent — Br. 

GA'LLIC ACID. Hydrogen gallate. A crystalline acid obtained 
from galls, and from most astringent parts of plants ; but principally by 
decomposition of tannic acid. Gallate of iron is the principal con- 
stituent of black ink. 

GALLKCOLJE (galla, a gall, colere, to inhabit). Gnll-inhabiters ; 
a_ tribe of Hymenopterous insects, or Diploteparue, of the section 
teora, which produce the excrescences on plants called galls. See 

GA'LLIUM. The name of a metal lately discovered by M. Lecoq 
de Boisbaudran, for the most part in zinc-blende, by means of spectrum- 
analysis, and named in honour of Prance. 

GALVA'NIC MOXA. A term applied by Fahre-Palaprat to the 
employment of Voltaic electricity, as a therapeutical agent, for pro- 
ducing the cauterizing effects of the moxa. 

GA'LVANISM. A form of electricity named after Galvani, and 
usually elicited by the mutual action of various metals and chemical 
agents upon each other. The additional discoveries of Volta led to the 
term Voitaism, or Voltaic Electricity ; and its effects on the muscles of 
animals newly killed suggested the term Animal Electricity. 

1. Galvanic Battery, or Trough. An apparatus for generating current 
electricitv, consisting of plates of zinc and cop|>er fastened together, and 
cemented into a wooden or earthenware trough, so as to form a number 
of cells ; the trough is then filled with diluted arid. 

2. Galvano-meter (fiirpov, a measure). Multiplier. An instrument 
which indicates the feeblest polarization of the magnetic needle, or 
slightest current in the connecting wire of a voltaic circle. 

3. Galrano-scope (oxoirei*, to examine). An instrument by means 
of which the existence and direction of an electric current may bo 
detected. A magnetic needle is a galvanoscope. 

4. Nomenclature. New and more recondite terms are in use. A 
battery is now a rheo-mntor ; the wire which conveys the current is a 
rheo-phore ; the whole circuit is called rheophoric, while the galvano- 
scope is a rheo-scope ; the galvanometer is a rheo-meter ; the 
instrument for reversing the currents is a rheo-trope ; that for 
periodically interrupting the current is a rheo-totne, while that for 

Q A L-4t AN 361 

maintaining the current at any degree of force is a rheostat. See 

GA'LVANIZED IRON. A substance prepared by coating clean 
iron with melted zinc by galvanic action, and thus combining the great 
strength of iron with the durability of zinc. 

GALVA'NO-PUNCTURE. An operation for aneurysm, in which 
•the attempt is made to produce coagulation in the tumor by decomposing 
the blood contained in it by means of the galvanic current. 

GA'MBIR. The Malay name of an astringent extract, procured 
from the Uncaria gambir, a Cinchonaceous plant of the Indian archi- 
pelago. The substance commonly called square catechu , and by tanners 
terra japonica, is the produce of this plant, and is therefore not catechu, 
but gambir. 

GAMBCGE. Cambogia. A gum-resin obtained from Garcinia 
More/la, rar. pedicellata, a Guttiferous plant, imported from Siam. 
The Ceylon gamboge is the produce of Hebradendron Cambogioides, 
and is usually considered of interior quality. 

GAMO-PETALOU8 (yapU, to marry, -rtTcrXo*, a petal). A 
term applied to a corolla which consists of cohering petals, and which is 
incorrectly termed tnonopetalous. 

Gasno-sepalous. A term applied to a calyx which consists of cohering 
sepals, and which is incorrectly termed monosepalous. 

GA'NGLION (yayy\tov, a tumor under the skin ; in modern ana* 
tomy, a plexus of the nerves). 1. A small nervous centre, or an enlarge- 
ment in the course of a nerve, sometimes termed a diminutive hrain. 


into its theca, as in ganglion patella, or the housemaid's knee. See 

1. Ganglion axygos, vel impar. An unpaired ganglion. A small 
ganglion situated on the first bone of the coccyx. See Axygos. 

2. Gangtifm, kardiac. A plexus, constituting the central point of 
union of the kardiac nerves. 

3. Ganglion, Cwserian. A large semilunar ganglion, formed of the 
fifth nerve, or trifacial. 

4. Ganglion cavemosum. A ganglion placed at the outer side of the 
internal carotid artery, towards the middle of the cavernous sinus. It 
does not always exist. 

5. Ganglion cervicate primum. The superior cerviral ganglion, 
situated under the base of the skull, and remarkable for its size and the 
regularity of its occurrence. Under the term great sympathetic or in- 
tercostal nerve are commonly associated all the ganglia which occur 
from the upper part of the neck to the lower part of the sacrum, toge- 
ther with the filaments which issue from them. 

6. Ganglion cervicale medium, seu thyrotdeum. A ganglion situated 
opposite to the fifth or sixth vertebra. It is often entirely wanting, 
sometimes double. 

7. Ganglion cervicale infrrius. The inferior cervical ganglion, 
situated behind the vertebral artery, between the transrerse process 
of the seventh cervical vertebra and the neck of the first rib. ^ It 
is sometimes double, and frequently continuous with the preceding 

8. Ganglia, lumlar. Five or fewer ganglia oix t*c>\ %\te, ^tesfck. 

333 O A N— O A R 

between the twelfth rib and the articulation of the last vertebra with 
the sacrum. 

9. Ganglion of Meckel The spheno- palatine ganglion, the largest 
•f the cranial ganglia. 

10. Ganglion, naso-palatiue. A ganglion discovered by Cloqoet in 
the anterior palatine foramen. 

11. Ganqtton ophthalmicum. The ophthalmic or lenticular ganglion, 
placed on the outer side of the optic nerve ; one of the smallest ganglia 
of the body. 

12. Ganglion, otic (ov«, »to«, the ear). A small ganglion discovered 
by Arnold, near the foramen ovale of the ear. 

13. Ganglion petrosum. Ganglion of Andersch ; a gangliform swell- 
ing on the gl otopharyngeal nerve. 

14. Ganglion o/Rihes. A small ganglion of communication between 
the sympathetic filaments of the anterior cerebral arteries. 

15. Ganglia, Moral. Three or four ganglia on each side, placed upon 
the sides of the anterior surface of the sacrum. 

16. Ganglia, semilunar. Two ganglia of the abdomen, lying partly 
upon the crura of the diaphragm, partly upon the aorta, opposite the 
cosliac trunk. 

17. Ganglion, sub-maxillary. A ganglion which occurs opposite the 
sub-maxillary gland. 

GANGLIO'NICA (yayyXiov, a nerve-knot). A class of medicinal 
agents which affect the sensibility or muscular motion of parts, supplied 
by the ganglionic or sympathetic svstem of nerves. 

GANGRiE'NA ORIS. Stomatitis gangrenosa. A disease which 
affects and destroys the cheeks, or gums, in infants. It is also 
termed cancrum oris. A similar disease occurs in the pudenda. 

GA'NGRENE (yayypaiira, from ypaivoa or ypa<#, to eat). The 
first stage of mortification, so named from its eating away the flesh. It 
ends in mortification, and is then called o-^xzkiXov, sphacelus. 

1. Hot gangrene. That form of the disease which is preceded or ac- 
companied by inflammation : cold gangrene is unattended by inflam- 

2. Humid gangrene. So called from the affected part containing a 
greater or less quantity of decomposed or other fluids ; in dry gangrene 
these fluids are not present, oronly in a very small quantity. In humid 
gangrene the mortified part is called a slough ; in dry gangrene, an 
eschar. The latter form, being frequently found to affect old people, 
has been also named senile gangrene ; this arises from ossification 
within the arteries. See Hospital Gangrene. 

GANNAL'S SOLUTION. A preparation for preserving animal 
substances, made by dissolving one ounce of acetate of alumina in 
twenty ounces of water. 

GA'RANCIN. The colouring matter of madder, mixed with the 
carbonized residue resulting from the action of oil of vitriol on the 
woody fibre and other constituents of madder. It is a brownish or 
puce-coloured powder nsed in dyeing. 

GARDEN-SPURGE OIL. A fixed oil, of the most violent pur- 
gative nature, obtained from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris, a common 
weed in cottage gardens, where it is called Caper. 

GARGARl'SMA (yapyafiigui, to gargle). Gargarismus. A 
gargle ; a preparation for rinsing the throat. 

GAR-GAS 253 

GARLIC. The common name given to the cloves of Allium 
sativum, a bulbous monocotyledonous plant, of the order Liliace*, 
found wild in Sicily and some parts of Provence. Oil of Garlic is 
obtained from the cloves, and constitutes the sulphide of the radical 

GAS. A Teutonic word, applied originally to elastic fluids, but 
now to any kind of air differing from that of the atmosphere. 

1. Permanent pases are those which retain their form unchanged, 
resuming their original volume on the discontinuance of any force 
which may have operated upon tliem, whatever may have been the 
change of temperature or the degree of compression to which they 
have been subjected. They are the onlv perfectly elastic substances in 
existence : hitherto this character has oeen restricted to oxygen gas, 
nitrogen gas, and hydrogen gas. Very recently, however, we have 
heard that oxygen gas has been liquefied by M. Raoul Pictet, of 

2. Compressible gases are those which lose their gaseous form from 
the action of cold and compression. These are carbonic acid gas, 
ammoniacal gas, &c. ; the former has been reduced to the liquid, even 
to the solid, form. See Vapours. 

GAS-LIGHT. Carburetted hydrogen; an inflammable aeriform 
fluid, evolved by the combustion of coal. 

GAS- LIQUOR. Ammoniacal liquor. The water which remains 
titer the gas. used for illumination, has passed through the purifier ; it 
consists of hydro-sulphuret and hydro-bisulphuret of lime, and has 
been used with great success in chronic cutaneous disorders. 

GA'SOLYTE8 {gas, and Xu-rot, soluble). The designation of a 
class of mineralizing (or electro-negative) elements which are capable 
of forming permanent gaseous continuations with oxygen, with hydrogen, 
or with fluorine. These are carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, &c. 

GASOMETRIC (gas. and piirpov^ a measure). A term applied to 
a branch of chemical analysis. See Analysis. 

GA8TR-, GA'STERO-, GA'STRO- (yavrnp, yavripot, syncop. 
yavrpot). In classical language, this term denoted the paunch or 
belly ; Lat. venter. Aristophanes uses the word ya<rTpf£«, to punch 
a man in the belly. In modern medicine, the term denotes exclusively 
the stomach. 

1. Gastric fever. A term first applied by Baillon to common fever, 
when attended by unusual gastric derangement; it is the meningo- 
gastric fever of Pinel. Catarrhal affections of the stomach, when 
slight, are termed " bilious attacks ;" when severe, they are sometimes 
designated gastric fevers. See Enteric Fever. 

2. Gastric Juice. The peculiar digestive fluid secreted by the stomach, 
the chief solvent fluid in the digestive process. It possesses chemical 
properties, and contains muriatic acid. 

3. Gastr-itis. Inflammatio ventriculi. Acute gastric catarrh ; an 
•cute disorder of the stomach, depending on an inflammatory condition 
of the mucous membrane, seldom an idiopathic affection. 

4. Gastro-cele (*nAij, a tumor). Hernia of the stomach. The term 
jnfXtr, celt, in this and similar compounds, suggests the contents of the 

5. Gastro-cnemius («crrj«»;, the leg). The name of a muscle, or 
muscles, alto called gemellus, which principally forms the calf or UUy 

254 O A U-jG A Y 

of the leg ; it is distinguished into two fleshy masses, called the outer 
and inner heads. Its office is to extend the foot. 

6. Gastr-algia (ahyot, pain). Pain of the stomach. The term is 
sometimes considered svnonymous with gastr-odynia. But neither 
word is classical. The (3 reeks had a clear idea of gluttony, which they 
expressed by yaa-rpifxapyla ; they seem to have escaped the modern 
result. See the term Stomach-ache. 

7. Gastro-enteritis. Inflammation of the gastro-intestinal mucous 
membrane. Gastro-enteritis mucosa is English cholera. 

8. Gastro-epiploic {iiriit\oov % the omentum). Belonging to the 
•tomach and omentum ; as applied to a branch of the hepatic artery, 
lymphatic glands of the abdomen, &c. 

9. Gastro-malakia (juaXa«dc, soft). Softening of the stomach ; a 
disease occurring in infants, and usually preceded by hydrokephalus, by 
an acute exanthematous disease, or by some disease of the respiratory 

10. Gastro-perwdynia (wtptooot, a period). Periodical pain of the 
stomach ; a peculiar disease, known in India by the name of tool. So 
painful are the paroxysms of this disease, that it is supposed to be 
produced by the deadly weapon in the hands of Siva, tne destroying 
power of the triad ; and so incurable, that even Siva himself cannot 
remove it. 

11. Gastro-rraphia (p&rrw, to sew). A suture uniting a wound of 
the belly, or of some of its contents ; a sewing up of a belly-wound. 

12. Gastro splenic omenta, A term applied to the laminae of the 
peritoneum, which are comprised between the spleen and the stomach. 

13. Gasiro-tomia (tom4, section). The operation of opening the 
stomach, for the removal of foreign bodies. The term gastrostomy 
(*r6fia t a mouth) has been applied by M. Sedillot to an operation for 
stricture of the oesophagus ; it consists in opening the stomach by an 
incision through the abdominal walls, and thus introducing food directly 
into the organ. The term implies the making of an artificial mouth/or 
the stomach. 

GAULTHE'RIC ACID. Salicylate of methylene. The heavy oil 
of partridge* berry, or Gauliheria procumbent, forming a constituent of 
the commercial oil of winter-green. It combines with bases and forms 
salts, called gaultherates. The light oil of partridge-berry is called 

OA Y-LUSSAC'S LAW. The discovery made by Gay-Luss&c, that 
there exists a simple relation, not only between the volumes of two 
gases which combiue, but also between the sum of the volumes of pas 
which enter into combination and the volume which this combination 
occupies when in the gaseous state. Thus : — 

1. Two volumes of hydrogen combine with one volume of oxygen to 
form two volumes of aqueous vapour. 

2. Two volumes of nitrogen combine with one volume of oxygen to 
form two volumes of protoxide of nitrogen. 

3. Three volumes of hydrogen are combined with one volume of 
nitrogen in two volumes of ammoniacal gas. 

4. One volume of nitrogen is united with one volume of oxygen in 
two volumes of binoxide of nitrogen. 

5. One volume of hydrogen is united with one volume of chlorino in 
two volumes of hydrochloric acid gas. 

G E I— G EN 255 

^ GE1N (>»ftVo«, earthy, from yrj, earth). Geic acid. A brown pre- 
cipitate obtained by boiling mould or decayed vegetable matter with 
alkalies. See Ulmxn. 

GELATl'GENOUS PRINCIPLES. Gelatinous principles. A 
class of alimentary principles which, on boiling in water, yield a jelly, 
and appear to serve for the production of the gelatinous tissues. They 
do not furnish protein. See Proteinaceous Principles. 

GE'LATIN (gelu, frost). An animal substance found present in all 
parts of the body, and constituting the walls or external investment of 
the cells of which animals are composed. The purest variety of gela- 
tin is isinglass; the commou gelatin of commerce is called glue ; and 
the hydrate of gelatin, jelly. Gelatin differs from chondrin merely in. 
its origin, the latter substance being procured from cartilage. 

Gelatin Capsules. Capsules prepared from a concentrated solution 
of gelatin, and filled with medicines. 

OELAT1NO SULPHUROUS BATH. Prepared by adding a 
pound of glue, previously dissolved in water, to the sulphurated bath 
(Dnpuy tren). The latter is prepared by dissolving four ounces of aul- 
phuret of potassium in thirty gallons of water. 

GELATINOUS TISSUES. Tissues which yield to boiling water 
a substance which, on cooling, forms a jelly, or may be called gelatin. 
They are chiefly found in the cellular membrane,* the membranes in 
general, the tendons, ligaments, bones, cartilages, &c. 

GELATIO {oelare, to freeze). A freezing or frost-bite. A term 
denoting every degree of chill, from the chiltblain to positive freezing 
and death of a part of the body, and specially applied to gangrene of the 
feet caused by exposure to cold. 

GELE'E POUR LE GOITRE. A preparation sold at Lausanne 
in Switzerland, consisting of the iodide of potassium. 

GE'LIDUS; EGE'LIDUS. The former term, derived from gelu, 
frost, means frosty or very cold ; the latter, with its prefix e % out of, 
signifies thawed, and hence lukewarm. Ovid has " gelid um Borean, 
egelidumque Notum." See Egelidus. 

GEME LLUS (gemmus, double). Twin ; the name of two muscles 
—the superior and the inferior — situated below the obturator externus. 
They are also called musculi gemini. 

GE'MMA. The general name for any precious stone ; also, a leaf- 
bud, or the rudiment of a young branch. The term gemma is also 
applied to minute green bodies found in little cups on the fronds of 
Marchantia. Gemma tnortnda are the buds of the Dyer's Oak, in an 
abnormal condition. 

GEMMATION {gemma, a bud). A term applied to the cell- 
development of plants and animals, in which new cells are formed on 
the outside of old cells by a kind of budding process, as in algss. See 

G EM MULE (gemmula, a small bud). A term used synonymously 
with plumule, the growing point of the embryo in plants. 

•GEN, -GENESIS, -GENOUS (y«V©t, birth, y«Wit, generation ; 
from ytv»am> to produce). Terminations denoting production, or 
generation, as in oxy- gen, the supposed producer of acidity ; epi-genesis, 
or the theory of generation by the joint production of matter afforded 
by both sexes ; and exogenous, denoting a mode of growth by external 

266 GEN 

GEN A* A cheek ; more frequently Gen*, the cheeks ; the lateral 
walls of the mouth ; the part of the face under the eve-lids. Gena 
differs from mala in referring to the external part only of the race, 
while the latter term includes the fleshy substance of the cheek and the 
cheek-bone. See Mala. 

GENERATION (generare, to beget). Reproduction. This is— 

1. Fimdparous (fissus, cleft, from findere, to cleave, and parire, to bring 
forth), wnen it occurs by spontaneous division of the body of tbe 
parent into two or more parts, each part, when separated, becoming a 
distinct individual, as in the monad, vorticella, &c. ; or by artificial 
division, as in the hydra, plauaria, &c. ; and in the propagation of plants 
by flip*. 

2. Gemmiparous (gemma, a bud, and parere, to bring forth), or the 
multiplication of the species by buds or gemmules, arising from perms, 
as exemplified in the vegetable kingdom, in many of the infusoria, &r. 

3. Grekeraiion by Fecundation (Jecundus, fruitful), or the effect of 
the vivifying fluid provided by one class of organs upon the germ con- 
tained in a seed or ovum formed by another class ; the germ, when 
fecundated, is termed the embryo. This process consists in impregna- 
tion in the male, conception in the female. 

GENERATION, SPONTANEOUS. The production of animal 
and vegetable life without the agency of organisms of a similar nature. 
This doctrine is termed arckegenesis by Haecke), abiogenesU by Huxley, 
and arche/tiosis by Bastian. 

Prof. Steenstrup to a phenomenon presented by many of the lower 
animals in the course of their development from the ovum to the adult 
condition. These not only pass through various forms, as is seen in 
the Insect tribes, but at certain stages of their growth possess the power 
of multiplying themselves. The individuals which exhibit this pheno- 
menon have been called a nurses,'* and the process has been particu- 
larly observed in the Acaleplue, Entozoa, Polypifera, Salpss, ana Vorti- 
cella. The progeny developed by means of " nurses " is permanently 
dissimilar from its parent, but itself produces a new generation, which 
either itself or in its offspring returns to the form of the pareut 
animal. — Engl. Cycl. 

GE'NESIS (yi^f pic, generation). The following terms have been 
employed by Haeckel with reference to the entire doctrine of organic 
evolution : ontogenesis, the history of individual development : phylo- 
genesis, the history of genealogical development; biogenesis, the history 
of life-development generally. Ontogenesis is thus a brief recapitula- 
tion of phvlogenesis. 

GENE'TICA (yivicrit, generation). Medicines which act on the 
sexual organs. As affecting the venereal orgasm, they comprise the 
aphrodisiacs and the anaphrodisiacs ; as affecting tbe uterus, they 
include the emmenuoooues and the ecbolics. 

GENEVA or HOLLANDS. An alcoholic beverage, made in 
Holland, from malted barley or rye, rectified on juniper-berries. 
Geneva must not be confounded with Gin, though the latter name was 
derived from the former. See Gin. 

GENI'O- (yivsiov, the chin). Geneio. Terms compounded of this 
word relate to muscles attached to the chin, as — 

1. Genio-glossus (y\w<rara, the tongue). A muscle situated between 

G E N—G E R 257 

the tongue and the lower jaw. This is also called gcnio-hyoglossus, 
from its being inserted also into the os hyoYdes; and by Winslow, 
polychreslus, from its performing every motion of the tongue. 

2. Genio-hyo'ideus. A muscle attached to the mental process of the 
lower Jaw and to the os hyoides. It pulls the throat upwards. 

3. Genial Processes. The name of four eminences of the inferior 
auxiliary bone, beneath the symphysis of the chin. 

GENITA'LIA (genitalis, pertaining to generation). Sub. membra. 
The organs of generation ; the sexual organs. Genitales menses, the 
months of pregnancy during which the child may be born. Genitale 
profluvium. seminal emission. 

GE'NITO-CRURAL. The name of a nerve proceeding from the 
first lumbar, and dividing into an internal brancJi, which accompanies 
the spermatic cord ; and vmexternal, which is distributed into filaments 
at the crural arch. 

GE'NTIAN. The pharmaceutical name of the dried root of Gen- 
tiana lutea, Linn., collected in the mountainous districts of Central and 
Southern Europe {tir. Ph.). Dioscoridcs mentions a common Alpine 
plant by the name yttrriavn or gentian. The gentian of commerce is 
reputed to contain a crystallizable principle called gentianin, whica 
itself consists of two distinct principles, the one tasteless and crys- 
talline, called gentisin or gentisic acid, the other bitter, named gen- 

GENTIAN SPIRIT. An alcoholic liquor produced by the vinous 
fermentation of the fusion of gentian ; nvich admired by the Swiss. 

GENU (yovv). The knee. Genua introrsum Jteaa is the Latin 
term for knock-knee or in-knee ; genua arcuata, for bow-knee or out- 
knee (see Genu Valgum). The term genu is also applied to the rounded 
anterior border of the corpus callosum of the brain. 

GENU VALGUM. This term is applied to the deformity called 
knock-knee, or X-knee. In classical language, however, varus is knock- 
kneed or having the legs bent inward, while valgus is bow-legged or 
having the legs bent outumrds. 

GENUS. A group of species which possess a community of essential 
details of structure. A genus may contain hundreds of species, or be 
limited to one. 

deducing phenomena from some one law or force, some single premise, 
as the anima of Stahl, the four elementary fluids of the humoral patho- 
logists, the similia similibus curantnr of the homceopathists, &c. 

GERM-CELL. The cell resulting from the union of the spermato- 
zoon with the germinal vesicle. This is the " primary " germ-cell ; 
those that are propagated by it are called "derivative" germ-cells. 
These and the assimilated yolk constitute the germ-mass, or matters 
prepared for the formation of the embryo. 

GERM-THEORY. A theory for explaining the origin of what are 
now called " communicable," " spreading,* 1 or " zymotic** diseases. It 
states that living germs, produced without the body and possessing an 
independent growth and vitality, enter the animal body and originate 
their specific diseases. See Septine. 

GERMAN SILVER. Packfong. AUmjUcl An alloy of copper, 
zinc, and nickel, mixed in different proportions for different purposes. 

GERMAN TINDER. Amadou. A substance prepared from tho 

258 G E R— G I N 

Pclyporus fomentaruis and igniarius, by cutting the fungi into slice*, 
beating and soaking them in a solution of nitre. 

GE RMEN. The term applied by Linnaeus to the ovarium of plants, 
forming the base of the pistil, and containing the ovules. 

GERMINAL MATTER. Formed material. These are terns 
adopted by Dr. Bealc, and synonymous with the cells of Schleiden and 
Schwann, as subserving the purposes of nutrition and growth in animal 
tissues. See Bioplasm. 

GERMINATION (germinare, to bud). The growth of the plant 
from seed; the first stage of development of the embryo; the process 
by which the embryo changes its condition to that of a young 

GERONTO'XON {yipmv, ylpoirrot, an old man, Togo?, a bow). 
Arcus senilis. The opaque circle, or half-circle, which occurs in the 
cornea, in cldcrlv persons. 

GESTATION (gestatio, a bearing or carrying, from pest art, to carry). 
This term originally denoted " an exercise of the body, by being earned 
in coach, litter, upon horseback, or in a vessel on the water.'* It is 
now a technical term applied only to the period during which the 
females of animals carry their young ; the state of pregnancy ; the carry- 
ing of the foetus in utcro. 

Gestation, erratic or extra -uterine. Of th is there are four kinds, viz. — 
the abdominal, in which the foetus is lodged in the abdomen; the 
interstitud, in which the foetus is lodged among the interstitial elements 
of the uterus ; the ovarial, in which the foetus is developed in the ova- 
rium ; and the tuliular, in which the fcetus is lodged in the Fallopian 

GIANT-CELL. A cell of various size and shape, containing a 
variable number of nuclei, and considered by Schucppel as the moat 
essential element of a tubercle. 

GI'B BOUS (gibbus, protuberant). That which has a projecting con- 
vex outline, as applied to solid bodies. The term gibbosity is applied to 
a symptom which occurs in rickets, in caries of the vertebra, &c. 

GI'MBERNAT'S LIGAMENT. The name given to that portion 
of the external oblique muscle, which is inserted into the pectineal line. 
It is commonly called " the third insertion of Poupart's ligament." 
Gimbernat was surgeon to the king of Spain, and published an essay on 
femoral hernia in 1/93. 

GIN. An ardent spirit prepared from fermented malt or other grain, 
and flavoured with the essential oil of juniper. 

GIN-LIVER. Drunkard's Liver. A term applied to the liver as 
it is commonly known amongst gin-drinkers : congestion and enlarge- 
ment are succeeded by inflammation and contraction of the organ. 

G1NGELLY OIL. A non-drying fixed oil, obtained from the seeds 
of Sesamum orientate ; also known as Teel oil, Denne oil, and Oil of 

GI'NGER. The dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale, occurring in 
flattish, jointed, branched, or lobed, palmate pieces, called races or 
hands, which rarely exceed four inches in length. 

GINGIVA. The gums; the reddish tissue which surrounds the 
necks of the teeth. Gingivitis is a barbarous term for inflammation of 
the gums, causing painful dentition. Vlitis, derived from ov\ov, or 
ow\o, the gums, is a preferable term. 

G I N— G L A 259 

Camlea eat plumbo gingiva. Blue gum from lead ; a specific disease 
of the gums, occasioned by poison. 

GITmGLYMUS (yiyy\v fios % a hinge). The hinge-like joint; a 
species of articulation admitting of flexion and extension. By the 
older writers, the term ginglymus was used to denote a species of 
diarthrosu, a ioint having extensive movement. See Articulation. 

Ginglymoid («I4of, likeness). Hinge-like ; as applied to that species 
of joint which admits of flexion and extension. 

GINSENG. The dried root of Panax Schinsenq, an Araliaceous 
plant highly esteemed in China. The Chinese term Jinsang or Ginseng 
implies " Wonder of the world," while Panax is probably derived from 
a Greek word denoting a cure for all diseases. 

GLABE'LLA (glaber, smooth). The triangular space between the 
eye-brows. Hence, the term glabellar, as employed by Barclay, denotes 
an aspect towards the glabella ; and glabellad, used adverbially, signifies 
44 towards the glabellar aspect." See Anatomy, p. 32. 

GLACIAL ACETIC ACID (glacialis, icy). The strongest acetic 
acid which can be procured. Its name is derived from its crystallizing 
in icy leaflets, which occurs at about 55° Fahr. 

GLACIAL PHOSPHORIC ACID. Metaphosphoric or monobasic 
phosphoric acid, appearing in the form of a colourless transparent pi ass, 
which slowly dissolves in water. 

GLAITMN. Baregin. A term referred by some writers to a gela- 
tinous vegetable matter ; by others to a pseudo-organic substance which 
forms on thermal waters. See Zoogen. 

GLAND (glans, glandis, an acorn). A small body, occurring in 
many parts of the body, composed of its various tissues, blood-vessels, 
nerves, &c., and possessing the power of absorbing or separating the 
various substances which pass into or are separated from the circulating 
fluid. Dr. Pemberton designates as glands of supply, the liver, the 
pancreas, the spleen, &c. ; and as glands of waste, the kidneys, the 
mamma, Sec. 

1. Gland, conglobate (con, together, globus, a ball), or simple; a 
gland subsisting bv itself, as those of the absorbent system. 

2. Gland, conglomerate (con, together, glomus, glomeris, a heap), or 
compound ; a gland composed of various glands, as the salivary, parotid, 
pancreatic, &c. 

3. Glands, concatenate (chained together, from con and catena, a 
chain), or glands of the neck, presenting, in children, a kind of knotty 
cord, extending from behind the ear to the collar-bone. 

4. Glands, Brunners, or the duodenal. Small, flattened, granular 
bodies, found in the duodenum, and compared collectively, by Von 
Brunn, to a second pancreas. 

5. Glands ofCbwper. Two small glandular bodies, placed parallel 
to each other before the prostate. They are also called accessory 

6. Glands, Haversian. The name of the fatty bodies which are 
found in connexion with most of the joints, and in general lying behind 
the synovial fringes. Clopton Havers supposed them to be the agents 
of the synovial secretion, and called them glandules mucilagtnosa. 
Weitbrecht called them adipo-glandulosa. 

7. Glands, lymphatic. Oval bodies situated in the course of the 
ymphatic vessels, and giving rise to new lymphatic trunks. 

8 2 

260 OLA 

8. Glands of Lieberkuhn. Numerous elands situated in the walls of 
the intestines, each gland being a simple blind sac of the mucous mem- 
brane, shaped like a small test tube, with its closed end outwards, and 
its open end on the inner surface of the intestine. 

9. Gland*, Meiltomian. Minute glands embedded in the internal 
surface of the cartilages of the eve-lids, resembling parallel strings of 
pearls. The complexity of a Meibomian gland consists in the fact that 
a number of follicles open into a single tube. 

10. Glands of Paccnioni. The granulations found in the superior 
longitudinal sinus of the membranes of the brain ; so called after 
Pacchioni, their discoverer. These bodies have no analogy whatsoever 
with glands, properly so called. 

1 1 . Glands, Pevers, or aggregate. Clustered glands, resembling oval 
patches, principally situated near the lower end of the ileum. 

12. Glands, salivary. The salivary glands, consisting of three pairs, 
the parotid, the submaxillar}-, and the sublingual. 

13. Glands, solitary. Small flattened granular bodies, found in the 
stomach and intestines. They are sometimes erroneously called 
B runner's. 

14. Glands of Tyson, or Odoriferous glands. The name of certain 
glands situated around the neck and corona of the glans penis in the 
male, and of the glans clitoridis in the female, secreting a strongly 
odorous humor, called smegma prepntii. 

GLAND-CYSTS. Cysts formed by the obstruction of excretory 
ducts, or follicles of glands, or by the abnormal development of portions 
of glands without ducts. 

GLAND-TJSSUE. An essential constituent of glandular tumor, 
consisting of sacs, or pouches of clean pellucid membrane, arranged in 
lobules or acini, and filled with glandular epithelium. 

GLANDERS. A febrile disease, due to the introduction into the 
system of a specific poison, originating in the horse, ass, or mule, and 
communicated directly or indirectly from them to man. When the 
nasal cavities are principally affected, the disease is called glanders ; 
when the lymphatic system suffers, it is cuNcd/urcy. The two diseases 
are essentially identical, both being caused by the same poison. See 
Equinia and Parciminum. 

GLA'NDULA (dim. of glans, an acorn or gland). In anatomy, a 
little gland ; in bo tan v, a tubercle, and especially an organ which 
secretes the fluids peculiar to different species of plants. 

GLANDULAR TUMORS. Tumors formed by the development 
of a tissue resembling that of secieting glands. In the female breast 
they are known as chronic mammary tumor, and imperfect glandular 

GLANS (same as (3a\uvot, by interchange of the letters hi and gl). 
Literally an acorn, a mast of any tree ; a pellet of lead, or other metal. 
Glans clitoridis is a term applied to a small accumulation of erectile 
tissue situated at the extremity of the clitoris. Glans penis is the vas- 
cular body forming the extremity of the penis; it it circumscribed by a 
prominent ridge, termed the corona glandis. 

GLANS, in Botany. A dry, inferior, indehiscent fruit, with a hard 
pericarp, as in quercus, castanea, fagus, &c. The glans is called culybio 
by Mirbel, and nucula by Desvaux. See Achamium. 

GLASS. Vitrum. An alkaline silicate, or a mixture of alkaline 

G L A -G L E 261 

with earthy silicates; chemically considered, therefore, it bears a near 
relation to ceramic ware, especially the variety known as soft porcelain. 
The rarieties of glass are three, viz. colourless glass without lead ; 
colourless glass with lead, termed by us flint-glass , and by the French, 
crystal ; and the several varieties of coloured glass. 

*1. Glass-gall. Fiel dc verre ; /el vitri ; sandiver. The saline scum 
which rises to the surface in the manufacture of glass, and consists 
chiefly of sulphate of soda and chloride of sodium. 

2. Glass-wool. Glass spun as fine as the ordinary fibre of wool. It 
is made in Germany, and is proposed for the filtration of very acid 
solutions, as chromic acid, &c. 

3. Glass, soluble. A glass formed by combining potash or soda with 
silicic acid or silica, without any third ingredient. It presents the 
usual vitreous aspect, but is easily dissolved in water. 

4. The term Glass is also applied to glassy substances, as the glass of 
antimony, or the sulphuret ; to mica, glacies Marine, or Afvscovy glass ; 
to bismuth, or tin-glass, &c. 

GLAUBERS SALT. Sal minMe. Native sulphate of soda , 
frcqueutly found in mineral springs, and sometimes on the surface of 
the earth, but named from Glauber, a German chemist, who first 
noticed the substance as a saline mass left after the production of mu- 
riatic acid from common salt and sulphuric acid. Glaubers secret sal 
ammoniac is sulphate of ammonia, a constituent of soot from coal. 
Glauberite is a crystallized salt, consisting of nearly equal parts of the 
sulphates of lime and soda. 

GLAUCIC ACID (y\avic6*, azure). An acid procured from the 
teazle and scabious plants. 

GLAUCl'NA {yXavtov, azure). A term proposed for the natural 
form of cow-pox, from the bluish or azure tint of the vesicles. 

GLAU'CINE (yXavKot, azure). An alkaloid procured from the 
leaves and stem of Gluucium lute urn. It is bitter and acrid, and forms 
salts with acids. Glaucopicrine is found in the same plant. 

GLAUCCSIS; GLAUCOMA (yXavKoopat, to suffer from 
glaucoma ; vXavxot , bluish-gray). By these terms Hippocrates com- 

firehended all opacities behind the pupil. But the terms soon became 
imited to those opacities which were of a greenish colour. Thev now 
denote a morbidly increased tension of the tunics of the eve-ball, pro- 
duced by intraocular (hydrostatic) pressure of its contained fluids. 

1. Glaucosis and glaucoma have, in classical terminology, distinct 
meanings. Mason Good prefers glaucosis to glaucoma, ** because the 
final -oma imports usually, and, for the sake of simplicity and consis- 
tency, ought always to import, external protuberance, as in staphyloma, 
sarcoma, &c." But this is not correct criticism. The two terms 
are related to each other as cause and effect, and their characteristic 
terminations are not -oma and -osis, but -ma and -sis. See Preface^ 
par. 2. 

2. Glaucoma fulminans. A term applied by Gr'afe to the extremely 
violent case of glaucoma, in which vision is lost in a few hours. 

GLEET. Gonorrhata mucosa. A transparent mucous discharge from 
the membrane of the urethra; sometimes the sequela of gonorrhoea. 

GLE'NOID (vAijvij, a cavity, tU&t, form). The name of a part 
having a shallow cavity, as the socket of the shoulder-joint ; also of a 
fissure and a foramen of the temporal bones, &c. 

262 OL I-G L 

GLI'ADINE (yXt'a, glue). The viscid portion of gluten. 

GLI'DING. The simple movement of one articular surface on 
another, existing in different degrees in all the joints. 

GLIO'MATA (yXt'a, glue). Tumors occurring in the neuroglia or 
interstitial connective tissue of the brain, and formed by a localized 
hypertrophy of the neuroglia. The soft varieties are closely allied to 
medullary sarcomata, the hard to fibrous tumors. 

GLISSON'S CAPSULE. A cellulo-vascular membrane, which 
envelopes the hepatic vessels in the right border of the lesser omentum, 
and accompanies them through the transverse fissure to their ultimate 

GLOBULES, RED {globulus, dim. of globus, a ball). The red 
colouring matter of the blood, consisting of globular corpuscles or discs 
composed of hasmatin and globulin. 

GLO'BULI MARTIA'LES. Bottles de Nancy. The ferric tartrate 
of potash; tho globuli of this salt were formerly wrapped in muslin, 
and suspended in water to form a chalybeate solution. 

GLO BULIN. The principal constituent of the blood- globules or 
corpuscles, closely allied to albumen. It occurs in large proportion in 
the matter composing the crystalline lens of the eye. The term haa 
also been applied to the amylaceous granules found in the tissue of 
plants, which Turpin considered as the elementary state of the tissue. 
See Hemoglobin and Paraplobutm. 

GLO'BUS HYSTE'RICUS. A sensation attendant on hysteria, as 
of a globus or ball ascending to the stomach, then up the chest to the 
neck, and becoming fixed in the throat. 

GLOBUS M A'JOR EPID1D Y'MIS. A name applied to the upper 
end of the epididymis, which is of great size, owing to the large assem- 
blage of convoluted tubes in tho coni vasculosi. 

Globus minor epididymis. The lower portion of the epididymis, con- 
sisting of the convolutions of the vas deferens, previously to its com- 
mencing its ascending course. 

GLOMERA'TION (glomus, glomeris, a ball or clew of thread). 
Literally, heaping into a ball ; a term sometimes applied to tumor. 

GLO MERULE. Glomus. A form of inflorescence bearing the 
same relation to the capitulum that the compound does to the simple 
umbel ; that is, it is a cluster of capitula enclosed in a common m- 
volucrum, as in Echinops. 

GLOMERULUS (dim. of glomus, a hall, as of cotton). The name 
of a plexiform tuft of minute vessels or looped capillaries, contained 
within each of the Malpigkian capsules. 

GLCfNOINE OIL. Nitro-glycerin. A highly explosive substance, 
consisting of nitre and glycerin. Under the name Noble's oil, it haa 
been used in mining operations. Its explosive force is said to be ten 
times more powerful than that of gunpowder. 

GLO'SSA, or GLOTTA (yXuaca, yXwrra). The tongue ; tho 
organ of speech. 

1. Gloss-agra (ay pa, seizure). Inflammation of the tongue; 
swelled tongue ; a term synonymous with glossalgia, glossocele, 
glossitis, Ac. 

2. Gloss-itis. Inflammatio lingua. Inflammation of the tongue ; a 
rare affection, generally an accompaniment of other diseases, rather 
than an idiopathic affection. 

GLO-GLU 263 

3. Cfiosso-. Terms compounded of this word belong to nerves or 
muscles attached to the tongue, as in the three following terms. 

4. Glosso-staphylinus. A designation of the constrictor isthmi 
fancium, from its origin in the tongue, and insertion into the 

5. Glosso-pharyngeus. A synonym of the constrictor superior, from 
its origin in the root of the tongue, and its insertion into the pharynx. 

6. Crlosso-pharyngeal nerves. Another name for the eighth pair. 

7. Glosso-catochus (tca-rcx"* to hold down). An instrument for 
depressing the tongue. 

8. Glosso-cele (itijXf?, a tumor). An extrusion of the tongue ; swelled 

9. Glosso-comum (*o/u'c0, to guard). Formerly, a case for the tongue 
of a hautboy ; but, metaphorically, a kind of long box, or case, for con- 
taining a fractured leg. 

10. Glosso-hyal (kvoides os). A bone of the hernial spine of most 
fishes, which enters tne substance of the tongue. See Vertehra. 

11. Glosso-logy (Xoyoc, an account). An account of the tongue; 
generally, an account of terminology. 

12. Glosso-iomy (ro/utj, section). Dissection of the tongue. 
GLOTTIS (yAwTTf*, the glottis, or mouth of the windpipe). Rima 

glottidis. The aperture between the arytaeno'id cartilages. It is 
covered by a cartilage called the epi-glottis. 

GLU'CIC ACID (yAi/Kus, sweet). An acid formed by the action 
of a saturated solution of lime or barytes on grape-sugar. 

GLUCI'NUM (yXvitvc, sweet). Beryllium. A rare metal, found 
associated with silica and alumina in the emerald, which is a double 
silicate of alumina and glucina, the only known oxide of the metal ; it 
occurs also in the beryl. It is named from the sweet taste of its 

GLUCOHjE'MIA (yXvici/c, sweet, ol/io, blood). Glycamia. A 
saccharine state of the blood, characteristic of diabetes mellitus t or 
saccharine diabetes — the condition of glucosuria. 

GLU'COSE (yXvKvv, sweet). Deatro-glucose. A designation of 
grape-sugar. The glycosides are a class of substances so named from 
the presence of glucose among their products of decomposition. The 
chief member of this class is salicin. Lcsvo-glucose is fruit-sugar. 

GLUC08U'RIA (>Xu*ur, sweet, ovpia, to make water). A morbid 
condition of the urine, in which it contains glucose or grape-sugar. 
The term is synonymous with diabetes mellitus, melituria, &c. 

GLUE (gluten). The common gelatine of commerce, made from 
the parings of hides, hoofs, &c. Ether-glue is an excellent liquid glue 
made by dissolving glue in nitric ether. 

GLUME (glum a y the husk of corn). A term applied to the peculiar 
envelope of the floral apparatus in grasses, which are hence called 
glvmacet*. It is a modification of the bract. 

GLUTEUS (yXovro't, nates, the buttock). The name of three 
muscles of the hip, forming part of the buttock. They are the incuri- 
muSy which extends the thigh ; the medius, which acts in standing ; and 
the minimus, which assists the others. 

GLUTEN {gelare, to congeal). A viscid substance obtained from 
wheaten flower, and termed the vegcto-animal principle (containing 
nitrogen). It contains vegetable fibrin, resembling the substance of 

264 GLY 

muscular fibre: a substance resembling the casein, which composes 
the curd of milk ; and glutin, which resembles the albumen of the 

1. Gluten Bread. An article of diet used in diabetes. It is not 
made of pure gluten, but one-sixth of the original quantity of starch 
contained in the flour is retained. 

2. Gluten, crude* or Bavaria* $ gluten. Names given to the thick, 
tenacious mass which is left when wheaten dough is washed on a sieve 
bv a stream of water ; a milky liquid passes through, and tiic crude 
gluten remains. 

3. Gluten, granulated. A paste made by the artificial addition of 
wheat-gluten to the ordinary wheat, forming an agreeable and nutri- 
tious food. 

4. Glutinous Sap. Milky Sap. Vegetable milk, or the juico ob- 
tained by incision from the Palo de Vaca, or Cow-tree, which grows in 
the province of Cameras. 

GLYCERI'NUM (>Xi/ku9, sweet). Propenvl alcohol. Glycerin; 
44 a sweet principle obtained from fats and fixed oils, and containing a 
small percentage of water." — Br. Ph. It is a clear colourless fluid, and 
was termed by Chevreul the " father of the fatty acids. 11 Glyceryl is 
the hypothetical radical of glycerin ; the glycerides are the compound 
ethers of glycerin ; and the ylycerita are the pharmaceutical preparations 
of glycerin." 

GLYCOCHOL1C ACID (yXuicu*, sweet, x*»*fl, l>ile). An acid 
obtained from the bile. 

GLY'COCIN (yXpxus, sweet). One of the principal constituents of 
bile, contributing to the process of respiration. 

GLY'COCOLL (yXuavv, sweet, KoWa, glue). Sugar of gelatine ; 
a compound found among the products obtained by boiling gelatine 
with potash or acids. 

GLY'COGEX {yXvKvt, sweet, ytvvdw* to produce^. Animal 
Starch. A substance elaborated from the blood by the liver, and ca- 
pable of passing very readily, under the influence of the animal fluids, 
into glucose, or liver-sugar. 

GLYCOL (yXvKvv, sweet). The type of a new class of compounds, 
occupying an intermediate place between the class of alcohols of which 
common alcohol is the type, on the one hand, and the class of bodies of 
wbich glycerin is the type, on the other. The name glycol has been 
given to express this relation, and that of diatomic alcohol to denote 
that they have a capacity of saturation double that of common alcohol. 

GLYCYRRHI'ZA GLA'BRA {yXwcfc, sweet, fta, a root). 
Common Liquorice; a Leguminous plant, the root or underground 
frtem of which, fresh and dried, is called liquorice-root, or stick-liquorice. 
The Greeks distinguished the liquorice-root by the name adipson 
(from a, priv., and <Jii//a, thirst), from its property of assuaging thirst ; 
perhaps the term liquorice may be derived from the same idea. 

Glycyrrhizin or Glycion. Liquorice-sugar; the saccharine juice of 
liquorice- root, and some other roots of sweet taste. 

GLY'OX AL. The aldehyde of glycol, found among the products cf 
the decomposition of nitrous ether in contact with water. 

GLYO XYLINE. An explosive substance consisting of a mixture 
of gun-cotton pulp and saltpetre saturated with nitro-glyccrinc. Sec 

G L Y— G L 265 

GLYTHOGRAPH Y (y\u</>i?, hollowing, ypd<f>w, to describe). A 
method of etching by galvanism, in which the paint or composition 
it so laid on as to cause a series of hollows in the electrotype deposit, 
sufficiently deep to prevent being inked by the inking roller; in other 
words, all those parts which are to be black in the impression are left 
untouched on the plate — a plan directly the reverse of that of electro- 

GN ATHOS (yvuflos, the cheek or jaw). The cheek, the jaw ; the 
part of the jaw in which the teeth are fixed, and, hence, the term pro- 
gnathous denotes the prominence of the jaw in the Negro variety of 
the human race. The term has also been used in pathology, as in 
gnatkitis, gnatlto-neura/gia t gnatho-paralysis, gnatho-plegia, gnatho- 
rrhagia, &c. The Greek terms yva0oe and you toy, the Latin gena 
(our chin), the I>atin gingiva, perhaps the German Gaumen (our gums), 
are all derived from the Greek yivi/?, the under jaw, the upper jaw 
being yipuov. 

Gnatho-stoma. A genus of Nematoid entozoa, remarkable for the 
existence of a distinct salivary apparatus. Beautiful preparations ot 
both the male and female worms dissected arc preserved in the museum 
of the College of Surgeons. 

GOA POWDER. Bahia jaowder. Araroba powder. The powder 
produced from a leguminous plant growing in Bahia, and employed as 
a powerful remedy in certain skin diseases. 

GOADBY'S SOLUTION. A preparation for preserving animal 
substances, made with bay-salt, corrosive sublimate, or arsenious acid, 
and water. 

GCEBEL'S PYROTHORUS. A mixture of charcoal and lead, in 
which the latter is in so extreme a state of division, as to take fire on 
exposure to the air. It is formed by heating the tartrate of lead in a 
close vessel or tube to dull redness. 

GOITRE, or GOTRE (probably a corruption of gultur, the throat). 
The name given in Switzerland to Bronchoccle, or the Thyrophraxia 
ofAlibert Heister thought it should be called tracheocele. Prosser, 
from its frequency in the hilly parts of Derbyshire, called it the Der- 
byshire neck; ami, not satisfied respecting the similitude of this tumor 
to that observed on the necks of women on the Alps, the English 
hromchocele. It consists in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, and is 
frequently associated with cretinism. See Dronchocele exophthalmica. 

GOLD. Aurum. A metal almost invariably found in the metallic 
state, usually, however, contaminated with silver or copper, or both. 
Sterling gold consists of 22 parts of gold and 2 of copper ; standard 
gold, of 18 sold and 6 copper ; in green gold, silver is substituted for 
copper. Gold, alloyed with much silver, is called electrum. 

GOLD-BEATERS' SKIN. A delicate membrane prepared from 
the peritoneal or external membrane of the large intestine of the ox. 
The manufacture of this article is termed by the French boyauderie, 
from boyau, an intestine. 

GOLD-LEAP ELECTROMETER. An instrument for detecting 
the presence of electricity by the divergence of two slips of gold-leaf. 

GOLDEN OINTMENT. Singleton's Eye-salce. Sulphuret of 
arsenic (orpiment) and lard, or spermaceti-ointment. The Unguenium 
Hydrargyri Nitrico-oxydi of the London College is also sold under 
the same title. 

966 GOL-GO U 

GOLDEN SU'LPHURET. A sulphurct of antimony, also termed 
ntiphantimonic acid, and prepared by precipitating antimonic acid by 
sulphuretted hydrogen. See Kermes Mineral. 

GOMPHO'SIS Oyd/u^oxrtr, a bolting together, from y6^<pof, a 
bolt). An articulation of bones, like that of a nail in a piece of wood ; 
that of the teeth, for instance, in their sockets. By the ancient writers, 
the word qomphosis was applied to a species of synarthrosis, an almost 
immovable joint. See Articulation. 

GONORRHOEA (yovn, semen, p«», to flow). Clap. Literally, a 
flow of semen ; but really an inflammation and suppuration of the 
mucous membrane of the genital organs, produced by contagion from 
the pus of a membrane similarly affected. See Baptorrhcsa and its 
two following terms. See also Balanitis. 

GONOSOME (yovif, semen, aa>/u«r, body). A term applied to a 
series of reproductive zooids produced by the flowers of toe hydroid 
zoophytes. See Tropliosome. 

GONUA'GRA (yovu, the knee, aypa, seizure). Gonatagra. Gout 
of the knee. Though the Greeks had no specific term for gout of the 
knee, they had some epithets very expressive of its effects ; such are 
yo¥v~Ka/jL\J/-nriKvpTo*, twisting the knee awry, and yovv-nava~ 
dypvirva, burning the knee and keeping one awake. 

GONYA'LGIA (yovva\yri<;, sufferingpain in the knee, Hipp.). A 
local variety of regular gout attacking the Knee. See Gout. 

GOOSE-SKIN. The vernacular term for that state of the skin in 
which it resembles the surface of a plucked fowl. See Cutis An- 

GO'RDIUS. The Seta equina, or horse-hair worm of the old 
writers. It is supposed to occasion intestinal disease among the pea- 
santry of Lapland from drinking water impregnated with this worm ; 
and cuticiUar disease, when it is lodged under the skin, constituting the 
morbus pilaris of Horst, and the morbus a crinonibus of Sauvages, &c. 
See Pseudo-helminths. 

GORGET. An instrument used in lithotomy, for cutting the 
prostate gland and neck of the bladder. 

GOSS Y'PIUM. A genus of malvaceous plants, various species of 
which yield cotton wool, consisting of the hairs of the seed, carded, and 
employed in the preparation of pyroxylin. Common to both the Old 
and the New World. 

GOULARD-WATER. Liquor plumbi diaceiatis dilutus. Solution 
of diacctate of lead, distilled water, and proof-spirit 

GOULARD'S CERATE. The ceratum plumbi comp., or compound 
cerate of lead. The formula for this differs, however, from Goulard's 
original recipe, in ordering camphor, while the other directs a large 
quantity of water to be mixed with the cerate. 

GOULARD'S EXTRACT. Tribasic acetate of lead, prepared by 
dissolving litharge in solution of acetate of lead. 

GOURD OIL. Cucumber oil. A drying fixed oil obtained from 
the seeds of several species of cucumis and cucurbita. 

GOUT (ffoutle, French ; gutta, Latin, a drop). A term, derived, 
like rheumatism, from the humoral pathology, and suggesting the 
dropping of a morbid fluid into the joints. The disease presents the 
following varieties :— 

1. Acute Gout. Podagra acuta. " A specific febrile disorder, 

G U— G R A 267 

characterized by non-suppurative inflammation, with considerable red- 
new of certain joint* — chiefly of the hands and feet, and especially, in the 
first attack, of the great toe — and attended with excess of uric acid in 
the blood." 

2. Chronic Gout. Podagra longa. "A persistent constitutional 
affection, characterized bv stiffness and swelling of various joints, with 
deposits of urate of soda.* 

3. Retrocedent Gout. " A term applied to cases of gout in which 
tome internal organ becomes affected on the disappearance of the disease 
from the joints. It should be referred to acute or chronic gout'* — 
Norn, of Vis. 

4. Synonyms. (1.) Local varieties of Regular Gout are named 
podagra, cheiragra, cleisagra, and gonuagra, in reference to the parts 
affected. (2.) Irregular Gout has been termed non-articular, anoma- 
lous, retrocedent, misplaced gout, &c. 

GOUTY CONCRETIONS. Calculi formed in the joints of jouty 
persons, resembling chalk-stones in colour and softness, and consisting 
of urate of soda. 

GOUTY KIDNEY. A term applied by Dr. Todd to one of the 
most inveterate forms of albuminuria resulting from chronic gout. 

GOWN, RED. Tooth-rash ; red gum-rash. Popular names for 
strophulus, or the Exormia strophulus of Mason Good. 

GRAA'FIAN VESICLES. Small cells or vesicles, also called 
ovisacs, found near the surface of the ovary. 

GRA'CILIS. Slender; the name of a long, thin, flat muscle, 
otherwise called rectus internus femoris, from its straight direc- 

GRAINES \y AVIGNON. French berries. The unripe fruit of 
RhamnuB infectorina ; used in dyeing. 

GRAN A PARAOrSI. Grains of Paradise. Guinea grains or 
Malageuta pepper; the hot, acrid, aromatic seeds of the Amomum 
mdegeuta, imported from the coast of Guinea for the purpose of im- 
parting a fictitious strength to malt and spirituous liquors. 

GRANA SECA'LIS DEGENERATI. Ergot ; a substance found 
in the pales? of rye, &c. ; also termed Spermoedia clavus, Secale cor- 
nuturo, Spurred rye, &c. See Erqota. 

GRANA TI'GLIA. Grana Dilla; Grana TiUi. The seeds of 
Croton Tiglium, from which croton-oil is procured. 

GRA'NADIN. A sweet substance procured from the root of the 
pomegranate, and now decided to be inannite. 

GRANA'TUM (granatus, having many grains or seeds). The 
word malum, or apple, being understood, the term denotes a pome- 
granate. It belongs to the genus Punica, and is obtained from the 
south of Europe. Hippocrates mentions it by what is supposed to be 
its Phoenician name, <riit\, side. By the Romans it was called Punica 
and Punicum malum, from its having been introduced from Carthage. 

GRA'NDO (a hailstone). Chalazion. A small serous tumor of 
the eye-lid, named from its resemblance in size, transparency, and hard- 
ness to a hailstone ; an imperfectly suppurating stye. 

GRANULATION (grantan, a grain). 1. A process by which 
minute grain-like, fleshy bodies are formed on the surface of wounds 
or ulcers during their healing. 2. In Chemistry, the term denotes a 
process for the mechanical division of metals by agitating them in a 

268 G R A 

melted state till they cool, or shaking them in a box, or pouring them 
from a certain height into cold water. 

GRA'NULE (granum, a grain). A little grain ; a small particle. 
In describing the appearance of the under surface of the epidermis, Mr. 
Erasmus Wilson speaks of primitive granules, which he conceives to 
be " the first organic shape of the blastema of the liquor sanguinis ;'* 
aggregated granules, or minute masses of four, five, or six of the pre- 
ceding ; and nucleated granules, which are ** in point of construction 
an * aggregated granule' with a single layer ot aggregated granules 
arranged around it, the central * aggregated granule ' having now become 
a nucleus." See NucJeolo-nucJeated Cell. 

GRANULE-MASSES. The name given to large bodies occurring 
in cases of non-inflammatory softening of the spinal cord ; in their form 
and general appearance they resemble mulberries. 

GRAPE-SEED OIL. A drying fixed oil obtained by expression 
from the seeds of grapes ; also known as oil of wine-stones. 

GRAPE-SUGAR. Glucose ; Dextrose. A variety of the granular 
or crumbling sugars of the Germans. 

GRAPHITE (yp6<pu>, to write ; so termed from its use in the 
manufacture of pencils). Plumbago, or black lead, found in primary 
mountains. It is a nearly pure form of carbon. 

-GRAPH Y (ypa </>»}, writing, or painting, from ypdcpw, to write). 
A description of anything, properly in writing or painting. Hence 
udeno -graphy (a&t'iv, a gland), a description of the glands; o&leo-graphy 
(oariov, a bone), a description of the bones ; phylQ-praphy (dtvroy, a 
plant), an account of the rules to be observed in naming and describing 

GRASS-OIL OF NAMUR. A volatile oil procured, according to 
Rovle, from the Andropogon Calamus aromaticus. It is sometimes 
called oil of spikenard, though incorrectly ; this substance being pro- 
cured from the Nardostacbys Jatamansi. 

GRAVE'DO (gravedo,' from gravis, heavy). Catarrhus narium. 
Coryza ; nasal catarrh ; catarrhal inflammation of the membrane lining 
the frontal sinuses. We read in Pliny of " crapulse gravedines," head- 
aches from intoxication. 

GRAVEL. Crystalline sediments deposited in the bladder from the 
urine. When these sediments are Amorphous and pulverulent, they are 
termed — 

1. The red gravel, or lateritious, or pink, consisting chiefly of lithate 
of ammonia, with or without free uric acid ; or 

2. The white gravel, consisting of the mixed lithic and phosphatic 
sediments, with an iridescent pellicle. 

When Crystallized, they constitute — 

1. The red gravel, consisting of crystals of uric or lithic acid ; or 

2. The white gravel, generafiv consisting of the triple phosphate of 
magnesia and ammonia, and existing in the form of perfectly white and 
shining crystals. 

GRAVfeSS DISEASE. This, which is also called Basedow^ 
disease, is described under the term Bronchocele exophthalmica. It is 
generally believed that a neurosis of the cervical sympathetic nerve is 
the cause of the affection. — Tanner. 

GRAVTMETER (gravis, heavy, pirpov, a measure). An un- 
Ciassical word for an instrument constructed for the calculation of the 

O R A— O R 269 

specific gravity of bodies ; it has been described under the correct terms 
araometer and hydrometer. The term gravimetric denotes a mode of 
conducting quantitative analysis, and is described under the word 

GRA'VITY (gravitas, heaviness). The tendency of all bodies 
towards the centre of the earth ; the unknown cause of this phenomenon 
is called gravitation. Gravity differs from Attraction, in being a spe- 
cies of the latter; e.g. we speak of capillary attraction, magnetic 
attraction, &c., but not of capillary or magnetic gravity. 

GRAVITY, SPECIFIC. The specific gravity of a body is its 
density or weight, compared with the density or weight of another body 
which is assumed as the standard. 1. The specific gravity of a gas or 
vapour is its weight, as compared with that of an equal volume of dry 
and pure air of the same temperature and pressure. 2. The specific 
gravity of a liquid or solid body is its weight, as compared with mat of 
an equal volume of pure water at GO 3 Fahr. 

1. Specific gravity bottle. A light bottle containing exactly 1000 
grains of distilled water at 60°, used for determining the speci- 
fic gravity of a liquid. The bottle being filled with any liquid, 
the weight in grains of the liquid determines the specific gravity 

2. Specific gravity beads. Hollow beads of different sizes having 
projecting tails, and marked with certain numbers, used for showing 
roughly the density of a liquid. 

GRAY LOTION. A preparation for irritable sores, consisting of 
chloride of mercury and lime-water. 

GRAY POWDER. Hydrargyrum cum creta. Mercury with 
chalk. ; mercurv and prepared chalk rubbed together until globules are 
no longer visible. 

GREAT SYMPATHETIC. A nerve formed by a collection of 
filaments from every nerve which join one another at the adjacent 

GREEN COLOURING MATTERS. 1. Emerald greeny com- 
pound of copper and arsenic. 2. Brunsttick greens of several shades- 
all composed 1 of Prussian blue (ferro-cyanatc of iron) and chrome yellow 
(chromate of lead) struck upon a white base — sulphate of bary tes. 3. 
Green verditer % or carbonate of copper and lime. 

GREEN SICKNESS. The popular term for chlorosis, from the 
pale, lurid, and greenish cast of the skin. 

GRE'GARINES. The name of a supposed parasite, found at or 
near the ends of hair collected fur the purpose of being manufactured 
into chignons and other eccentricities. 

GRL'NADIN. Another name for mannite^ or manna-sugar, a con- 
stituent of manna. 

GRENOUILLE. The French term for a frog ; the distended sub- 
maxillary duct. See Batrachus. 

GRIPPE. A French term applied to various epidemic forms of 
gastro-bronchitis. It is used by Laennec to denote an epidemic catarrh, 
which occurred in 1803, and which was characterized by the peculiar 
glutinous *pota observed in acute pneumonia. 

GROATS. The decorticated grains of the Avena sativa, or oat. 
These, when crushed, constitute the Embden and Prepared Groats. 
Groats and oa'meal, boiled with water, form gruel. 

270 OR O—G U B 

GROCERS* ITCH. The eczema rubrum dorsi manus, occurring on 
the back of the hand from irritation caused by the contact of sugar. 
It diflera from itch, properly bo called, in its non-contagiousness. See 

GRCSSULINE {grosseille, a gooseberry). The name given by 
Guibourt to a peculiar principle procured from gooseberries and other 
acid fruits, forming the basis of jelly. 

GROTTO DEL CANE {dog's grotto). A cave in Italy, in which 
there is a constant natural exhalation of carbonic acid, which, occupying 
the lowest stratum of the air, induces asphyxia in dogs taken into it, 
while man, by virtue of his height, escapes. 

GROUND-NUT OIL. A non-drying fixed oil obtained from the 
seeds of a Leguminous plant, termed Arachis hypogaa. 

GROVE'S BATTERY. An apparatus for performing the experi- 
ment of decomposing or analyzing water. 

GRUBS. Comedones. Worms; round, black spots occasioned by 
retention and discoloration of the secretion in the sebiferous ducts, 
occurring in the skin of the face. 

GRU'MOUS {grumus, a heap or hillock). Knotted ; collected into 
granular masses, as the feecula of the sago-palm. 

GRUTUM. The name given by Plenck to milium, or millet-rash ; 
also called pearly tubercles , follicular elevations, and, by Mr. E.Wilson, 
sebaceous miliary tubercles. The term grutum denotes the gritty or 
millet-like appearance of the elevations of the sebaceous glands of the 

GRYLLUS VERRUCI'YORUS. The wart-eating grasshopper of 
Sweden, which is caught for the purpose, as it is said, of biting off the 
excrescence, when it also discharges a corrosive liquor on tho wound. 

GUA'CO. A remedy for snake-bite, procured from the' Mikania 
Guaco, a plant of South America. 

GU A1ACUM OFFICINALE. Officinal Guaiacum ; a Zygophyl- 
laceous plant, the wood, resin, and bark of which are imported from 
St Domingo and Jamaica. 

1. Guaiacum- wood. Commonly termed lignum vitas, from its re- 
puted efficacy in syphilis. The shavings or raspings, scobs vel rasura 
auaiaci, are prepared by the turner for the use of the druggist. The 
bark is employed on the Continent, but is not officinal in this 

2. Guaiacum-resin. Commonly, though erroneously, called gum 
auaiacum ; a resin obtained by natural exudation, by incisions, or by 
heat, from the stem of the tree. The theoretical base of the resin is 
called guaiacyl. 

GUA'NO (kuanu, Peruvian, dung). A manure employed in South 
America, consisting of urate of ammonia, and another ammoniacal salt. 
It consists of the excrements of sea-fowl. Guanine is a compound found 
in guano, resembling urea in its properties. 

GUA'RANINE. A substance identical with thein and caffein, 
and procured from the fruit of Guar ana officinalis, of the Brazils. 

GUBERNA'CULUM [gubernare, to pilot a ship). Literally, the 
rudder of a ship. A name given by Hunter to the fibro-vascular sub- 
stance between the testes and scrotum in the foetus, from his consider- 
ing it the principal agent in directing the course of the testis in its 

O U I— G U M 271 

GUILLOTINE. A characteristic, if not very prepossessing, name 
of an instrument for excising the tonsils, in cases of enlargement. 

GUINEA-CORN. A small kind of grain, used in the West Indies, 
rather less nutritious than ordinary English wheat. 

GUINEA-GRAINS. Another name for the Grains of Paradise, 
Malagueta pepper, or fruit of the Amomum melcguela. 

GUINEA-HEN WEED. The vulgar name of the Peteveria 
alliacea, an extremely acrid plant, used in Jamaica as a sialogogue. 

GUINEA-PEPPER. The seeds of two species of Amomum, found 
on the west coast of Africa, within the tropics. They are powerfully 
aromatic, stimulant, and cordial, and are used for the same purpose as 

GUINEA-WORM. Dracunctdus, or Filaria Medinensis. A worm 
found chiefly in both the Indies, often twelve feet long, and about the 
thickness of a horse-hair ; it burrows under the cuticle of the naked 
feet of the West Indian slaves. See Dracontiasis. 

GU'LA. The oesophagus or gullet; the canal extending from the 
lower part of the pharynx to the superior orifice of the stomach. Gulo 
is a gormandizer, an epienre. 

GUM. A thick glutinous liquid which exudes from stems and 
branches of trees, constituting a common proximate principle of vege- 
tables, of more general occurrence than any other secretion of plants. 

GUM-BOIL. Parulis. Alveolar abscess; a small abscess, com- 
mencing in the socket of a tooth, and bursting through the gum, or 
sometimes through the cheek. 

GUM- JUNIPER. A concrete resin which exudes in white tears 
from the Juniperus Communis. It has been called sandarach, and, 
hence, confounded with the aaviapaicn of Aristotle, which was a 
sulphuret of arsenic. Reduced to powder it is called pounce, and it 
prevents ink from sinking into paper, from which the exterior coating 
of size has been scraped away. 

OU'MMA. Gummy tumor. A soft tumor; a deeply- seated dis- 
organization of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, produced by the 
syphilitic poison, when it has been long in the system. It is named 
from the resemblance of its contents to gum. See Sypftiloma. 

GU'MMI RU'BRUM ASTRI'NGENS. An astringent substance, 
called butea-gum — an exudation from the Butea frondosa. Its Hindu 
name it kueni, from which probably our term kino is derived. 

1. Gummi Arabicum seu Turcicum. Gum Arabic; the produce of 
the Acacia vera, and other species, especially A. Arabica. The white 
pieces constitute the gummi electum of the druggists. 

2. Gummi guttte. A term applied to gamboge, owing to its issuing 
guUatim y or by drops, from the broken leaves or branchlets of the 
gamboge- tree. 

3. Gummi nostras. Cherry-tree gum ; an exudation from the stem 
of the Cerasus avium. This, and the gummi pruni or plum-tree 
gum, produced by the Prunus domestics, may bo substituted in medi- 
cine for tragacanth-gum. They contain two gummy principles, viz., 
araUn, mdprunin or cerasin. 

GUM-RASH. The name of some species of strophulus — the redi 
the white, and the pallid. See Strophulus. 

GUM-RESINS. Mixtures of gum with resin, and occasionally with 
essential oil, as asafcetida, galbanum, &c. They exude spontaneously, 

272 O U M— G U T 

or are procured by incision of the stems and branches of particular 
tribes of plants ; especially the Umbel lifenr, which yield the foetid 

GUMS. Gingiva. The red substance which covers the alveolar 
processes of the jaws, and embraces the necks of the teeth. 

GUN-COTTON. Pyroxylin or Tri-mtro-cellulose. A highlv ex- 
plosive substance obtained by soaking cotton in nitric and sulphuric 
acids, and drying. It retains the appearance of cotton wool. It is a 
nitro-substitute compound of cellulose. See Collodion. 

GUN-PAPER. Filter-paper soaked in the strongest nitric acid, 
then washed in water and dried. It possesses explosive properties. 

GUNGAH. The dried plant of the Cannabis Indica, after it has 
flowered, and still retaining the resin ; used in Calcutta for smoking. 

GUNPOWDER. A mixture of five parts of nitre, one of sulphur, 
and one of charcoal, finely powdered, and very accurately blended. 
The grains are smoothed by friction, and are then said to be glazed. 

Gunpowder, Schnitzels. The chief characteristic of this powder is 
the use of saw-dust as the igniting material. The exploding tempera- 
ture is 520° Fahr. 

GURGLING. A peculiar sound occasioned by the bubbling of air 
with the pus or mucus contained in a cavity of the lungs, in phthisis. 

GURGrUN BALSAM. A fluid oleo-resin obtained by incisions 
into the bark of Dipterocarpus Icevis^ reputed to be of great value in the 
treatment of skin diseases and of cancer. 

GUSTATORY {gustare, to taste). A name of the lingual nerve— 
a branch of the inferior maxillarv. See Xerres. 

GUTHRIE'S MUSCLE. A name given to the transverse portion 
of the compressor urethra muscle. The perpendicular or pubic portion 
is termed Wilson's muscle. 

GUTTA (a drop, pi. pulta, drops). A term apnlied to a measure 
in prescriptions, abridged <#., pi. git., which should be equal to the 
minim ; also to certain affections and preparations. 

1. Gutta opaca. Cataract, or opacity of the crystalline lens, of its 
capsule, or of the Morgagnian fluid, separately or conjointly. 

2. Outta serena. This term denotes complete amaurosis, and was 
given to the disease by the Arabians, in contradistinction to cataract, 
or gutta opaca. The term gutta originated with the humoral patho- 
logists, and the epithet serena suggests comparative freedom from pain 
and unsightliness of the eye. 

3. Gutta rosacea. Rosy drop, or carbuncled face. " An ekzema of 
the face, improperly designated by the term akne rosacea, but more cor- 
rectly, varus gutta- rosea, by Alibcrt." — E. Wilson. 

4. Gutta anodyna. Anodyne drop. A solution of acetate of morphia. 

5. Gutta niqra. Black drop ; Lancaster drop. See Black Drop. 
GUTTA PERCHA. The concrete juice of Isonandra gutta, a tall 

tree of Malacca, of the Saponaceous order. 

White Gutta Percha. A valueless composition of three parts of 
white oxide of zinc, mixed with one of gutta percha. 

GUTTUR. The throat; also, classically, the wind-pipe. Gula is 
the gullet, whereby the food passes into the 6tomack ; and faur, the 
gullet-pipe, or space between the gula and the guttur, or the superior 
part of the gula, nearest the chin, but interior, where the mouth grows 

G Y M— G Y R 273 

GYMNASTICS (yu/uvagw, to exercise naked). Exercises syste- 
matically adapted to develone and preserve the physical powers. By 
the term medical gymnastics h denoted that part of hygiene which treats 
of bodily exercise. See Calisthenic. 

GYMNOSPE'RMjE {yvtivoi, naked, awi/o/wa, seed). Gwnnogens. 
A transition series from flowering to flowerless plants. They agree 
with Exogens in habit, in the presence of sexes, in their concentric 
zones, and their vascular tissue. But they differ in having the sexes 
less complete than in other flowering plants : the females have no seed- 
vessel, but the ovules are fertilized by direct contact with the vivifying 
principle of the male ; the males consist of leaves imperfectly con- 
tracted into an anther, bearing a number of pollen cases on k their 
surface. See Angeiosperma. 

GYN.flSCO'LOG Y (yvvt) t yvvatKo*, woman, \6yot % a description). 
That department of medicine which relates to the nature and diseases of 

GYNAS'CO-MA'ZIA {yvvn, ywatud*, a woman,/* ago?, the breast). 
Gynakomasty. A term applied to hypertrophy of the mammary glanat 
occurring in males, and denoting the presence of functionally active 
breasts in men. f" The distinction of the Grammarians between 
/aotov as the man's breast, and /u a error the woman's, will at least apply 
enly to late authors. The words differed, at first, only in dialect 
-/. & A) 

GYNE' (yvvij). A woman. In the following compounds, the term 
relates to the female apparatus, or the pistil, of plants : — 

1. Gynaceum {yvvaiKi'iov, the women's part of a house). A term 
applied by Roper to the entire female system of plants, more commonly 
called the pistil. See Androceum. 

2. Gyn-andria (<hn}p. a man). The twentieth class of the Linnssan 
system of plants, in which the stamens are situated upon the style, 
above the o van am, as in orchidaceous plants. 

3. Gyno-base (fiioit, a base). This term is applied to the receptacle, 
when it is dilated, and supports a row of carpels, which have an oblique 
inclination towards the axis of the flower, as in the Labiate, &c. 

4. Gyno-phore (<plpa>, to bear). A term applied to the stalk, upon 
which the ovarium is sometimes seated, instead! of being sessile, as in 
Pasti flora. It is also called thecapkore. 

GYPSUM (y6\J/ot t chalk). Native sulphate of lime in combination 
with water. When highly burnt, it loses its water and falls into powder, 
constituting plaster of Paris. It is also called alabaster. 

GY'RUS (yvpot). A circle ; a circuitous course. Hence the term 
oyi-% is applied to the spiral cavities of the internal ear, and to convolu- 
tions — gyrus fomicatus andwrt operti — of the brain ; the latter con- 
stitute the island of Rett, which, together with the substantia perferatai 
forms the base of the corpus striatum. 

274 H ;EM 


H^M-, H-flEMA-, HjE'MATO-,H-ffiMO- (al/aa, ulnarot, blood). 
These are forms of the Greek term for Mood, required for the derivation 
of adjectives, and for the construction of compound words. The terms 
hmmaio- and homo-, like the terms dermaio- and dermo-, may he used 

HJEM-AGOGUES (al/ua, blood, iywyo'c, an expeller). Hamat- 
agogues. Expellers of blood ; medicines which promote the catamenial 
ana hemorrhoidal discharges. 

RflSMAL ARCH UijIaXio*, bloody). That arch of the vertebra, 
which is placed beneath the " centrum/ for the protection of a portion 
of the vascular system. See Neural Arch. 

HJEMALO'PIA (ai/i«\<*^, a mass of blood, a blood-shot place). 
Hamalops. An effusion of blood into the globe of the eye ; blood-shot 
eye. Tne term seems connected with al/uaAsoc, bloody, blood-red. 

HjEM-APOTHYSIS (al/ua, blood, and &iro<pv<rit } apophysis, or a 
process of bone). H&mat-apophysis. The name given by Owen to a 
bone occurring on each side of the homed arch in tne typical vertebra, 
between the plcurapophysis and the haemal spine (see Vertebra). In 
the human thorax, this bone closes the arch, as a " cartilage of the rib," 
with the aid of a haemal spine or '* sternal bone." In the tail of the 
Saurian it forms, with the spine, the entire haemal arch. 

H^M-ASTHENO'S18 (al/ua, blood, aadivwvu, weakness). 
Hamat-asOienosis. " Poverty of the blood." Deterioration of the blood. 

H-flSMAT-E'MESIS (a! M a, a'lfxaroi, blood, i/ttterif, vomiting). 
Vomiiiu cruentus. A vomiting of blood. Haemorrhage from the 
stomach. It must not be confounded with hamo-ptt/sis. See Hamo- 

HEMATIC A (alfiariKot, charged with, or full of, blood). A 
term applied to medicines which are supposed to act as therapeutical 
agents by effecting changes in the condition of the blood, as diluents, 
inspissants, spanaemics, &c. Then we have— 

HcmcUinica (^alfiarivo* , of blood, bloody). This is a term synony- 
mous with tomca analeplica, and denotes a class of the foregoing 
hamaiica which augment tho number of the blood-corpuscles or the 
amount of hmmatin in the blood. They consist exclusively of iron and 
its compounds. See Spanamics. 

HJE MATIN (al,uaTii/ov, of blood, bloody). IlanuUosin. A crys- 
talline substance constituting the red colouring matter of blood. 

HjEMATITES, HjEMATI'TIS (oI M a, alfiarot, blood). Two 
Greek adjectives, the former masculine, the latter feminine, denoting 
blood-like. These terms have been applied to — 1, a peroxide of iron, 
called hamaiite, or blood-stone (Ai'Oos being understood), so named 
from its reputed property of arresting haemorrhage, or from its colour ; 
2. a disease, the Volvulus sanguineus of the Latins, or ileus (elXcoc 
being understood) ; and 3, a vein (<p\i\}/ being understood), Hippo- 
crates and the most ancient physiologists making no distinction between 
the veins and the arteries. Hamatitis chordee (yopdri), literally, a 
blood -like rope of gut, was, with the Greeks, a black-pudding. 

H JEM 275 

HAS'MATO-BLASTS (aT/Ma, al/iarot, blood, p\a<rr&vm y to ger- 
minate). Hamatthblastic substance. The name given to the shinint 
homogeneous bodies, regarded as the offspring of bone-cells, in inflamed 

HiEMATO-CELE (atfia, a'lfiaro*, blood, kiJXij, a tumor). A 
blood- tumor; an extravasation of blood into several parts of the 

1. Hematocele, pelvic. A tumor formed by extravasation of blood 
into the peritoneal pouch situated between the uterus and the rectum, 
or into the sub-peritoneal tissue situated behind and around the uterus. 
Pelvic hematocele is termed uterine, peri-uterine, and retro-uterine, 
with reference to its seat. 

2. Hematocele, pudendorum. Pudendal hematocele ; a tumor 
formed by extravasation of blood into the areolar tissue of one of the 
labia maiora, nymph*, or vaginal walls ; also called sanguineous tumor 
if (he vulva, snd labial thrombus. 

3. Hematocele, scrotal. A tumor formed by extravasation of blocd 
into the tunica vaginalis. See Hydrocele. 

HiEM ATODES (alua-rmin*, of the nature of blood). Bloody ; as 
applied to a fungous or fleshy excrescence. The termination -odes, 
(£4ift) expresses fulness, and should never be confounded with the 
termination (p)ides, which denotes resemblance. Fundus hsnnatodes is 
not hamatota fungus : the former is bloody, the latter blood-like fungus, 
and has no specific meaning. See Preface, par. 4. 

HJE'MATO-DYSCRA'SIA {alfxa, afyiaToc, blood, oW*pa<rfa, 
bad temperament). Hemo-dyscrasia. An unhealthy condition of the 
blood. See Crasie. 

HJE'MATO- GENESIS (alpa, aV/uarot, blood, ytWic, genera- 
tion). H*mo~gemms. The formation of blood ; the conversion of 
chyle into blood. See Amentia. 

HjE'M ATOID CANCER. Fungus hematodes. " This disease is 
probably a soft, medullary, or other cancer, the substance of which has 
become more or less infiltrated with blood. When it protrudes through 
the skin, it forms a large vascular mass, somewhat resembling a dot 
of blood." — Tanner. It is evident from this definition that the term 
should be, not hssmatou/, but hssmatocfe. See Hamatode* and Preface, 
par. 4. 

H«dE'MATO-LO'GY (atna, oVuoto*, blood, Xo'yoc, a description). 
Homo-logy. The history of the blood. 

H^MATO-LY'TICA (aT/ua, a7p<rrot, blood, \vtik6x, able to 
dissolve). Heemo-lytica. The designation of a class of remedies 
intended to diminish the solid constituents of the blood. They are now 
generally termed spametmics. 

HAS'MATOSIN (nlpa, aXfiarex, blood). A brown-coloured pro- 
duct of the decomposition of blood, forming red solutions with alkalies, 
and containing a portion of the iron of the blood. 

HjEMATO'SIS; HASMATCMA (aluar6m y to make bloody). 
The former term denotes a changing into blood, sanguification, or the 
formation of blood ; the latter denotes a sanguineous cyst, a blood- 
tumor, occurring in various parts of the body, sometimes on the brain. 
See Preface, par. 2. 

Hematoma Auris. A sanguineous tumor occurring about the outer 
surface of the auricle of the ear ; peculiar to the insane. 

T 2 

276 HiEM 

H^EMATO-ZOON (al/aa, afyia™, blood, {wait, in animal). A 
microscopic worm found in tho blood of persons suffering from chyluria 
in tropical climates. It seems to belong to the Filaridae, and is pro- 
visionally termed " filaria sanguinis hominis." The haematozoa found 
in the human blood are, the distoma haematobium, the hexathrydium 
venarum, and the fasciola hepatica. 

HASMAT-U'RIA (aT/ua, alfia-rot, blood, ouptaj, to make water). 
Sanguis in urina. Discharge of blood in the urine, from the mucous 
membrane of the kidneys, bladder, or urethra ; or from the presence, in 
the urinary system, of a worm, termed distoma JuBtnatouium. 

HAM-IDRO'SIS (al/ua, blood, iopou, to sweat). Hcemat-idrosis. 
Ephidrosis cruenta. Bloody sweat ; morbid red discoloration of the 
perspiratory secretion, depending on the colouring principle of the 

H^EMO' CHROME (al/ua, blood, xpS>»a, colour). Hamato- 
chrome. The colouring matter of the blood. The term is synonymous 
with hmmaiin, but is more expressive. 

H-ffiMOCO'CCI (atfia, blood, kokkos, a grain). Nucleiofthe blood. 
A term applied by Nedsvetzki to some small corpuscles ot the size of 
the nuclei of the white corpuscles of the blood. They present move- 
ments in the direction of their axis, or lateral oscillations. 

UJEMO CYTO'METER (aT M a, aVaro*, blood, avtoc, a cell, 
/iirpov, a measure). Hctmato-cytometer. An instrument for ascertain- 
ing the number of corpuscles contained in a given volume of the blood 
with the view of ascertaining the richness or poverty of this fluid, the 
variations in their number being an important element in all conditions 
of anaemia. 

H<fl2MO-DYNAMO'METER (a!/xa, blood, Mva/iit, force, fiirpov, 

measure). Ilamato-dynamometer. An instrument for measuring the 

force of the circulation of the blood, by the height to which it will raise 

a column of mercury. The term hdemo-dromo-meter (ipofiov, a course), 

denoting the course of the blood, is sometimes used. 

H^MO GASTRIC (aT/ua, aV/AOTov, blood, yoanj/o, the stomach). 
Hesmato-gastric. A term sometimes employed to designate yellow 

HEMOGLOBIN. Hamato-globin. A general term for the 
blood-globules or red corpuscles which float in the liquor sanguinis. 
See Gloftulin. 

HjEMO-KELIDO'SIS (aT/ia, blood, kuX*oW«, defilement, from 
KtiXic, a spot, especially of blood). Hcemato-kelidosis. Blood-spot 
disease ; the name given by Rayer to Purpura. The term, as thus 
spelled and derived, is unexceptional. 

HJEM-OPHTHA'LMOS (al/uo, blood, <j00a\/uoc, the eye). An 
effusion of blood into the chambers of tho eye. See Hypohama. 

HEMOPOIESIS (al/aa, alfiarot, blood, qroiqaiv, a making). 
Hamato-poiesis. A making of blood. This term, with its synonyms 
krnmo-genesi* and sanguificatio, denotes the conversion of chyle into 

HEMO'-PTYSIS (oTa*«, blood, nrrvtriv, a spitting). Ifamato- 
ptysis. The spitting of blood ; expectoration of blood ; haemorrhage 
from the larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, or air-cells of the lungs. 
Synonymous terms are pneumono-rrliagxa and hmmo-ptoi ; the latter is 
inadmissible, as vr6a (or wrdtjo'te) meant (error. 



Hemoptysis and Hematemesis. The etymologies of these terms Dot 
being sufficiently distinctive of the diseases they denote, respectively, 
the following tabular view of the symptoms they present, is copied from 
Tanner's " Index of Diseases :" — 

In hemoptysis : — 
Dyspnoea ; pain or heat in chest. 
Blood coughed up in mouth fuls. 
Blood frothy. 

Blood of a florid red colour. 
Blood mingled with sputa. 
Absence of melaraa. 
Bronchial or pulmonary symptoms. 

In hematemesis : — 
Nausea ; epigastric tension. 
Blood vomited profusely. 
Blood not frothy. 
Blood dark -coloured. 
Blood mixed with food. 
Melaena very common. 
Gastric or duodenal symptoms. 

HiEMORKHA'GIA (a! M a, atfia-rot, blood, pnyw/it, to burst 
forth). Hemato-rrhagia. Suffiusia sanguinis. Haemorrhage ; effusion 
of blood, popularly supposed to arise from "bursting a blood-vessel ;" a 
bloody flux. 

1. Hemorrhage, cerebral. Haemorrhage of the brain ; a term not, 
according to Tanner, synonymous with apoplexy; there may be 
symptoms of the latter, but not necessarily. 

2. Hemorrhage, spinal. Paralysis from effusion of blood into the 
spinal cord or into the substance of the cord ; also called apoplexy of 
ike cord, myelapoplexia, &c. 

3. Hemorrhage, uterine. Hemorrhage of the womb, often the 
precursor of abortion, and known by the terras metrorrhagia or the 
vernacular flooding. 

4. Hemorrhage, meningeal (nnviy£, /Lifjyiyvoc, a membrane, par- 
ticularly of the brain). Extravasation of blood, either into the cavity 
of the arachnoid, or beneath the serous membrane, or into the meshes 
of the pia-mater. 

5. Hemorrhage, inevitable. Unavoidable haemorrhage, caused by 
placenta previa, an affection connected with parturition. 

6. Hemorrhage, fortuitous. Accidental haemorrhage, occurring from 
accidental detachment of the placenta, in parturition. 

7. Hemorrhage, traumatic. Haemorrhage from a vessel which has 
been directly divided, as by a wound. In this case, it is termed 
primary or immediate, when it follows immediately after the infliction 
of the injury ; secondary, when it follows at a period varying from five 
to twenty-five days after the injur}-. When the haemorrhage occurs 
from some constitutional cause, it is termed spontaneous. 

8. Other varieties. Haemorrhage is termed, I. Active, when con- 
gestion or inflammation has preceded the flow ; Passive, when there 
nave previously existed signs of debility, with poverty of blood. 2. 
Symptomatic, when it is clearly a result of some disease, as tubercle, 
cancer, &c ; Idiopathic or essential, when no such connexion has been 
perceptible. 3. Constitutional, when it occurs at intervals, and seems 
to be of service to the general health, as in the bleeding from piles in 
plethoric persons ; Vicarious, when supplemental of some other hae- 
morrhage, as in the case of epistsxis in place of the usual catamenial 
discharge; Critical, when it occurs during the progress of some disease, 
producing marked good or bad effects. — Tanner. 

H-*>10RRHA r GIC DIA'THESIS. A tendency in certain con- 
stitutions, to uncontrollable haemorrhage from trivial wounds or slight 
surgical operations. 

978 UJEM 

faywvpt, to break forth). A variety of measles, deacriDed by Bayer 
aa unconnected with constitutional debility, and characterized by a 
vinous-coloured efflorescence not disappearing under pressure of the 

flJEMORRHCE'A PETECHIALS (al/ua, blood, pirn, to flow). 
Heemato-rrhcea. A term applied by Dr. Adair to the chronic form of 
purpura. It has also been designated as petechia sine fibre, morbms 
maculosus, land-scurvy, &c. 

HEMORRHOIDAL (aT/ua, blood, pim, to flow). A term applied 
to a branch of the sciatic nerve, and to arteries of the rectum, because 
they often bleed ; these are termed the superior, the middle, and the 

HEMORRHOIDS (alfiofipoU, Hot, liable to discharge blood). 
The term alfioppoiit* (4>Xi'/9te understood) denotes, generally, veins 
liable to hemorrhage, but is now restricted to the piles, or small round 
tumors situated at the verge of the anus. Bleeding piles are tumors 
which discharge blood ; Hind piles, those which do not bleed ; indolent 
piles, those which are free from pain. Intero-ejiernal piles are partly 
within, partly without the sphincter. 

1. External haemorrhoids. Haunoirhoids occurring outside the 
sphincter muscle, and consisting either of a knot of varicose veins, or of 
one or more cutaneous excrescences. In the former case, the veins 
may contain fluid blood ; more frequently their contents have become 
coagulated, forming one or several tense and purple swellings. The 
excrescences consist chiefly of hypcrtrophied skin and areolar tissue.— 

2. Infernal haemorrhoids. These are simple or multiple, and of three 
kinds. 1. Spongy vascular growths, having a red granular appearance 
and soft elastic texture, like that of erectile tissue. 2. Made up of 
lower branches of hemorrhoidal veins. Branches dilated; often 
plugged with coagula. 3. Pendulous tumors, composed of fi bro-areolar 
tissue. — Tanner. 

3. According to Galen, the hemorrhoid discharge differs from 
hemorrhage in being a less violent and copious flow of blood, and 
sometimes it is applied to tumors without anv bleeding at all. The 
former term has been applied to polypus and all other tumors about the 

H-flEMO-SPA'SIC SYSTEM (aT/ua,blood,<Mr<S»,todraworattract). 
A new system of medicine, introduced by Dr. Junod of Paris, consist- 
ing in the employment of a pneumatic apparatus of peculiar construction, 
in which the arm or leg is so placed as to attract the blood to the 
extremities, without diminishing the mass of this liquid. 

H./EMO STA'SIS (al/ud<rrao-ir, a means of stopping blood, from 
alfxa, blood, and oraat*, from Vcttij/lu, to make to stand). HanuUo- 
stasis. Stagnation of blood. Hence the terms hamo-siatica, styptics, 
or medicines which stop haemorrhages; and hamostat, an instrument for 
arresting the flow of blood in epistaxis. 

HJEMO-THO'RAX (alt* a, blood, 6w P a%, the chest). Hrnmato- 
thorax. An effusion of blood into the cavity of the pleura, from a 
Wound, a contusion of the chest, certain diseases, &c. 

HEMO-TRO'PH Y (al/ua, blood, Tpo</>»}, nourishment). Hamato- 
irophy. A term used to denote an excess of sanguineous nutriment, aa 

H A I-H A L 279 

distinguished from hypertrophy and hyperamia. The term, in itself, 
conveys no notion of excess. See Anwmotrophy. 

HAIR. The collection of horny appendages of the skin, produced 
by the involution and subsequent evolution of the epidermis; the 
involution constituting the sheath of the follicle in which the hair if 
enclosed, and the evolution the body of the hair. Each hair consists of 
a bulb, or root ; a ik/?, or central portion ; and a point. 

HAIR-FOLLICLES. Follicles of the skin, descending into the 
derma, and supporting and maintaining the position of the hair. 

HAIR-LICHEN. The Lichen pilaris ; a variety of lichenous rash, 
in which the pimples are limited to the roots of the hair, and desquamate 
after ten davs. 

HAUTuS (halitare, freq. of halare, to breathe). Breath, vapour. 
An aqueous vapour, or gas. for inhalation. 

Halitus of the blood. The vapour which arises from the blood when 
newly drawn. Plenck termed it gas animate sanguinis. 

HALLEX. AUex. By some this word is used to denote the thumb, 
or great toe; by others it is connected with the term alee, dregs or 
sediment. Hatha, or alius, is also employed to denote the thumb. 

used the verb alucinor and the substantive alucinatio ; the origin of the 
word was probably d\uw, d\uo-K<#, to wander in mind.) •* Ira person 
sees, hears, or otherwise perceives what has no existence external to 
hit senses, he h*s* hallucination ; if he sees, hears, or otherwise perceives 
that which has no such external existence as he perceives, or perceives 
it with erroneous form or qualities, he has an illusion ; and if, through 
perceiving external objects as they really exist, he believes in the 
existence of such objects, or conceives such notions of the properties 
and relations of things, as are absurd to the common sense of mankind, 
he has an insane conception or delusion — the ground of the falseness 
of conception being not error, but a morbid condition/' — Dr. Mauds' 


HALO (halos, i.q. £\wc, a round threshing-floor). A circle round 
the sun ; the areola, or ring, which surrounds the nipple of the mamma. 

HALO SIGNATU8. The name given by Sir C. Bell to the 
impression of the ciliary processes on the anterior surface of the vitreous 
humour, &c., from its consisting of a circle of radiations, called by 
Haller stria retmm subject* ligamento ciliari. By Winslow these marks 
are called sulci cUiares ; by Zinn, corona cHiaris. 

HA'LOGEN (£\c, dXo't, salt, rock-salt, ytwam, to produce). A 
salt-radical, or substance which forms a haloid salt with a metal ; the 
halogens are chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluoriue ; to which may be 
added the compound halogen cyanogen. The name halogen is derived 
from the tendency to produce salts resembling sea-salt in their compo- 
sition ; and such salts are called haloid salts. 

HALOID SALTS (£A«, d\6* t salt, rock-salt, tleos, likeness). 
Salts which consist only of a metal and an electro-negative radical or 
halogen, as chlorine, iodine, Ac. Besides the simple haloid salts, 
Berzelius distinguishes the three following combinations : — ( 

1. Hydro- haloid salts, or combinations of a simple haloYd salt and 
the hydracid of its radical. 

2. Oxy-haloid salts, or combinations of a metallic oxide with a haloid 
salt of the same metal. 


H A L-H A R 

8. Double haloid salts, consisting, 1, of two simple haloid salts, which 
contain different metals, but the same non-metallic ingredient ; 2, of 
two haloid salts consisting of the same metal, but in which the other 
element is different ; and 3, of two simple haloid salts, of which both 
-elements are entirely different See Amphid Salt. 

HA'LOPHYTES (£\c, d\ot, salt, <bvrov, a plant). A class of 
saltworts, which inhabit salt marshes, and by combustion yield barilla, 
as salsola, salicornia, and chenopodium. 

HALO'XYLIN f&\v, d\6t, salt, £u\oi/, wood). A new species of 
blasting powder, made of taw- dust, charcoal, and nitre, and sometimes 
ferro-cyanide of potassium. 

HAMBRO' BLUE. English blue. Carbonate of Conner. Mixed 
with lime and exposed to the air, its colour is changed to blue, when it 
is used as a pigment 

HAMULA^RI A LYMPH ATICA. A species of worm, discovered 
by Treutler in the bronchial glands of a phthisical subject. 

HA'MULUS CO'CHLESs (hamulus, dim. of hamus, a hook). 
Literally, the small hook of the cochlea ; a kind of hook, by which the 
lamina spiralis terminates upon the axis, towards the middle of the 
second turn, where the point of the infundibulum commences. 

HAND. Manus. The organ of prehension, consisting of— 

1. The Carpus, or wrist, which is composed of the eight following 
bones : — 

1. The scaphoid, or boat-shaped. 

2. The semilunar, or half-moon. 
8. The cuneiform, or wedge-like. 
4. The pisiform, or pea-like. 

5. The trapezium, or four-sided. 

6. The trapezoid, like the former. 

7. The os magnum, or large bone. 

8. The unciform, or hook-like. 

2. The Metacarpus, or the four bones constituting the palm and back 
of the hand ; the upper ends have plane surfaces, the lower convex. 
Sometimes the first bone of the thumb is reckoned among the meta- 

3. The Digiti, or fingers, consisting of twelve bones, arranged in 
three phalanges, or rows. 

4. The Pollex, or thumb, consisting of three bones. 

HA PS US {&\j/ot, a joint or limb). A binding together; and, hence, 
a piece of wool formed into a bandage. 

HARE-BRAINED PASSION. Wayward passion, leading to acta 
of violence ; the manie sans dilire of M. Pinel, who ascribes it to the 
effect of a neglected or ill-directed education upon a mind naturally 
perverse or unruly. 

HARE-LIP (labrum leporinum). A congenital perpendicular fissure 
of the upper lip, extending from its free edge towards its attachment, 
resulting from arrest of development, and named from a fancied 
resemblance to the upper lip of the hare. When the fissure occurs on 
one side only of the mesial line, the hare-lip is termed single ; when on 
both sides, double. 

HAR'M ALINE. This substauce and harmine are alkaloids occur- 
ring in the seeds of Peganum harmala, united with phosphoric acid. 
The harmala red of commerce is the powder of the seeds, used in dyeing 
red, rose-colour, and pink. 

HARMCNI A (dpfiovia, a close joining, from &pm, to fit together). 
A species of synarthrosis, or almost immovable articulation of bones. 
See Articulation. 

H A R— H E A 281 

HARTSHORN. Cornu cervinum. The antlers of tlio Cervus 
Eiapkttiy the hart or stag, formerly used as the source of ammonia, 
which was hence termed volatile spirit of hartshorn. The pungent 
volatile salt, called " smelling-salts, * is an impure solid carbonate ot 
ammonia, which retains the name of hartshorn from being originally 
obtained or distillation of this horn. See Ammonia. 

HARVEST-BUG. Mower's mite. The Acarus or Leptus autum- 
nalis, a variety of the tick insect, which infests the skin in the autumn, 
producing intolerable itching, succeeded by glossy wheals ; it has hence 
Wen called utheal-irorm. 

HA8CHI8H. The Arabian name given to the dried tops of Can- 
nabis Indica or Indian Hemp, gathered some time before the seeds 
come to maturity. It is used for smoking, and employed as a narcotic 
in the East. 

HAU'STUS (haurire, to draw). A draught. It differs from a mix- 
ture only in quantity, and should not exceed an ounce and a half. 

HAVERSIAN CANALS. A term Riven, from the name of their 
discoverer Havers, to a very complicated apparatus of minute canals 
found in the substance of bone, and containing medullary matter. The 
central canal, as well as the separate cells, may be regarded as enlarge- 
ments of them. 

HAY-FEVER. Asthma tx faenisida. A febrile influenza or 
catarrh, incidental to certain susceptible constitutions at the period of 
haymaking. It is also termed hay-asthma and summer catarrh, accord- 
ing to the relative intensity of the febrile, bronchial, or catarrhal 

HEAD-ACHE. Keplialalgia. This affection is termed organic % 
when it arises from serious disease of the brain or of its membranes ; 
plethoric, when due to fulness or congestion of the cerebral vessels ; 
bilious, when connected with derangement of the stomach, arising from 
irregularities in diet, popularly termed " sick head-ache ;" and nervous, 
when occasioned by debility or exhaustion. To this last variety of head- 
ache may be referred hemicrania or '* brow-ague," clavus hystericus, Sec. 

HEART. Cor. The central organ of circulation. It is enveloped 
in a membrane called the pericardium. It is divided, externally, into 
a base, or its broad part ; a superior and an inferior surface ; and an 
anterior and posterior margin. Internally, it consists, in man, of four 
cavities, viz. two auricles and two ventricles, and is thence called double. 

1. Hearty caudal. A pulsating palish sac, containing red blood, and 
situated at the caudal extremity of the eel. 

2. Hearts, lymphatic. A term applied by M tiller to some small 
pulsating sacs in the frog, the snake, &c, considered by him as hearts 
of the lymphatic system. 

3. Heart, displacement of. Ektopia cordis, from iKrowif «, to dis- 
place, or i*Towi0f, displaced. It is congenital ; or the effect of effused 
fluid, or of its subsequent absorption, &c. 

4. Heart-bum. Kardialgia mordens. A gnawing or burning un- 
easiness, felt chiefly at the kardia. See Circulation. 

HEART, MURMURS OF. Murmurs or morbid sounds heard in 
diseases of the heart. When they arise from disease within the heart, 
they are called endocardial ; when they occur between the heart and 
the pericardium, they are called exocardial. When the endocardial 
murmurs arise from an unnatural contraction or an unnatural widening 

282 HEA 

of the orifices between the vessels and cavities of the heart, they are 
called organic; when they arise from states of the blood, they are 
csl\ea functional or inorganic. Murmurs which occur with the current 
of the blood, are said to be constrictive ; those aoainst the current, are 
called regurgitant. The following murmurs, a knowledge of which is 
essential to a correct diagnosis of the diseases of the heart, are given in 
the order of their frequency : — 

1. Mitral regurgitant murmur. A systolic murmur, heard best im- 
mediately above or to the outside of the left apex of the heart, arising 
from inefficiency of the mitral valve by changes in its structure, rough- 
ness at its edges, from vegetatious shortening of the ckordm tendinem, 
or fibrinous clots entangled in them. It is faintly heard or is wholly 
inaudible at the right apex. It is generally permanent. 

2. Aortic constrictive murmur. A systolic murmur, heard best at 
mid-sternum opposite the interspace between the third and fourth ribs, 
or the upper part of the fourth rib, indicating a rough constriction of the 
aortic orifice. It has a high pitch, and is a harsh, loud, and prolonged 

3. Aortic regurgitant murmur. A diastolic murmur, of a blowing 
or hissing character, differing from the last in being heard almost as 
distinctly at the ensiform cartilage as at the third costal interspace. 

4. Mitral constrictive murmur. A diastolic murmur, heard best 
immediately above and about the left apex. 

5. Tricuspid regurgitant murmur. A systolic murmur, heard best 
immediately above or at the ensiform cartilage, and due to regurgitation, 
or to the collision of the blood amongst the chorda tendtnea. It is 
inaudible, or nearly so, at the left apex. It originates in the right 
ventricle, and is generally a soft murmur of low pitch. It is a rare 
murmur, and may be often undiscovered when accompanied by a poVer- 
ful mitral murmur. 

6. Pulmonary constrictive murmur. A systolic murmur, heard best 
at the sternal edge of the third left cartilage, indicating roughness or 
obstruction from pressure in the pulmonary orifice. It is rarely heard. 

7. Pulmonary regurgitant murmur. This indication of insufficiency 
of the pulmonary valves is very rare. 

8. Tricuspid constrictive murmur. A diastolic murmur, the rarest of 
murmurs, and, when beard, found at the ensiform cartilage. 

9. Rxocardial murmurs. Murmurs produced by the rubbing of the 
surface of the nericardium against the heart, when these surfaces are 
roughened by the effusion of fi brine from inflammatory disease. They 
are more or less rough according to circumstances, and may entirely 
eease by the effusion of serum or fluid between the pericardium and 
the heart. — Engl. Cycl. 

HEAT {<8stu8 y Latin). In popular language, heat is the sensation 
experienced on touching a body of a higher temperature than that of 
the blood, or 98° Fnhr. In chemical language, it is the cause of that 
sensation, or caloric. Sec Caloric. 

Two theories. The material theory regarded heat as matter, and 
called it phlogiston or caloric ; the kinetic (ncfmfortc, motion), or dynamic 
(ovva/itt, power), theory regarded it as a rapid motion of minute par- 
ticles ; the latter theory is also termed tkermo-dynamics. 

HEAT-FORMING FOODS. A general term for a group of sub- 
stances which are called combustible, from the fact of their being burned 

HEA-HEL 288 

in the tvstem ; and carbonaceous, from the fact of their containing large 

J|uantiUes of carbon or charcoal. Theao tubstancef are the varioui 
onna of starch, sugar, and fat 

HEAVY SPAR. Batytine. Sulphate of baryta, a mineral sub- 
atance which, after being calcined, exposed to the sun's rays, and then 
taken into a dark room, emits a reddish phosphorescent light It is 
need for the preparation of barytic salts for chemical experiments. See 
Bolognian Phosphorus. 

HE'CTIC (£rtKOf, habitual). This term is sometimes used, like 
the Greek feminine, as a substantive, to denote a habitual or very 
protracted fever ; but, more generally, as an adjective, in conjunction 
with the term fever, to designate a remittent fever, marked by daily 

HE'LICO-TRE'MA (S\<£, 7X<«ov, a coil, rpv/ia, a perfo- 
ration). An opening by means of which the two scale of the 
cochlea communicate superiorly, over the hamulus lamina) spiralis. 

HELIO'GRAPHY (fi\iot y the sun, ypd*«, to paint). Photogra- 
phy. The art of taking sun-pictures. See Actinism. 

HETIOTROPE (ftAiot, the sun, rpbr«, to turn). Bloodstone ; 
an intimate mixture of calcedonv with a substance called green earthy 
which owes its colour to iron. It was once thought that the stono had 
power to staunch an effusion of blood. Pliny speaks of heliotrope as a 
stone that was used for solar observations. 

HE'LIUM (ftXioc, the sun). A hypothetical new substance inferred 
to exist from the appearance in the spectrum of the yellow solar pro- 
minences of a certain bright line not identifiable with that of any known 
terrestrial flame. 

HELIX (IXtP, from i\iaau>, to turn about). A coil ; a spiral, or 
winding line. This term denotes, in anatomy, the outer bar or margin 
of the external ear ; hence, helicis major, and helicis minor, names of 
two muscles of the helix. 

HELLE30RUS. Hellebore; the name of a poisonous genus of 
Ranunculaceotis plants. Under the term iWifiopo*, the Ancients em- 
ployed a specific for many diseases, especially madness : to accost a per- 
son with »I0' iWifiopov, drink hellebore, was a ouiet way of saving, 
You are mad; and by the verb t AAt/Soplgw, to administer hellebore, 
Hippocrates means, to bring the patient to his senses. The best helle- 
bore was grown at Anticyra in the JEgean Sea ; hence, Horace recom- 
mends a voyage to that island — " naviget Anticyram" — as a remedy in 
certain cases of mental delusion. 

HE'LMINS (iAMirt, tX/utrtfoc, a worm, from s'Am, to roll up, with 
reference to its wriggling motion). Vermis. A worm. 

1. Helmintk-apogmet (iywyov, an expcller). Anthelmintics; ver- 
mifuges ; remedies for tho expulsion of worms. 

2. Helminthiasis (iX/MfOidw, to suffer from worms). A disease in 
which worms, or their larva;, arc bred under the skin. 

3. Ifelmintho-logy (Xoyot, an account). The knowledge, description, 
or natural bistorv of worms. 

HELO'DES "(sAaVlnt, marshy, from SXov, a marsh). A term 
applied to fevers produced by marsh-miasma. 

HE'LOS (iiXot, clazms, a nail, anything like a nail, a wart, callus 
on the hand or feet). A name given to the tumor formed by prolapsus 
or procidentia iridis. See Mgocephalon. 

284 HEM 

nou plant, containing a principle called htsmatoxyline, and used as an 
astringent. The wood is imported from Campeachy, Honduras, and 
Jamaica. The word should be hmmatoxglum. 

HEMERALOTIA. Retinitis pigmentosa. Some confusion has 
•risen respecting the use of this term, probably from different views 
taken of its etymology. 

1. If the term is formed upon the same plan as the genuine Greek 
word nyctalopia, it means day-vi«ion, or night-blindness (ii/iipa, day, 
sty, the eye) ; and it then denotes a form of partial blindness in which 
the patient can tee in broad day-light only, being blind during the 
remainder of the twenty-four hours ; it usually occurs in persons who 
have been exposed to the strong glaring light of the tropics. In this 
•ense it is generally received by writers on diseases of the eye. 

2. If another etymology be adopted (rifxipa, day, dXaot, blind, tu\J/, 
the eye), the term denotes day-blindness and, by inference, night- 
vision. It is sometimes described as intermittent amaurosis. See 

HE'MI- (root of ijui<rv*, semis, half). An inseparable Greek 
prefix, used in composition, and corresponding to the ssmi- of the 

1. Hemi-anastkesia (i*ai<r0?/<na, want of feeling or perception). 
Loss of sensibility en one side only of the body. 

2. Hemi-crania («rpav/or, the skull). Brow-ague ; head-ache affect- 
ing one side only of the brow and forehead, with symptoms intermit- 
tent, and recurring with the regularity of an ague-fit. It has been 
called Sun-pain, from its sometimes continuing so long as the sun is 
above the horizon. It is the migraine (bemi-craine) of the French, and 
hence the vulgar term megrims. 

3. Hemi-cpsis (o\f/i*, eye-sight). Hemiopia. Visus dimidiatus. 
Half-sight ; a defect of vision in which half only of an object is seen ; 
incomplete or incipient amaurosis. 

4. Hemi-plegia, formerly hemi-plexia (wXi/f**, a stroke). A stroke 
on one side, on one half; a variety of paralysis in which one side-half 
of the body is deprived of sensation or motion, or of both. By the term 
alternate hemiplegia, M. Gubler designates the rarer cases in which the 
face is paralysed on the side of the lesion, and the limbs on the opposite 
tide ; the lesion will then be found in the pons varolii, not in the cere - 
bral hemispheres. 

5. Hemispheres {<r<pa7pa, a sphere). The two parts which consti- 
tute the upper surface of the cerebrum ; they are separated by the falx 
cerebri. The incorrectness of the term hemispheres, as applied to the 
brain, is obvious from the fact that the two hemispheres (so called) 
constitute together very little more than one-half of a sphere. 

6. Hetni-tropow (rplvw, to turn). A term applied, in botany, toon 
ovule in which the raphe terminates about half-way between the chalaza 
and the orifice. 

HEMLOCK. The vernacular name of the Conium maculatum, an 
Umbelliferous plant of narcotic poisonous properties. It is the ku>ihi»v 
of the Greeks, the cicuta of the Romans. 

HEM M1NG8 SAFETY JET. An apparatus consisting of a brass- 
tube packed closely with thin copper-wires, for preventing the return of 
the oxyhydrogen flame from the jet to the reservoir. 

H E M— H E P 285 

HEMP-SEED. A characteristic name of tome varieties of the 
mulberry calculus, which are remarkably smooth and pale-coloured, 
resembling hemp-seed. 

HENBANE. A plant which, according to its vernacular name, is 
the bane of hens. Its botanical name represents it as the bean of hogs. 
The plant has acquired the more characteristic name of stinking night- 
shade, from its fetid odour. See Hyoscyamus. 

HEN-BLINDNESS. A name sometimes given to nyctalopia, or 
night-blindness, from a natural defect in hens, in consequence of which 
they cannot see to pick up small grains in the dusk of the evening, and 
to employ this time in going to roost. See Hemeralopia. 

HENNA'. A substance procured in Egypt from the Laivsonia 
inermis, with which the women stain their fingers and feet ; it is also 
used for dyeing skins and maroquins of a reddish yellow. 

HETAR, in MEDICINE (>>ap, Vnraroi). Latin, jecur. The 
liver ; the organ which secretes the bile. 

1. Hepatalgia (&\yot, pain). Pain of the liver. Swelling of the 
liver is termed hepatalgia tnfarcta, liver-disease, enlarged liver, &c. 

2. Hepatic (faaTtKot, of the liver). A term applied to any part 
belonging to the liver. The hepatic cells or corpuscles, constituting, 
with the vascular plexus, the ultimate structure of the liver, are 
44 nucleolo-nucleated cells, of a polyhedral figure, measuring about 

1 jth of an inch in diameter, and of a pale amber colour. ' The 
tic duct is one of the three biliary ducts. See Biliary Ducts and 

3. Hepatic degenerations. There are several varieties : — (1.) He- 
par adiposum or fatty liver, in which the hepatic cells are gorged 
with oil-globules, diminishing the normal granular matter and quite 
obscuring the nucleated nuclei. (2.) Amyloid degeneration, also 
termed waxy, albuminous, lardaceous, or scrofulous liver, in which the 
glandular structure is gradually converted into a dense materia], 
involving destruction of the hepatic cells with abolition of their func- 
tions. (3.) Pigment liver or melanamic liver, in which the liver is 
sometimes found after death to present a blackish or chocolate colour, 
due to accumulation of pigment matter in the vascular apparatus of 
the gland. — Tanner. 

4. Hepatic flux. Bilious flux; the name given in the East to a 
variety of dysentery, in which there is a frequent flow of bilious fluid 
from the rectum. 

5. Hepatine. A term applied by Dr. Pavy to the glycogenic sub- 
stance formed by the liver. Recently he has termed it " amyloid sub- 
stance " from its resemblance to starch, or dextrine. 

6. HepaUitis (hwotit**, of, or in the liver). A term employed by 
the Greeks as an adjective, in the sense of hepatic; thus*$\iuV 
titrarlriv was the vena cava ascendens of Hippocrates. Tbe term now 
denotes inflammation of the liver, and should be considered under the 
five following beads : — 

" (1.) Hepatitis, or inflammation of the peritoneal investment, or of 
the substance of the gland, or of both combined. (2.) Cirrhosis, or that 
slow form of inflammatory action which affects the areolar or connective 
tissue. (3.) Syphilitic hepatitis. (4.) Inflammation of the blood-vessels. 
(5.) Inflammation of the ciliary ducts and gall-bladder." — Tanner. 

7. By peri-hepatitis is denoted inflammation of the coats of the liver 

286 HE P-H E R 

tad the capsule of Glisson, without extensive affection of the peripheral 
time of tne gland. 

8. Hepatization, Carnification. A change induced in the lung by- 
inflammation, in which it loses its vesicular and crepitating character, 
and resembles the liver in firmness and weight, sinking in water. It is 
divided into the red and the gray, or purulent, infiltration. Compare 

9. Hepato-cele (*tj\n, a tumor). Hepatic hernia; hernia of the 
liver, oauvages has distinguished two species of hepatocele— the 
ventral, in the iinea alba ; and the umbilical, or hepat-omphalum. 

10. Hepato-gastric or gastro-hepatic. A name of the smaller omen- 
tum, which passes from the liver to the stomach. 

11. Hepato-phyma (<pdpa, a suppurating tumor). A suppurative 
■welling of the liver. 

12. Hepato-rrhcea [piw, to flow). Literally, a liver-flow; a morbid 
flow of bile ; a species of diarrhoea in which the excreted matters seem 
to come from the liver, in consequence of the great proportion of bile. 

HETAR, in CHEMISTRY (tjwap, the liver). A term formerly 
applied to the combinations of sulphur with alkalies, from their liver- 
like appearances. Thus we had hepar antimonii, an oxysulphuret of 
antimony ; hepar colds, a bisulphuret of calcium ; hepar sulphuris, a 
snlphuret of potash; hepar sulphuris volatile, the hydrosulphuret of 
ammonia, or Boyle's Fuming Spirit 

1. Hepatic air denotes sulphuretted hydrogen gas ; hepatic waters, 
sulphurous waters ; hepatic cinnabar, 'a steel-gray variety of cinnabar ; 
hepatic pyrites, a variety of prismatic iron pyrites, which becomes 
brown on exposure to the air. 

2. Hepatixed ammonia. Bi-hydro-sulphate of ammonia, or hydro- 
sulphuret of ammonia; employed as a test 

HEPATIC ALOES (n™P, JHraror, the liver). A liver-coloured 
extract of the Aloe hepaUca, consisting of the inspissated juice of the 
leaf of the plant 

HEPTA'NDRIA (iwr£, seven, dytf'p, a man). The seventh class 
of the Linntean system of Botany, including those plants which have 
seven stamens in their flowers. 

HERBA'RIUM. A collection of dried specimens of plants, formerly 
known by the expressive term hortus siccus or dry garden. 

HEREDITARY (hares, an heir). A term applied to diseases 
supposed to be transmitted from parents to their children ; and such 
transmission is said to be due to hereditary predisposition. In extreme 
cases, in which all or several children exhibit a special liability to 
certain diseases, this liability is referred to family constitution. See 

HERMATHRODITE ('Ep/u^c, Mercury, •AQpoiirn, Venus). 
Androgynus. A lusus natural, in which the organs of generation 
appear to be a mixture of both sexes ; Hermaphroditus was the son of 
Hermes and Aphrodite. (See Monsters.) In botany, plants are called 
hermaphrodite which contain the stamen and the pistil in the same 
flower, all other flowering plants being called unisexual or diclinous, 

HERMETIC SEAL (Epw, Mercury). The closure of the end 
of a glass-vessel when heated to the melting-point The name is de- 
rived from the Egyptian Hermes, supposed to have been the father of 
Chemistry, which has been called the Hermetic Art. 

HER 287 

HERMODA'CTYL (Bpw, Hermee, MxrvXot, a finger). Finger 
of Hermes ; a term applied by the Greek physicians of toe sixth and 
seventh centuries to a vegetable substance, supposed to be identical 
with the conns of one or more species of Colchicum. 

The drag called " sweet hermodactyls," or Surinjan shirin, found in 
the bazaars of India, consists chiefly of the kernels of Trapa bispinosa, 
and, sometimes they are also mixed with Surinjan tulk, or '' bitter 
hermodactyls," as an adulteration. 

HE'RNlA (iovo*, a young sprout, shoot, or scion). Rupture. The 
protrusion of one or more of the viscera into a sac, formed of the peri- 
toneum. A hernia is termed reducible, when it admits of being re- 
placed in the abdomen ; irreducible, when not replaceable, but without 
constriction ; and incarcerated or strangulated, wnen it not only cannot 
he replaced, but also suffers constriction. 

1. Hernia cruralis. Femoral hernia ; or a protrusion behind Pou- 
part's ligament The passage through which the hernia descends is 
called by Oimbernat tne crural ; by Hey, the femoral ring ; and by 
Cloquet, the crural canal. 

2. Hernia ingumalis. Bubonocele, or hernia at the groin ; hernia 
which protrudes through one or both abdominal rings. It is termed 
incomplete or oblioue, when it does not protrude directly through the 
external abdominal ring ; and complete or direct, when it passes directly 
out at that opening. 

3. Hernia congenita. Congenital hernia; a variety of oblique 
inguinal hernia, resulting from the non-closure of the pouch of the 
peritoneum carried downwards into the scrotum by the testicle, during 
its descent in the foetus. 

4. Hernia tn/antilis. Encysted hernia ; a sub-variety of the con- 
genital, in which the pouch of the peritoneum forming the tunica vagi- 
nalis being only partially closed, admits of the hernia's passing into die 
scrotum, behind the tunica vaginalis. 

5. Hernia, obturator or thyroid. Hernia through the obturator 
foramen which affords an exit to the artery and the nerve. Tho 
successful operation for the relief of this rare form of hernia is due to 
the diagnostic skill and surgical dexterity of the late Mr. Obre. 

6. Hernia, scrotalis. Scrotal hernia ; a term applied to all the va- 
rieties of inguinal hernia, when they have descended into the cavity 
of the scrotum. With reference to the contents of scrotal hernia, we 
have the terms hernia enter-oscheo-cele or oschealis, when omentum or 
intestine, or both, descend into the scrotum ; eptpl-osckeo-ceU, when 
omentum only descends; steato-cele, when sebaceous matter de- 

7. Hernia, ingumo^nUrttitiaL This term is applied by Dr. Govraud 
to the form of hernia termed by most authors incomplete inguinal, and 
described by Boyer as insrohinguinal. The former term was considered 
objectionable, because, whatever may be their situation, when the 
viscera have escaped from the abdomen, the hernia is complete ; the 
latter was also objectionable, because the inguinal canal does not always 
constitute the limits of the protruded viscera. 

8. Hernia pkrenioa vel diaphragmatica. Diaphragmatic hernia; a 
protrusion of any portion of the contents of the abdomen through the 
triangular interval which exists between the sternal and tho costal 
portions of the diaphragm at each side. 

388 HER 

9. Hernia ischiatica. Hernia occurring at the itchiatic notch. 

10. Hernia perinealis. Hernia of the perinaum, occurring, in men. 
between the bladder and the rectum, and in women, between the 
rectum and the vagina. 

11. Hernia vudendalisvel labialis. Hernia which descends, between 
the vagina and the ramus ischii, into the labium. 

12. Jfemia, retro-peritoneal. Hernia in which the peritoneum 
covering the iliac fossa forms a pouch capable of receiving a portion of 
intestine. The pouch is termed " fossa iliaco-subfascialis." 

13. Hernia thyro'idaiis. Hernia of the foramen ovale. 

14. Hernia umbUicalis. Omphalocele, or exomphalos. Hernia of 
the bowels at tbe umbilicus. It is called pneumai-omphalo*, when 
owing to flatulency. 

15. Hernia vaginalis. Elytrocele ; or hernia occurring within the 
os externum, and blocking up the vagina. 

16. Hernia ventralis. Hypogastrocele ; or hernia occurring at any 
part of the front of the abdominal parietes, most frequently between the 
recti muscles. 

17. Hernia carnosa. Sarcocele. A fleshy enlargement of the testis ; 
a tumor seated in the scrotum. 

18. Hernia mesenterica et mesocolica. Hernia through the lacerated 
mesentery, or mesocolon. 

19. Hernia of the intestines. Hernia through a loop formed by ad- 
hesions, &c. 

Terms suggestive of the Contents of Hernia, and synonymous with 
terms compounded of -eele, tumor. 

20. Hernia cerebri. Encephalocelc. Hernia of the brain. 

21. Hernia intestinalis. Enterocele; containing intestine only. 

22. Hernia omentalis. Epiplocele ; containing a portion of omentum 
only. If both intestine and omentum contribute to the formation of 
the tumor, it is called enter o- epiplocele. 

28. Hernia uteri. Hysterocele. Hernia of the uterus. 

24. Hernia vesicalis. Cystocele ; or hernia of the bladder. 

25. Hernia cornea. Ceratocele, or hernia of the cornea ; protrusion 
of the capsule of the aqueous humor through an ulcer of the cornea. 

Misapplied Terms, denoting certain enlargements, unconnected with 

Hernia, but suggestive of -celt. 

26. Hernia bronchialis. Bronchocele vera ; goitre aerien. A rare 
tumor, formed by protrusion of the mucous membrane through the 
cartilages of the larynx or the rings of the trachea, and caused by vio- 
lent exertion of the voice. 

27. Hernia autturis. Bronchocele, goitre, or enlargement of the 
thvroTd sland. 

28. Hernia humoralis. Inflammatio testis, or swelled testis. 

29. Hernia saooi lacrymalis. The name given by Beer to rupture of 
the lacrymal sac. It has been also called mucocele. 

30. Hernia varioosa. Cirsocele ; or a varicose enlargement of the 
spermatic vein. 

31. Hernia ventosa, or Jhtulenia. Pneumatocele ; or hernia die- 
tended with flatus. 

HERNIOTOMY (hernia, and row, section). The operation for 
strangulated hernia. 

H E R— H E T 289 

HERO'IC (8p»f, a hero). A term applied to remedies or prac- 
tice of a bold and startling character, adopted by the " heroes " of 

HE'RPES (tp-Ku>y to creep). Ekphlysis herpes. A cutaneous affec- 
tion, characterized bv an eruption of clustered vesicles upon inflamed 
patches of irregular size and form, and named from its creeping character. 
The varieties are distributed into a phlyktasnoid group, typified by the 
variety herpes pihlykUenodes or nirles, and embracing the local forms, 
labial is, nasalis, palpebral is, auricularis, pneputialis, and pudendals; 
and a circinate group, characterized by the circular disposition of its 
clusters ; thus, in herpes zoster, or " shingles/* the clusters are developed 
in a circular form around the trunk of the body ; in herpes circinatus, or 
" vesicular ringworm/* individual vesicles are disposed in the form of a 
circle ; in herpes iris, or " rainbow ringworm/ 1 the same peculiarity 
occurs in the form of concentric circles. See Zona. 

HERPE'TIC (ipirtivrticdt, disposed to creep, from t pwijt, herpes). 
Herpetic. A term applied by Hippocrates to spreading eruptions. 

HESPERI'DIUM. One of those fruits which, in common botanical 
language, is confounded with the word Bacca, but which indicates a dif- 
ferent structure. It is a many-celled, superior, in dehiscent fruit, with a 
tough separable rind, the seeds hardly losing their attachment when ripe, 
ana the cells readily separating through the dissepiments. The orange 
is the type of the hesperidium. 

HETERO- (Znpot. other). A Greek term denoting difference : — 

1. Heter-acmy (a*M»J» acme). A term expressive of the phenomena 
observed in the arrangement of the reproductive organs of hermaphro- 
dite plants, and described under the term Protandry and Protoayny. 

2. Heter-adelpkia (AAtX^ds, a brother). A term applied by 
Geoffrey St Hilaire to union of the bodies of two foetuses, In 
these cases, one footus generally attains its perfect growth ; the other 
remains undeveloped, or acephalous, maintaining a parasitic life upon 
its brother. 

3. Hetero-gamous (yd/ios, marriage). A term applied to plants 
whose inflorescence contains two or more sorts of flowers with reference 
to the stamens and pistils, as in aster. 

4. Heterogeneous (yfroc, kind). A term used to denote substances, 
the parts of which are of different kinds. A compound substance is 
heterogeneous, as distinguished from an elementary substance, which 
is homogeneous. See Homogeneous. 

5. Hetero-genesis (ytVssrtv, production). A mode of Biogenesis, bv 
which the living parent was supposed to five rise to offspring which 
passed through a totally different series of states from those exhibited 
by the parent, and did not return into the cycle of the parent, the off- 
spring being altogether, and permanently, unlike the parent. See 
Homngenesis and Xenogeneics. 

6. Heterologous formations (\oyot, an account). A term applied to 
solid or fluid substances, different from any of the solids or fluids which 
enter into the healthy composition of the body. It is synonymous with 
the hetero-plastic matter of Lobstein. These morbid growths are 
malignant, as cancer ; non-malignant, as tubercle. 

7. Hetero-merous (jiipot, a part). Unrelated at to chemical compo- 
sition. Isomorphous bodies may be heteromerous. 

8. Httei-o pathy (w&doi, disease). The art of curing, founded on 


200 II E X— II I 1) 

differences, by which one morbid condition is removed by inducing a 
different one. Compare Homoeopathy. 

9. Heiero-phyllous l<pu\\ov, a leaf). Differing in the form of leaf 
from other species of the same plant. 

10. Hetero-plasis (wXamt , formation). Heteroplatia. A structure 
different from, and opposite in nature to, a normal structure; a term 
employed by Lobstein in the same sense as that of heterologous forma- 
tion, adopted by Carswcll. The same writer applies the term cttplaqs 
to orgauixable matter, bv which the tissues of the body are renewed". 
The term heteroplastic is synonymous with pseudoplatmata, Hebra's 
ninth class, consisting of cancer and tubercle. 

11. Heiero-plasty (irAa<n?, formation). An operation for trans- 
planting certain parts of the skin borrowed from amputated members, 
and applying them for the purpose of obtaining cicatrization in other 
subjects. See Autoplasiy. 

12. Hetero-rrhizous ipl\a, a root). A term applied to the germi- 
nation of cryptogamous plants, in which this function takes place from 
any part of the surface of the spore, as distinguished from erorrhizal 
and endorrhizal germination. 

13. HcterO'tropal or hctero-tropous (rpiirw, to turn). That which 
has its direction across the body to which it belongs ; a term applied to 
the embryo of the seed, as in primrose. 

HEXAGY'NIA (?£, six. yvvv, a female). A term applied to 
those orders of plants, in the Linnaean system, which have six styles in 
each flower. 

HEXA'NDRIA (££, six, d»tjp, a man). The sixth class of the 
Linnsean system, including plants with six stamens in each flower. 

HEXATHYRI'DIUM VENAHUM. Polystoma sangmeola. A 
sterelminthous parasitic worm, infesting the venous blood. H. pingw- 
cola is another species, infesting the ovary. 

HEX YL («£, six, ii\ n % matter). The radical of caproic alcohol and 
other compounds, so called from its being the sixth in the series of 
homologous radicals. 

HIATUS FALLO'PIl (hiatus, an opening, from hiare, to gape). 
An opening in the tympanum, named from Fafiopius. 

HIBI'SCUS. A genus of malvaceous plants, the species of which 
are chiefly useful for the tenacity of their fibre. The species ahelmos- 
chus, so named from an Arabic term denoting musk-scented seeds, 
abounds in mucilage, and is employed in the process of clarifying. The 
seeds are said to be added to coffee in Arabia, and are used in India as 
a cordial medicine. This species is now often named AUlmoschus 

HICCOUGH. Singultus. Hiccup ; a short, convulsive, and noisy 
inspiration, followed immediately by expiration, and occasioned by a 
sudden, involuntary, and momentary contraction of the diaphragm, 
with a simultaneous narrowing of the glottis. — Tanner. The name, 
perhaps, suggests the peculiar sound, and it corresponds with the French 
ioqmet and tne German Schluckeu, which are similarly suggestive. 

HIDDEN SEIZURES. A term applied by Marshall Hall to 
obscure encephalic and spinal attacks, as tnoae of an epileptoid character, 
which may be referred to trachelismus. 

HIDRO'A {'Idpwa, from ioput, sweat). A designation of the 
miliary vesicles usually termed sudamina. See Hydroa. 

HID— H P 291 

HIDRO'SIS (ftpwo-tt, a perspiring). Morbid increase of the per- 
spiratory secretion from excited action of the sudoriparous glands, 
attended by inflammatory indications. 

1. Hidrosis simplex. Subacute hidrosis ; also called sudatoria 
miliariSy from its being usually accompanied by sudamina in the form 
of miliary vesicles on the skin. 

2. Hidrosit maligna. Malignant hidrosis; also called sudatoria 
maligna, and probably identical with the Sweating Sickness of the 
sixteenth century. 

HIDROTICA (iipwTiKov, sudorific, from iipws, lip&roi , sweat). 
Sudorific*. Medicines which cause perspiration. 

HI'ERA Pl'CRA (it pot, holy, »ncp<J« t bitter). Holy bitten ; 
"hickery pickery ;" the pulvis aloes et candlct, formerly called hiera 
lopadii. It appears in the London Pharmacopoeia of 1650 in the form 
of an electuary made of various drugs with honey. 

HILTON'S MUSCLE. The arytano-epiglottideus inferior, a 
muscle of the epiglottis, described by Hilton. 

HPLUM (the root of ni-hilum, i. e. ne hilum, and nihil). The least 
whit; a trifle; mostly used with a negation, i.e. not the least — 
" neque proficit hilum, makes no progress whatever. 
' 1. Hilum of seeds. The point or the seed by which it is attached to 
the placenta. This is the base of the seed. 

2. Hilum lienis (/ten, the spleen). A fissure observed on the internal 
and concave surface of the spleen, through which the vessels enter and 
leave the substance of the organ. 

3. Hilum renale (renes, the kidneys). A deep notch observed on the 
concave border of the kidney, leading to a cavity, or sinus, within the 

HINGE- JOINT. Qinglymus. A species of articulation, in which the 
bones move upon each other like hinges, as in the elbow, the knee, Ac. 

1. The swale hinge-joint is that in which the nearly cylindrical bead 
of one bone fits into a corresponding socket of the other. The only 
motion possible is in the direction of a plane perpendicular to the long 
axis of the cylinder, just as a door can only be made to move in one 
plane upon its hinges. The elbow is the best example of this joint in 
the human body. 

2. The double hinge-joint is that in which the articular surfaces of 
each bone are concave in one direction, and convex in another, at right 
angles to the former. " A man," says Prof. Huxley, " seated in a 
saddle, is 4 articulated ' with the saddle by such a joint. For the 
saddle is concave from before backwards and convex from side to side, 
while the man presents to it the concavity of his legs astride, from side 
to side, and the convexity of his seat, from before backwards.** The 
metacarpal bone of the thumb is articulated with the bone of the wrist, 
called trapezium.hy a double hinge-joint 

HIP-DISEASE Under this general term are confounded all the 
inflammatory affections incident to the coxo-femoral articulation. See 

HIPPO- (frrirov, a horse). A term employed in composition with 
other terms, and relating generally to the hone, but, probably, in tome 
cases indicative merely of large size, as in hippo-marathron, horse* 
fennel ; hippo-selinoD, horse-parsley ; hippo-lapatnon, horse-sorrel, &c. 
See Bon-. 

v 2 

292 HI P-H I R 

1. Hippocampus Ocafiwos, a sen-monster). 1. A monster, with 
horse's body and fish's tail. 2. A small sea-animal, the sea-hone. 
3. The designation of two convolutions of the brain — the hippocampus 
minor, situated in the posterior horn, and the hippocampus major, situ- 
ated in the inferior horn, of the ventricles of the brain. See Cornu 

2. Hippo castanum (icao-rava, chestnuts). The horse-chestnut, a 
species of AEsculus, said to have acouired its popular name from a custom 
observed among the Turks of grinding the nuts and mixing them with 
the provender given to horses which are broken-winded. 

3. Hippo-iatros (iorpof,a physician). A horse-doctor ; a veterinary 
surgeon. The term has an uncouth sound, but it is not entirely with- 
out authority, having been used by Anthemius in the sixth century. 

,4. Hippo-lUkus (\t'0ov, a stone). The name of a concretion found 
in the iutestines of horses, composed of ammoniacal phosphate of mag- 
nesia, derived from the husk of the oats on which they feed. 

5. Hippo-manes (fxaivofiai, to be furious). 1. As an adjective, this 
term denotes an eagerness for the horse, applied to mares. 2. As a 
substantive it was applied, by Theocritus, to an Arcadian plant, appa- 
rently of the spurge kind, of which horses are madly fond, or which 
makes them mad. 3. It also denotes a small black fleshy substance on 
the forehead of a new-born foal, supposed to be usually eaten off by the 
dam, and eagerly sought to be used as a philtre. 4. Lastly, it is applied 
to a humor flowing from mares a-horsing, used for like purposes. — L. 
and S. Lexicon. 

6. Hippo-phagy (<pdyw, to eat). The consumption of horse-flesh 
by man, as food. The Tartars arc hippophagous. 

7. Hipp-uric Acid (olpov, urine). An acid found in large quantities 
in the urine of the horse, the cow, and other herbivorous animals. It 
has also been detected in human urine. 

HIPPOCRATES'S SLEEVE. A kind of bag, made by uniting the 
opposite angles of a square piece of flannel, used as a strainer for syrups 
and decoctions. 

HIPPOCRA'TIC FACE. A peculiar expression of the face, in- 
duced by death or protracted disease, as described by Hippocrates. 

HIPPOCRATIC FINGER. A disease of the nail mentioned by 
Hippocrates as one of the consequences of empyema, hut considered 
bv Dr. Esbach as a symptom of general cachexia, causing a local effect, 
vn. vascular degeneracy. 

HIPP-URIS fimrovptt, from ?mrot, a horse, and ovpd, a tail). 
Horse-tailed, decked with a horse's tail. The term is applied, in a 
substantive sense, to the water-plant equisetum, or mare's tail ; and, in 
anatomy, to the final division of the spinal marrow, also termed Cauda 
equina, or horse's tail, from the division of the nerves which issue from it. 

HITPUS PUPIXL/E (*mro«, a horse; an unknown sea-fish, 
mentioned by Pliny, supposed to be a small crab). A repeated dilata- 
tion and alternate contraction of the eye, caused by a spasmodic affec- 
tion of the iris, and occurring in amaurosis. 

HIPS or HEPS (heaps, Saxon, literally hedge-berries). The ripe 
fruit of the Rosa canxna, or dog-rose, chiefly used for making the con- 
fection of that name. 

HIUCIN {hircus y a goat). A substance contained in the fat of the 
/oat and sheep, yielding, by saponification, hircic acid. 

HIR-HOM 293 

HIRSUTE and HISPID. Terms applied, in descriptive botany, 
to surfaces covered with long hairs, the latter term denoting the greater 
rigidity. Bearded men are termed hirsute, but not hispid. The body 
of the Nereids was hispid— with scales. 

HIRSUT1ES (hirsutus, shaggy). Trichosit hirsuta. Shaggincss; 
augmented formation or abnormal quantity of hair in parts naturally 
occupied by hair. See Nam pUosi. 

HIRU'DO. The Latin term for the leech, a genus of Annulose 
animals, or red-blooded worms, of Cuvier, which live by suckiog the 
blood of other animals. See Sanguisuga. 

HISTOGENESIS Qcrot, a tissue or web, ytWtv, generation). 
The generation or development of the tissues of the body. 

HISTO'LOOY (1o-to'«, a web, Xo'yoc, an account). Thafbranch of 
Morphology which is specially occupied with the investigation of 
minute or microscopical tissues, the ultimate structure of the component 
parts of plants and animals, without reference to the form or size of the 
parts which they compose. 

HI8TRIONIC {hutrio, a stage-player). Mimisch. A term applied 
by German writers to affections of the muscles of expression, inducing 
spasm and paralysis. 

HITES. The popular name in the north of England, and in some 
parts of Scotland, for a vesicular eruption, shaped like a bee-hive^ 
applied to a dispersed form of herpes, to modified variola, and to 

HOANGNAN BARK. A bark obtained from a species of Strychnos, 
recommended from China as a remedy against hydrophobia. It is 
supposed to depend for any activity it may possess upon the presence of 
strychuia, which it contains together with brucia. This is rather 
curious in the face of curare being reputed as an antidote to strychnia.— 
Ph. Journal. 

HOMBERG'S PHOSPHORUS. Ignited muriate of lime. After 
being heated, it shines in the dark. See Phosphorus. 

HOMBERG'S PYRO'PHORUS (irvp, fire, <pipu>, to bring). A 
mixture of alum and brown sugar, which takes fire on exposure to the 
air. A more convenient mixture is made with three parts of lamp- 
black, four of burnt alum, and eight of carbonate of potash. 

HOMBERG'S SEDATIVE SALT. A name for boracic acid, 
which appears, however, to possess no sedative property. 

HOM(EOMO'RPHOUS (o>oio*. similar, m*P<H\ form). Homo- 
logous. Having the same form, as descriptive of a tumor which is 
identical with some of the normal tissues of tne body ; and of crystalline 
forms which are similar in unlike chemical compounds. 

HOMCEOTATHY (Spotot, similar, wa'6or, disease). The art of 
curing founded on rtsemblances, introduced by Samuel Hahnemann. 
The principle is, that every disease is curable by such medicines as 
would produce, in a healthy person, symptoms similar to those which 
characterize the given disease. The iJatin expression is "similia simi- 
libus curantur," in opposition to the " contraria contrariis "<—4iUopathy 
or heteropathy. 

HOMCEOPLA'SIvE (apotot, similar, vr\u«rti % conformation). 
Similar structures ; a term synonvmous with neoplasmaia, comprising 
diseases which depend upon a morbid distribution of normal tissues. 
HOMOGENEOUS {buoy%»n*, of the same race or family). Ttua 

294 HOM 

term denotes substances made up of parts possessing the same properties. 
Heterogeneous, on the contrary, denotes that the parts are or different 
qualities: thus, in minerals, sandstone is a homogeneous, granite a 
heterogeneous body. 

HOMOGE'NESIS (bfiot, the same, yiftai*, production). A mode 
of Biogenesis, by which the living parent gives nse to offspring, which 
passes through the same cycle of changes as itself— like gives rise to 
like. See neurogenesis. 

HOMOGE'NS (o/uoyiKtjt, of the same race or family). A division 
of exogenous plants which differ in the structure of their wood from 
other exogens, and approach that of some endogens : thus, there is no 
successive deposition of concentric zones, but there is merely one zoue 
of woody matter, at whatever age they may have arrived. They are 
named, therefore, from the homogeneity of their wood, as the menispcr- 

HOMCGEN Y and HO MOT L AS Y (o M <St , the same, yiw, race ; 
xXactt, a moulding). Two terms proposed by Mr. Rav Lankester to 
supersede the term " homology,* 1 with reference to the doctrine of the 
" evolution *' of all existing species of organisms from different pre- 
existent forms. 

1. On this view, only those organs in different animals are "homo- 
genous," which owe their resemblances to genetic community of origin ; 
or, in other words, to their haviug had " a single representative in a 
commou ancestor/ 1 

2. On the other hand, Mr. Lankester asserts that when " identical or 
nearly similar forces, or environments, act on two or more parts of an 
organism which are nearly or exactly alike, the resulting modifications of 
the various parts will be exactly or nearly alike ;" and, further, that 
** if, instead of similar parts in the same organism, we suppose the same 
forces to act on parts in two organisms, which parts are exactly or nearly 
alike, and sometimes homogenetic, the resulting correspondences called 
forth in the several parts of the two organisms will be nearly or exactly 
alike.** For agreements produced in this way the term " homoplasy 
is proposed. — H. A. Nicholson. 

HOMO'LOGOUS SERIES (6,uo\oy<K, agreeing). A term applied 
to a scries of organic bodies, the members of which differ in composition 
by the same number of equivalents of the same elements. The alcohols 
present a homologous series, and its members are said to be homologues 
or homologous with one another. 

HO'MOLOGUE (ouoAoyot, agreeing). Honiotype. According to 
Owen, a " homologue** is " the same organ in different animals under 
every variety of form and function.** In other words, those organs or 
parts in different animals are homologous, which agree with one another 
morphologically in their fundamental structure, Quite irrespective of 
their analogy, which denotes a correspondence of functions. Thus the 
arm of man, the fore-leg of the dog, and the wing of a bird, are con- 
structed upon the same morphological type, and are therefore homo- 
logous. See Homology, Doctrine of, and compare Analogue. 

HOMO'LOGY, DOCTRINE OF (b*o\oyla, agreement). That 

branch of anatomical science which investigates the correspondence of 

parts and of plan in the construction of animals. The great aim of 

Prof. Owen's works on Homologicol Anatomy appears to he to put an 

end to the old controversy, so long maintained, on the assumption 

H M— H N 295 

that a special adaptation of parts was incompatible with a common type 
of construction. 

1. Special homology relates to the correspondence of parts in different 
animals. Thus, the wing of a bird is the fiomologtte of the arm of a 
man, or of the fore-leg of a horse ; the " os quadratum " of a bird is 
the homologue of the " os tyropanicum " of the tortoise, or of the 
" auditory process of the temporal bone " of man. 

2. Serial homology relates to the correspondence of parts in the same 
animal. Thus, the wins of a bird is the nomologwt, in one segment of 
its body, of the leg of a bird in another segment ; the frontal bone is in 
this tense the homologue of the occipital bone ; the right neurapophysis 
it the homologue of the left neurapophysis in the same segment of a 
vertebra. The arm is the homologue of the leg, the humerus of the 
femur, the radius of the tibia, the ulna of the fibula. 

3. General homology relates to correspondences of parts viewed with 
reference to the ideal archetype of the vertebrate skeleton. Thus, the 
arm is the " diverging appendage " of its segment ; the superoccipital 
bone is the " neural spine ;" the ex occipital bone, or ( " condyloid part 
of the occipital bone," in the human subject, is the "neurapophysis ;" 
the u basioccipital bone/* or '' basilar process of the occipital none,** is 
the "centrum," or u body," of its segment. 

4. Lateral homology consists in the structural identity of the parts on 
the two sides of the body in any given animal. When this identity is 
complete, the animal becomes " bilaterally symmetrical ;" or, in other 
words, exhibits similar and symmetrical parts on the two sides of the 

riOMOMO'RPHISM (<W* similar, pop4»4, form). A term ap- 
plied to a phenomenon observed both in the animal and the vegetable 
kingdom, in which families widely removed from one another in their 
fundamental structure, nevertheless present a singular and sometimes 
extremely close resemblance ; this phenomenon occurs in the cose of 
the hvdroid zoophytes and the polyzoa, or sea-mosses, which have often 
been classed together. 

HO'MONYM; HO'MOTYPE (6»6*, the same, oWa, name; 
Tihro?, type). These terms denote, in anatomy, a correlation of parts : 
the frontal bone is the homonym or homotype of the superoccipital bone, 
the humerus of the femur, &c. It is the aim of serial homology to 
determine homonymous or homotypal relations. 

HOMO'TROP'AL (o><fa, the same, rpoirot, a turn). Homotropous. 
Having the same direction as the body to which it belongs, but not 
being straight ; a term applied to the embrvo of the seed. 

HONEY. Mel. A vegetable juice, collected from the nectaries of 
flowers by the Apis melliflca, or Honey-bee. With vinegar, it forms 
oxymel ; diluted with water, it undergoes the v\nou% fermentation, and 
yields hydromel, or mead. Virgin-honey is honey wrought by the young 
bees which have never swarmed, and which runs from the comb with- 
out heat or pressure. Honey -water is a mixture of essences coloured 
with saffron, to which a little honey is sometimes added. See 

HONEY-DEW. A sweetish substance ejected by very small in- 
sects, called aphides, upon the leaves of plants, and vulgarly supposed 
to be caused by a blight, or some disease of the plant. There is another 
kind of honey-dew, observed only at particular times, and in. certain 

296 HO 0— H R 

states of the atmosphere, hanging occasionally in drops from the points 
of the leaves of plants ; its cause is not known. 

HOOKED WORMS. Acanthokephala. An order of Enlozoa or 
Intestinal worms, found in most of the lower animal?, and charac- 
terized by an elongated, round body, and a proboscis furnished with 
hooks or spicula, arranged in rows. 

HOOPING-COUGH. Whooping-cough. A convulsive cough, 
consisting of a long series of forcible expirations, followed by a deep, 
loud, sonorous inspiration, and repeated more or less frequently during 
each paroxysm. It is popularly known in England as whooping-cough, 
kink-cough, and chin-cough ; in France, as coqueluche ; in Germany, 
as Keuchnusten and Stickhusten, from the sonorous inspiration which 
marks it ; snd technically, as lussis conrulsiva and pertussis. 

HOP. The dried strobile of the Humulus lupulus, or Hop-plant. 
It contains about 10 per cent, of lupulin. 

HOPE. A term in phrenology, indicative of a disposition to expect 
future good, and to believe in the possibility of whatever the other 
faculties desire. Its organ is situated on each side of that of Vene- 

HORDE'OLUM (hordeum, barley). A stye, or small boil, occur- 
ring upon the edge of the eye* lid, and involving a Meibomian gland. 
It is named from its resemblance in size and firmness to a barley- 

HO'RDEUM DECORTICATUM. Hordeumperlatum{!). Pearl- 
barley ; the grains of Hordewn distichon, decorticated and rounded in a 
mill. The iarina obtained by grinding pearl-barley to powder is called 
patent barley. 

1. Hordewn mundatum. Cleansed barley ; Scotch, hulled, or pot- 
barley, consisting of the grains deprived of their husk by a mill. The 
farina obtained by grinding Scotch barley constitutes bariev-tneal. 

2. Hordein. The principle of barley ; a modification of starch. 
HOREHOUND. The vernacular name of Marrubium vulgare, a 

labiate plant common in this country. The officinal part is the leaves, 
the chief constituents of which are a bitter extractive, with a volatile 
oil, and probably some astringent matter. Ten pounds of leaves yield 
four pounds of extract. 

HORN. A substance consisting of coagulated albumen and gelatine. 
It differs from bone in containing only a trace of earth. 

HORN, CUTANEOUS. Cornu humanum. A horny substance 
consisting generally of the desiccated secretion of a follicular cyst of the 
skin. It also occurs as an augmentation of the horny epidermis. 

HORN-POCK. A term applied to the varioloid form of small-pox, 
in which the vesicles shrivel and dry up, presenting a. horny appearance. 
See Pearl-Pock. 

HORN-SILVER. Luna cornea. The chloride of silver ; the term 
it derived from its forming a gray, semi-transparent mass, which may 
be cut with a knife, and much resembles horn. 

1. Horn-lead. Plumbum corneum ; the chloride of lead, a semi- 
transparent mass, resembling horn. 

2. Horn-Quicksilver. A natural protochloride of quicksilver ; it has a 
white horn-like appearance. 

HORNER'S MUSCLE. The tensor tarsi, a muscle of the orbital 
group, noticed by Horner of Pennsylvania, in 1827. 

HOR-HUM 297 

HORNY MATTER. One of the proximate principle* of organic 
nature. There are two varieties, the membranous ana the compact, 

1. The membranous constitutes the epidermis and the epithelium, or 
lining membrane of the vessels, the intestines, the pulmonary cells, Ac. 

2. The compact forms hair, horn, nails, &c. 
HORRIPILATIO (horripilare, to bristle with hairs ; from horrere, 

to stand on end, and pilus, a hair). A bristling of the hair, occasioned by 
cold or terror ; also called " goose-skin," and the " standing of the bair 
on end." It arises from contraction of the muscular fibres connected 
with the hair-sacs. 

H ORSE- RAD ISH. The vernacular name of Cochlearia A nnoracia ; 
a Cruciferous plant, the fresh root of which is officinal. The term horse,** 
an epithet, in this case, is a Grecism, as also in horse-mint, Aorse-chcstnut, 
&c. ; the same may be said of the term bull, in ontf-rush, &c. ; these 
terms are derived from frrirot and /9ovc, respectively, which merely 
denote greatness. The terms ox-eye, or- tongue, &c, are familiar to 
botanists. See Hippo-. 

HORSE-SHOE KI DNEY. A term applied to the two glands when 
united by a flat band of true renal tissue extending across the vertebral 

HORTICULTURAL INK. An indelible ink for writing on zinc or 
brass labels, made by dissolving bichloride of platinum in distilled 

HORTUS SICCUS (a dry garden). An emphatic appellation riven 
to a collection of specimens of plants, carefully dried and preserved. A 
more general term is herbarium. 

HOSPITAL GANGRENE. Gangrcena nosocomiomm. »* Slough- 
ing phagedena, occurring endemicall v in hospitals/* A combination of 
humid gangrene with phagedenic ulceration ; also termed phagedena 
gangrenosa, putrid or malignant ulcer, hospital sore, sloughing phagc- 
darna, Sec. 

HOUR-GLASS CONTRACTION. An irregular and transverso 
contraction of the uterus, in which it assumes the form of an hour- 

HOUSEMAID'S KNEE. Byrsa patella anplificata. Inflamma- 
tion and enlargement of the bursa patellae, arising from effusion, which 
is occasioned by pressure from kneeling. See Miner's Elbow. 

calomel, prepared by exposing the salt in the act of sublimation to 
aqueous vapour, and receiving it in water. It is lighter than common 
calomel, in the proportion of three to five, and cannot contain any cor- 
rosive sublimate. 

HUME'S TEST. A test for arsenious acid, consisting of the am- 
monio-nitrate of silver. If a solution of this substance be mixed with a 
solution of arsenious acid, a yellow arsenite of silver is precipitated, and 
nitrate of ammonia remains in solution. 

HU'MERUS. The shoulder or upper part of the arm, including the 
shoulder-joint, the scapula and the clavicle. 

Humero-cvtntalis. Another name for the brachialis anticus muscle 
of the anterior humeral region. 

HUM1C ACID (humus, vegetable mould). Ulmic acid. A 
brownish-black substance occurring in vegetable mould and liquids con- 
taining decomposing vegetable substances. 

298 H U M— H Y B 

HUMID TETTER, or SCALL. The papular name of Ekzema, the 
ekphlvsis eczema of Mason Good, or heat-eruption. 

HU'MILIS (humble). A name (riven to the rectus inferior, 
from the expression of humility which the action of this muscle 

HU'MOR (humere, to be moist, from humus, the ground). A hu- 
mour, or moisture ; an aqueous substance. The terms ' ' good humour " 
and "bad humour" are derived from the old "humoral" pathology, 
according to which there were four principal moistures or ** humors '* 
in the natural body, viz. blood, choler, phlegm, and melancholy, on the 
due proportion and combination of which the disposition of body and of 
mina depends. See Temperament. 

HUMORAL PATHO'LOGY. A system in medicine, which at- 
tributed all diseases to morbid changes in the four elementary humors 
or fluid parts of the body, without assigning any influence to the state 
of the solids. Thus blood produced phlegmon, bile produced erysipelas, 

HUMO'RIC (humor,* humour). A term applied by M. Piorry to a 
peculiar sound, produced on percussion, by the stomach, when that 
organ contains much air and liquid. It resembles the metallic tinkling 
of Laennec. 

HUMORS OF THE EYE. Two watery or semi-fluid substances, 
one of which, the aqueous, distends the corneal chamber, while the 
other, the vitreous, fills the sclerotic chamber of the eye-ball. They arc 
separated from each other by the crystalline lens. 

HUMUS. Vegetable mould ; the chief part of the organic matter of 
soils. It is said to contain humic, ulmic, and geic acid. 

HUNTERIAN OPERATION. The name given to the operation 
for aneurysm adopted by Hunter, who applied the ligature at a consider- 
able distance from the aneurysmal sac, to as to diminish the risk of 
haemorrhage and admit of the artery's being more readily secured, 
should sucn accident occur. 

HY'ALINE (JtaXoiy glass). Glassy; a term applied to cartilage, in 
which the cells are surrounded by a clear halo, giving them a pellucid 

HY'ALOID (OaXof, glass, floor, likeness). Vi triform or glass - 
like ; a designation of a variety of cancer in which the morbid product 
resembles glass. 

1. Hyaloid membrane. The Greek name of the vitriform, transparent, 
or glass-like membrane which encloses the vitreous humor of the eve. 

2. Hyaloiditis. Inflammation of the hyaloid membrane. Ilyalitis, 
a term sometimes used, is inflammation of glass ! 

HYBERNATION {hybema, winter-quarters for soldiers; from 
hfsms, winter). A reptile state of the functions, which occurs in somo 
animals in winter, as the bat, hedge-hog, dormouse, hamster, &c. Com- 
pare Diurnation. 

HYBO'SlSjHYBO'MA (B/9ot, the bunch or hump of a camel). 
The former of these terms denotes a making hump-backed ; the latter, a 
hump--now made. (See Preface, par. 2.) The latter is the hybomu 
scoliosis of Swediaur, the rhachybia of Good. 

HY'BRID (hybrida, hibrida, and ibrida). A common term for 
animals and plants produced from two different species, but unable to 
continue the characters of both parents. 

HYD 299 

HYDATID (Marl*, a watery vesicle, from 86W water). A 
pellucid cyst, containing a transparent fluid, developed in a cavity or 
tissue of the human body, Ac. The term is now used to designate the 
Cystica (kuotjt, a bladder), an order of Entozoa or Intestinal worms, 
characterized by a flattish or roundish body, terminating posteriorly in 
a transparent cyst filled with pellucid fluid. 

1. Hvdatis akephalocystis (a, priv., *«<£aXij, the head, #cu<rn*, a 
bladder}. The headless hydatid, or bladder- worm. 

2. Hydatis ccenurus (wotvot, common, ovpa, a tail). The hydatid 
containing several animals grouped together, and terminating in one 

3. Hydatis cysticercut (k6*ti9, a bladder, tcipKot, a tail). The 
bladder- tailed hydatid. 

4. Hydatis dxtrachyceros (6*fc, twice, Tpa\v*i rough, Wpar , a horn). 
The hydatid furnished with a rough bifurcated horn. 

5. Hydatis eckinococcus (ix?vof, a hedge-hog, kSkkos, a grain). The 
round, rough, granular hydatid. 

6*. Hydatis polykephalut (iroXuc, many, kk^ciXt}, the head). The 
many-headed hydatid. 

7. To these may be added a white encysted body, which Raspail 
names the omdiger of the joint of the icrist, and considers as a new genus, 
intermediate between the cysticercus and the ccenurus. 

HYDATISM (Maritrfiot, the noise of water in the body of a 
dropsical person). The sounding of fluid effused into a cavity of the 

HYDATOID (M«p, Marox, water, «I3o«, likeness). Water-like; 
as the membrane enclosing the aqueous humor, or the aqueous humor 

HY'DERUS (Mspot, like Mp«^, dropsy; from M-p, water). 
Literally, water-flux ; a name given by the Greeks to diabetes, which 
was also called urinal dropsy, urinary diarrhoea, and dipsacus, from its 
accompanying thirst. 

HYDR-, HYDRO- (M«p, Worot, water). A prefix generally 
denoting the presence of water in definite proportions ; but, owing te 
the changes of nomenclature, it sometimes denotes the presence of 
hydrogen in certain chemical compounds, as hydro-btomic acid, hydr- 
iodic acid, &c. 

HYDR-ACID9. Hydro-acids. A class of acid compounds, into 
which hydrogen enters, as the acidifying principle ; as the hydro-chloric, 
the hydro-cyanic, cYc. See Oxyacids. 

HYDRjE'MIA (vdwp, water, al/ua, blood). A watery state of the 
blood. Synonymous terms are spanhamia, oligluBmia, &c. 

HYDRAGOGUES (5iwp, water, Ay*y6t , expeller). Cathartica 
or diuretics supposed to be capable of expelling serum which has been 
effused into any part ; or, generally, of producing liquid evacuations. 

HYDRAMIDES. A class of organic compounds which may be 
described as d tarn ides, derived from the action of ammonia upon the 

HYDRA'MNIOS (v4«p, water, Afiviov, the amnion). A morbid 
accumulation of the liquor amnii. 

HYDRAMYL-CHLOR. The name given by Dr. Richardson to 
an anaesthetic fluid consisting of one part of bichloride of methylene 
and nine of amy! hydride. 

300 II Y D 

HYDRARG Y'RIA (blpdpyvpo*, hydrargyrum, mercury). Ekzema 
mercuriale. A form of the ekzema rubnim, differing from this variety 
of ekzema only in iU supposed exciting cause — the uae of mercury. Its 
synonyms are erythema mercuriale, erythema vesiculare, erythema ichc- 
rosum. and mercurial lepra. 

HYDRA'RGYRUM (tepdpyvpot of the Greeks, from vimp, 
water, and apyvpot, silver). Mercury or quicksilver ; formerly railed 
argenium vivum et liquidum ; a liquid metal occurring in the metallic 
state, bat obtained chiefly from the native sulphide, or cinnabar. 

The British Pharmacopoeia of 1867 presents some changes in the 
names of the mercurial preparations : thus the bichloride or corrosive 
sublimate is now the perchloride, the chloride or calomel being the 
suftchloride of mercury. See Mercury. 

HYDRARTHROSIS (iidwp, water, fip0pov, a joint). Hydrarthrus. 
White swelling ; dropsy of an articulation, from an accumulation of a 
fluid partaking in various degrees of the characters of serum and 
synovia ; generally occurring in the knee-joint ; the spina ventosa of 
the Arabian writers. It is also called hydrops artkuli. 

HYDRATES (v6wp, water). Chemical compounds of solid bodies 
and water, or its elements in the proportion to form water, still retain- 
ing the solid form, as sulphur, soap, slaked lime, &c. These are also 
termed hydroxures, and hydro-oxides. When there is more than one 
atom of water, prefixes are employed, as bin-aqueous, (er-hydraie y &c 

HYDRATION (u6m Pl water). An unclassical word for the 
determination of the amount of water in a chemical extract. Water of 
hydration is the water chemically combined with some substance to 
form a hydrate. See Constitutional Water. 

HYDR-ENCEPHALOCELE (W«p, water, ty«i>a\ot, the 
brain, «rf)Ai), tumor). Literally, watery brain-tumor ; a serous tumor 
occasioned by ahernial protrusion of brain through a fissure of the cranium. 

HYDR-ENKEPHA'LOID (ttt»p, water, iy«i<pa\ot, the brain, 
t ?&w, likeness). A term applied to affections which resemble hydren- 
kephalus, but arise from intestinal disorder and exhaustion. 

HYDR-E'NTEROCELE (vo»p, water, Ivrtpa, the bowels, «i}Xt/, 
a tumor). Hydrocele, or dropsy of the scrotum, complicated with in- 
testinal hernia. 

HYDRO A (vowp, water). An accumulation of water or serous 
fluid under the epidermis. See Hidroa. 

HYDRO-ADENI'TIS (vio> Pr water, and adenitis, inflammation of 
a gland). A term for minute inflammatory tumors on the skin, sup- 
posed to originate in inflammation of the sudatory glands. 

HYDRO-BROMIC ACID. A gaseous compound of bromine and 
hvdrogen, composed of equal volumes of bromine vapour and hydrogen. 
Hydro-brotnic ether is another name for bromide of ethyl. 

HYDRO-CA'RBON GAS. The name given to the mixed gases 
which are generated from water, and certain substances that are rich in 
hydrocarbons, as tar, resin, fats, oils, and the better kinds of caunel- 

HYDRO-CARBONS. Hydro carburets. A general term for 
compounds of hydrogen and carbon, comprising most of the inflammable 
gases, many of the essential oils, naphthas, &c. 

HyDRO-CA'RDIA (va»p, water, xaptia, the heart). Hydro- 
pericardia. Dropsy of the pericardium. 

H YD 801 

HY'DRO-CELE (MpoitXn, from S3 cop, water, ki$\i?, a tumor). 
Originally, any tumor containing water. The term now denotes— 

1. A collection of aerum in the tunica vaginalis, or in the cord, 
with a communication between the cavity of this membrane and 
that of the peritoneum, also termed congenital hydrocele. See Hema- 

2. Anasarcous tumor of the scrotum, termed (edematous hydrocele, 
or the hydrocele by infiltration of the French. 

3. Hydrocele of the spermatic or seminal cord, which is di/fused, in- 
volving the surrounding cellular substance ; or encysted, the cellular 
substance being unaffected. 

4. Spina bifida, also termed hydrocele spinalis. 
HYDRO-CHLORIC ACID. Chlorhvdric acid. The only known 

compound of chlorine and hydrogen ; also called muriatic acid and 
spirits of salts. 

HYDRO-CHLO'RIC ETHER. An ether which has received the 
various names of chlorydic, marine, and muriatic ether, and, hypothe- 
tical lv. chloride ofetkufe. 

HtDRO-CYA'NIC ACID. Hydrogen cyanide. A gaseous com- 
pound of hydrogen and cyanogen, commonly called prusstc add. The 
hydrocyanic acid of Scneele contains 5 per cent by weight of real 
acid ; but the dilute acid of the pharmacopoeia contains only 2 per cent. 

Diluted hydrocyanic acid. " Hydrocyanic acid dissolved in water, 
and constituting 2 per cent, by weight of the solution."" — Br. Ph. 

HYDRO-CY'STIS (vi*p, water, xvirnt, a bladder). A water- 
bladder ; a cyst containing a watery or serous fluid ; a hydatid ; also, 
saccated ascites. 

HYDRO-FERROCY'AMC ACID. A term synonymous with 
ferrocyanide of hydrogen, just as chloride of hydrogen is termed hydro- 
chloric acid, and bromide of hvdrogen, hydrobromic acid. 

H YDRO-FLUOTUC ACID. A compound of fluorine with hydro- 
gen, exactly analogous with the hydrochloric, hydrobromic, and hydri- 
odic acids. In accordance with the theory of Lavoisier, that the acidi- 
fying principle of all acids was oxygen, this compound was called /foortc 
acid, and that which is now termed fluoride of calcium (fluor or Derby- 
shire spar) was denominated filiate of lime. 

HY'DRO-GEN (viup, water, ysiWw, to generate). The " water- 
former ;*' a gas known by the names inflammable air, phlogiston, and 
phlogisticated air, in times when water was considered a simple sub- 
stance, but now named from ihe formation of water which results on 
inflaming a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases, in the proportion of 
two volumes of the former to one of the latter gas. 

Hydrogen, a gaseous metal I Submitted to a pressure equal to 650 
atmospheres, and allowed to escape, the hydrogen presented the form of 
a liquid jet, having a steel blue colour. This jet suddenly became 
intermittent, and "a hail of soli t particles fell with a crackling noise 
upon the ground.** 

HYDROGE'NIUM. A term introduced by Graham in bis re- 
searches on the occlusion of hvdrogen by palladium. He was led to 
infer the existence of an alloy of palladium and hydrogen gas condensed 
to a solid form which he called hwdrogenium. 

HYDRO-KETHALUS (u<W water, *ttf>aX>i, the bead). Hy- 
drops capites. Thia term, which would properly be written hydr- 

302 HYD 

enkephaJut. from iytctyaXot , the brain, denotes dropsy of the brain or 
inter on the head. It is named external, when it occurs between the 
membranes ; internal, when within the ventricles. When congenital, 
or when arising slowly from constitutional causes, it is termed chrome 

Hydro-hephaloid disease. This term, more correctly named hydr 
enhepkaloid disease, is a spurious form of hydrocephalus, which it re- 
sembles in its early appearances, but it is a fatal error to mistake the 
spurious for the real form. 

HYDRO'LATA (vdwp, water). Aqua medicate. Medicated or 
distilled waters, obtained by submitting fresh, salted, or dried vegeta- 
bles, or their essential oils, to distillation with water ; or by diffusing 
the essential oils through water. 

HYDRCLOG Y (vcutp, water, Xo*yo«, an account). A description 
of the quality of waters, as medicinal agents. 

HY'DRO-MEL (Soup, water, plki, honey). Honey diluted with 
water; also called mulsum, melicratum, and aqua mulsa. When fer- 
mented, it becomes mead. Metheglin wine is called hydromel vinosum. 

HYDttO- METER (v<5a>p, water, /itVpoir, a measure). A measurer 
(specific gravity understood) of water. This instrument has received 
various names : as graduated for alcoholic liquors, it is specially termed 
aleohoUmeter ; for milk, lactometer ; for sugar, saccharometer, &c. In 
all, the principle of construction is the same ; and is founded on the 
obvious property possessed by a body floating in a liquid of sinking or 
rising, in proportion as the liquid in which it floats is heavier or lighter ; 
or, in other words, possesses a greater or less amount of specific gravity. 
For urine, the hydrometer is graduated from 1000 to 1060, so as to 
exhibit at once the specific gravity. 

HYDRO-METRA (vdwp, water, utrpa, the uterus). Hydrops 
uteri. Dropsy of the womb; a rare disease. 

H YDR-CTMPHALUM (vduo, water. dfupaXot, umbilicus). Hy- 
drops umbUiealis. A tumor of trie umbilicus, containing serum. 

H YDRO-NEPHRO SIS (&*«/>, water, V t<p P 6t, the kidney). Hy- 
drops renum, " A dilatation of the pelvis and glandular substance of 
the icidney into one or more cysts by retained secretion." — Norn, of Die. 

HYDRO-O'XALIC ACID. Oxalhvdric acid. An acid procured 
by the action of nitric acid on sugar ; also termed saccharic acid. 

HYDBO-PATHY (Map, water, w«£0o«, affection). The Water- 
cure ; a mode of treating diseases by the internal and external use of 
cold water, &c. The term hydro-tkerapeia would be preferable. 

HYDRO-PEDE'SIS {Vdwp, water, wttftje-it, a leaping). Ephi- 
drosis. A violent breaking out of sweat 

HYDRO-PERICA'RDIUM (Dfop, water, *tpin*pdio» y the peri- 
cardium). Hydrops pericardii. Dropsy of the pericardium effusion 
of serum into the pericardium, or external fibro- serous covering of the 
heart It is termed active, when it results from inflammatory action 
in the pericardium ; passive, when it occurs from obstruction to the 

HYDRO-PHO'BIA (Vimp, water, fofiot, fear). Canine madness ; 
a disease due to inoculation with a specific poison residing in the saliva 
of a rabid animal, and characterized by spasms of the muscles of de- 
glutition and respiration. The name is derived from the dread of 
water, a characteristic symptom of the disease. 

H YD 803 

HYDR-OPHTHA'LMIA (M»/», water, o>0a\ M ot, the eye). Hy- 
drops oculi. Dropsy of the vitreous humor of the eye, causing enlarge- 
ment of the globe, with loss of sight. See Buphthalmia. 

H YDRO-PHY'SOCELE (V6u, P> water, 0u<rda>, to inflate, ki$\»i, 
tumor). Hydro-pneumatocele. Hernia complicated with hydrocele; 
hernia containing water and gas. 

HYDROTICA (v£p«u7, the dropsy). Medicines which relievo or 
cure dropsy. 

H YDRO-PLEURITIS (ud»p, water, wXivptrit , pleurisy). Pleu- 
ritis, acute or chronic, attended with effusion. 

HYDRO-PNEUMOSA'RCA (uiwp, water, ww5/uo, air, <r*p£, 
flesh). A tumor containing water, air, and a flesh-like substance. 

HYDRO-PNEUMOTHO'RAX (W«p, water, vvtv»u>v t the lunj, 
dutpaZ, the chest). The complication of pneumothorax with liquid 

HY'DROPS (voy>(0u7, from viwp, water, and «uV, the aspect or 
appearance). Drops v, or, more properly, hydropsy ; a morbid accumu- 
lation of serum in the interstices of the areolar tissue, with or with- 
out effusion into serous cavities. 

lacrymal sac, from the accumulating secretion. Hydrops scroti is 
another term for hydrocele of the tunica vaginalis. 

HYDRO-PY'RETUS (W»p> **ter, vvpirot, fever). Sudor An- 
aliens. Sweating fever, or sickness. 

HYDRO-RRHACH1TIS (Viu>p, water, pa X iTtt, spinal). Spina 
bifida ; Hydrocele spinalis. Dropsy of the spine. " A congenital de- 
ficiency of the posterior lamina? and spinous processes of one or more 
vertebrae, owing to which there is undue distension of the membranes 
of the cord with cerebrospinal fluid. It may exist in the cervical, 
dorsal, lumbar, or sacral region." — Tanner. See Spina bifida. 

H YDRO-RRHCE'A {Mwp, water, pita, to flow). A water-flow ; a 
discharge of watery fluid from the uterus — a variety of leucorrhan. 

HYDRO-SA'RCA (udwp, water, <rap£ , flesh). Anasarca. Dropsy 
of the cellular membrane. 

Hydro-sarco-otU (ki$\>/, tumor). Sarcocele attended with dropsy of 
the tunica vaginalis. See Sarcocele. 

HYDRO-STATIC BED (vow/), water, arariKot, causing to 
stand Y Water-bed ; a bed invented by Dr. Arnott, consisting of a 
trougti lined with thin sheets of metal, and partially filled with water, 
upon the surface of which floats a sheet of water-proof India-rubber 
cloth. Upon this sheet is laid an ordinary feather-bed, or mattress. 

HYDRO SULPHURIC ACID. Sulphuretted hydrogen ; a com- 
pound of sulphur and hydrogen, ..constituting an invaluable test for 
calcigenous metals. This is the hydro-theionic (duov, sulphur) acid of 
»onie German chemists. Its compounds with the saliflaole bases are 
termed hydro-sulphureU. 

HYDkO-THO'RAX (W»p, water, Bwpa& the chest). Hydrops 
thoracis. Dropsy of the chest ; water on the chest ; a collection of 
serous fluid, mixed with blood, in one or both cavities of the pleura. 

HYDROUS (utmp, water). This is the proper correlative of the 
term anhydrous, as applied to certain " acid " substances ; and it should 
never be confounded with the term hydrate, which is now applied to 
the members of a class of bodies derived from water, as hydrate of 

304 H Y D-H Y O 

potassium, and not to bodies containing water. The compound from 
which anhydrous sulphate of copper is prepared is hydrous, not hy- 
drated, sulphate of copper. 

HY'DRURET. A compound of hydrogen with a metal. 

HYDR-U'RIA (vdutp y water, ovpitc, to make water). A term ap- 
plied to that variety of chrouic diuresis, in which a larger quantity of 
urine is excreted than is natural. See Diuresis, chronic. 

HYGIE'NE (vyttcvoc, good for the health). Under this term are 
comprehended all the general arrangements and remedial measures, 
private and public, which are conducive to the preservation of 
health. The term itself, being an adjective, requires the addition 
of riy vi), art, to render it intelligible. Hygieia was the goddess of 

HY'GRO- (vy/>ot, moist). This prefix denotes the presence of 

1. Hygroma. A humoral tumor. This term is applied to dropsy of 
the bursa mucosa, when the fluid is serous, colourless, and limpid ; 
when it is of a reddish colour, thick, and viscous, the affection is called 
ganglion. The term also denotes hygroniatous tumor of the brain, or 
cysts containing a serous or albuminous fluid. 

2. Hygro-meter (tiirpov, a measure). An instrument for ascertain- 
ing the degree of moisture of the atmosphere. Whatever swells by 
moisture and shrinks by dryness may be employed for this purpose. 
The hygrometer condenser is a modification of Daniell's hydrometer, 
proposed by Regnault, and considered to be the most valuable instru- 
ment of the class. 

3. Hygro-metric water. That portion of humidity which gases 
yield to deliquescent salts. 

4. Hypro-ntetry {ixirpov, a measure). That part of natural philo- 
sophy which investigates the moisture of bodies, particularly of the 
atmosphere ; it comprehends also the theory of the instruments which 
have been invented for the purpose of ascertaining the quantity of water 
contained in a given volume of air. 

HY'MEN (v/ufir, a membrane). A crescentiform fold of the mem- 
brane situated at the entrance of toe virgin vagina. The remains of the 
hymen, when ruptured, are termed caruncula myrti/ormes. 

HYO'- (the Greek letter v). Names compounded with this word 
belong to muscles attached to the os hyoTdcs : e.g. the hyo-glossus, 
attached to the os hyoides, and to the tongue ; the hyo-pharyngeus, a 
synonym of the constrictor medius ; the hyo-thyro'ideus, &c. 

HYOI'DES (the Greek letter ■», and tWov, likeness). A bone 
situated betweeu the root of the tongue and the larynx. It consists of 
a central portion, called ossiculum medium ; two lateral portions, called 
comua inajora; and two smaller portions, situated over the last, called 
eomua minora, 

HYOSCY'AMUS NIGER (fe, ft*, a hog, Kva/uot, a bean ; so 
named because hogs eat it, or because it is hairy, like swine). Fafta 
suilia. Henbane; an indigenous plant of the order Solanacece, yield- 
ing an alkaloid called hyoscyamin. See Henbane. 

This term should be written hyocyamus, vo being the Greek crude 
form of ye, a hog, and tcvafxos, a bean. The common form hyoseyamns, 
from the full genitive v<fo, hyos, is just such a word as we see in horse V 
radish, goose's -berry, &c— A • de Morgan. 

HYP 305 

HYP-ANTHODIUM {uw6, under, <L0©«, a flower). A form of 
inflorescence in which the receptacle folds upward, so as partially or 
entirely to enclose the flowers, as in fig. See Syeonus. 

HYP-APO'PHYSIS (uvo, helow, and aw6<pvatv, apophysis, or 
a process of bene). A process, usually exogenous, which descends 
from the lower part of the " centrum/ or body of the vertebra. It 
is single, perforated, or sometimes double in a transverse pair. See 

HYTER- (inrip, over or above). This prefix is a Greek preposition, 
signifying over, above, in reference to place, and to quantity or excess. 
In Chemistry, it is applied to acids which contain more oxygen than 
those to which the word per is prefixed. See Hypo-. 

HYPER- ACU'SIS (inrip, in excess, Anoint, to hear). Hyper cousis. 
The name given by M. Itard to a morbidly acute sense of hearing. In 
a case given by Dr. Good, this affection singularly sympathized with 
the sense of sight : the patient said, " A loud sound affects my eyes, 
and a strong light my ears." 

HYPER-jESTHE'SIA {vwip, above, al<r6ti<m, secsation). Ex- 
cessive or morbid sensibility, generally referrible to hysteria ; intole- 
rance of light and sound, &c. See Anaesthesia. 

HYPER- jESTHETICA (vwi>, above, alff0u<m, the faculty of 
perception). A class of Aesthetic remedies, which render sensation 
more acute, and excite the sensibility of paralyzed parts, as strychnia, 
brucia, &c. See Anmstketica. 

HYPERALGESIA (it-rip, above, a\yov, pain). Increased sen- 
sibility to pain. See Analgesia. 

HYPER-CATHA'RSI& (inrip, in excess, KaBaipu, to purge). 
Super-purgation * excessive purgation. 

HYPER-CHLOTUC ACID. An acid containing a greater pro- 
portion of oxygen than the chloric acid. 

H YPE'R-CRISIS (uvip, in excess, Kpivw, to decide). A crisis of 
unusual severity. 

1IYPER-ERETHISMUS (b*ip, and ipiBia^ot, irritation). 
Augmented excitability; as of the spinal centre, in laryngismus, 
tetanus, Ac. This state of things was distinguished, by Marshall 
Hall, by terms ending in -ode, as epileptocfe, tetanocfo, though in 
ca<-h disease there is something specific. See Erethism and Katalysis. 

HYPER-HjE'MIA (virip, in excess, al^a, blood). Plethora, or 
excess of blood ; the undue supply of blood to a part, as it occurs in the 
three forms of congestion, determination, and inflammation. Or the term 
may be employed to denote a super-abundance of the red globules, the 
actual quantity of the blood being unchanged. Compare Hyp-hamia. 

HYPER HlDRaSlS (Jbwip, above, Upwait, a sweating). Eph- 
idrosis profusa. Excessive perspiration ; augmentation of the secretion 
of the sudoriparous glands. 

HYPER-INO'SIS (iwc'p, above, It, W«, the fibrin of the blood). 
A condition of increased fibrin in the blood, as distinguished from 
hyp-inosis (itn-6, under), or diminished fibrin in the blood. 

HYPER-KINESIS (virip, above, tuvim, to move). Increased 
irritability of the muscles, producing spasm. See Acinesis. 

HYPER-METROT1A (vwt>, over or in excess, ni-rpov, a mea- 
sure, u>ty, the eye). Over- sight. An affection of the eye in which its 
refractive power is too low, or the optic (antero-posterior) axis too 

806 HYP 

abort: In either cue, parallel rajs are not brought to a focus on the 
retina, but behind it. It is the converse of myopia. 

HYPEROSTOSIS (vvt'p, in excess, dariov, a bone). Enlarge- 
ment of a bone, or of its membranous covering. 

HYPER-OXYMURIATIC ACID. The former name of chloric 
acid. Its compounds are hyper -oxy muriates, or neutral salts, now 
called chlorates. See Chlorine. 

HYPER-PLASIS (jnrip, in excess, irXaais, conformation). 
Hyperplasia. Excessive conformation ; accumulation or new forma- 
tion ox similar structure, as of areolar tissue. 

HYPER-STHE'NICA (vwip, above, <r6t'yov, strength). Sthenica. 
A term applied to stimulants, as distinguished from hypostkenica (vwo\ 
under) or contra-stimulants. 

HYPE'R-TROPHY (virt>, in excess, Tpo^t?, nutrition). An 
excess of nutrition, as applied to tissues and organs ; it is indicated 
by increase of size, and sometimes of the consistence, of the organic 
texture. Hypertrophy of the white substance of the liver is described 
by Bail lie as the common tubercle of the liver, and is known in this 
country by the name of the drunkard's liver. When the walls of the 
heart are thickened at the expense of the cavities, this state is termed 
concentric hypertrophy. 

Hypertrophia vena rum. Hypertrophy of the veins of the skin, 
occurring on certain parts of the face, or on the limbs, particularly on 
the lower extremities, where it is commonly attended by a varicose 
state of the subcutaneous veins. 

HYPER-U'RIC ACID (£»*>, above, ovpov, urine). Peruric 
Acid. An acid differing in composition from uric acid by one equi- 
valent of water and two of oxygen. 

HYP-H-ffi'MIA {vtto, under, al/ua, blood). Deficiency'of blood; 
a term synonymous with anhamia, and denoting a disease analogous to 
etiolation in plants. Compare Hyper-hamia. 

HYP-INC8IS (viro, under, It, hot, the fibrin of the blood). A 
condition in which the Quantity of fibrin in the blood is frequently 
less than in health, while the quantity of corpuscles is either abso- 
lutely or relatively increased; and the quantity of solid consti- 
tuents is also frequently larger than in the normal fluid. See Hyper- 

HY'PNICA (viryot, sleep). Agents affecting sleep, either by in- 
ducing it or by checking it; the former are called hypnotica, the latter 

HYPNO'B ATES (fori**, sleep, 0at'ir«, to walk). A sleep-walker ; 
one who walks in his sleep. See Somnambulism. 

HYPNCLOGIST (woe, sleep, Arfyot, an account). A name 
assumed by the late Mr. Gardner, on account of his method of pro- 
curing sound and refreshing sleep at will. It depends on the bringing 
of the mind to the contemplation of a single sensation : " that instant 
the sensorium abdicates the throne, and the hypnotic faculty steeps it in 
oblivion. 1 * See Monotony. 

HYPNOTICS (uw*o«, sleep). Medicines which cause sleep. They 
are also termed narcotics and soporifics. 

HYTNOT1SM (virvov, sleep). The sleep-like state produced in a 
person by fixing his mind steadily on one particular object* Also, tho 
kind of sleep said to be produced by animal magnetism. 

HYP 307 

HYTO- (viro). A Greek preposition signifying under, with re- 
ference to place ; in composition, it sometimes denotes deficiency, and 
corresponds to oar somewhat, a little, Sec. In chemistry, it denotes a 
smaller quantity of acid than is found in the compounds to which it is 
prefixed, as in hypo-sulphuric acid, &c. Sec Hyper-. 

HYPO-BLETHARON (6*0, under, 0At>apoir, the eye-lid). An 
artificial eye, placed under the eye-lid ; also tumefaction under one or 
both eye-lids. 

H YPO-CHLCRIC ACID. A compound of chlorine, with oxygen, 
originally called peroxide of chlorine. Its present name is perhaps in- 
correct, as its acid properties are by no means established. 

HYPO-CHLO'ROUS ACID. A bleaching compound of chlorine 
and oxygen, termed by Davy, who discovered it, euchlorine. 

HYPO-CHONDRI'ASIS (irroxoriptarfv, affected in the hypo- 
chondrium). "Some disturbance of the bodily health, attended with 
exaggerated ideas or depressed feelings, but without actual disorder of 
the intellect." — Nom. o/Dis. It is a hyperesthesia of the abdominal 
nervous system, and is termed Spleen, English Malady, &c. 

HYPO-CHO'NDRIUM (uxd, under, x^pov, cartilage). The 
hypochondriac or upper lateral region of the abdomen, situated under 
the cartilages of the false ribs. 

HYPO^CHYMA (biro, under, x»f*«, that which is poured out). 
Hypochysis; apochysis. These are terms applied by the Greeks to 
cataract, which seems to have been first introduced by the Arabian 
writers ; though the more common name among them was gutta ob- 
scura. It is the sujfusio of the Latins. 

HYPO-CRATETIIFORM (wiro, under, Kpan'ip, a bowl, forma, 
likeness). Salver-shaped ; as applied to a calyx or corolla, of which the 
tube is long and slender, and the limb flat, as in phlox. The term is 
hybrid. Hypocrateroid is correct 

HYPO-IMS'RMIC INJECTION (vrr6, under, iiptia, the skin). 
A method employed for relieving pain by injecting anodyne fluids under 
the skin, by means of a fine syringe. The Greek term hypodermic is 
synonymous with the Latin subcutaneous. 

PYUM (vro, under; yd\a, milk; alfia, blood; lymph, water; 
vvov, pus). Effusion of a milky, sanguineous, lymphy, or purulent 
fluid, respectively, into the chamber of the aqueous humor of the eye. 
The last of these terms is also applied to the presence of pus in the 
lamina of the cornea. JSmpyesis oculi (iv, in, vvov, pus) denotes an 
effusion of pus behind, as well as in front of, the iris. 

HYPO-GA'STRIUM {biro, under, ya<mjo,the belly). The lower 
anterior region of the abdomen, or super-pubic. Hypogastroctle is 
hernia of the hypogastrium. 

HYPO'-GEOl/S (Inro, under, yf), the earth). Subterranean ; ss 
applied to those cotyledons, which remain beneath the earth, and 
opposed to epigeout, upon the earth. 

H YPO-GLCSSAL (inro, under, y\w*<ra, the tongue). The name 
of the lingualis, or ninth pair of nerves, situated beneath the 

H YPO'-GYNOUS (vw6, under, yvirtj, a woman). That condition 
of the stamens of a plant in which they contract no adhesion to the 
sides of the calyx, as in ranunculus. 

x 2 

908 HYP— HY8 

HYPO-NITROUS ACID. The name given by some chemists to 
nitrons acid, or the azotous of Thenard ; while hypo-nitric acid is 
another name for the nitrous acid of those chemists, or the peroxide of 

HYPOTHYSIS (vwo, beneath, $v<m, from <f>ua», to be developed). 
The gland-like body and ssc which form an appendage to the under 
surface of the third ventricle of the brain, and are contained in the 
sella turcica. The hypophysis cerebri is the pituitary gland or body, in 
which the infundibufum ends. See Mesencephalon. 

HYPO-PICROTaXIC ACID. An amorphous, brown, solid acid, 
procured from Cocculus Indicus, approaching to picrotoxin in its com- 

HYPOTION (vwmiriov, the part of the face under the eyes; a 
bruise). A collection of purulent matter in the anterior chamber of the 
eye. Lawrence considered that this should not be regarded as a sepa- 
rate disease, but as the result of inflammation of some part adjacent to 
the anterior chamber. 

HYPO-PLA'SIA (vwo\ under, w\a<rit, a moulding). The defec- 
tive development of an organ or tissue. See Aplasia. 

HYPO-SA'RCA (uwd, under, oap£ % oapicot, flesh). Aqua suiter 
cutem. A term used by Celsus and others for anasarca. 

HYPOSPADIAS (wwd, under, <nraw,to draw). A congenital 
malformation of the penis, in which the urethra is fissured on the 
under surface, instead of opening at the extremity of the glans. Sec 

HYPO-SPHAGMA (uwo. under, <r<t>ayi), slaughter). 1. The 
blood of an animal mixed with divers ingredients, like our black pud- 
dings. 2. A suffusion of blood in the eye, from a blow. — Galen. 

HYPO'-STASIS (uw<J, under, vrdott, a standing). A sediment, 
as that of the urine. Any deposit of a fluid. 

HYPO-SULPHITES. Combinations of hyposulphurous acid with 
bases. The acid has never been isolated. 

H YPO'-THENAR (vwd\ under, Shop, the palm of the hand). One 
of the muscles contracting the thumb. 

HYPO'-THESIS (vwdtf*m, a placing under). A supposition ; 
an assumption of a cause for phenomena unknown or uncertain. Sec 

HYPO'-XANTHIN (£»<$, under, £atA6t, yellow). A peculiar 
substance, found in the fluid of the human spleen. 

HYRA'CEUM. A substance procured from the Hyra* Caprnsis, 
or Cape Badger, and named with reference to the animal in the same 
way as castoreum to castor. It is probably an excretion, generally 
thought to be inspissated urine, of the animal ; and it has been proposed 
as a substitute for castoreum. 

HY'STERA (vvripa). The Greek term for the uterus, matrix, or 
womb. This term is the feminine of i/a-rt/oov, inferior, the womb 
being the lowest of the viscera. 

1. Hyster-algia (&\yot, pain). Dolor uteri. Pain of the uterus. 

2. Hysteria. A nervous disorder characterized by convulsive 
paroxysms or fits and impairment of the controlling power of the will, 
without complete loss of consciousness. Hysteria simulates various 
other affections and diseases. See Globus hystericus. 

3. Jfysfer-itis. Metritis. Inflammation of the uterus. 

H Y S-I C H 3C9 

• 4. Hystero-cele (<»j\>j, a tumor). Hernia of the uterus. 

5. Hystero-ejaUepsy. This is distinguished from true epilepsy by the 
attack being always announced by curious premonitory symptoms of 
rather long duration. These symptoms consist in an aura starting from 
the ovarian region, and reaching successively the epigastrium, the neck, 
and finally the head. All this is wanting in true epilepsy. 

6. Hysiero-ptosis (xxwo-it, prolapsus). Prolapsus of the uterus. 

7. Ifytiero-tomi* (toaiij, section). The Caesarian section, or incision 
into the abdomen and uterus, to extract the foetus. 

HVSTRIACIS (uo"i7>i£, a porcupine). Porcupine hair; bristly 
hair; an affection in which the ha r is thick, rigid, and bristly. 


IAMATOLO'GIA (lafia, iifiaro^ a remedy, Xoyov, an account). 
That department of therapeutics which is devoted to the consideration 
of remedies. The term is generally synonymous with akotooy, though 
this is sometimes limited to the consideration of surgical and mechani- 
cal remedies. 

IATRALEITTA (laTp*\ttWTi|*, a surgeon who practises by 
anointing, friction, and exercise ; from Icrrptvut, to cure, and <4\«i<f>«, 
to anoint). Median wtguentarius. A physician who treats diseases by 
means of friction and ointments. The tatraleiptic method consists in 
the employment of such remedies, and is sometimes termed the epi- 
dermic method, espnoic medicine, &c. 

IATREUSOLO'GIA (Idrpiuatt, i.q. larpiia, medical treatment, 
\6yoty a description). A description of medical treatment ; a term 
applied by Sprengel to g enera l therapeutics. 

IATROMATHEMAflCI (larpot, a physician, MO0rjMOTiicdt, 
disposed to learn). A school of physicians who explained the func- 
tions of the bodr, and the action of remedies, on the principles of 
mathematical and mechanical philosophy. 

ICE-CAP. A bladder containing pounded ice, applied to the head 
in inflammation of the brain. The ice-poultice is a bladder containing 
pounded ice. to he applied to hernial tumors in order to diminish their 
size and facilitate their reduction. 

ICELAND MOSS. Cetraria islandic*. A lichen, growing on the 
ground in exposed situations in northern countries, and affording a 
light, nutritious aliment. The bitter principle is called oetrarin. 

ICHOR (l^«/>, $anies, corrupted blood). A thiu, acrid, colourless 
discharge, issuing from wounds, ulcers, &c. 

ICHORRH^E'MIA (i x «/», sanies, alpa, blood). Virchow's de- 
signation of pyhssmia or septiksunia, a morbid condition of the blood, 
caused by the introduction of ichorous or putrid matters into the 

ICHTHYIA'SIS. A synonym for ickthyotii, or fish-skin disease, 
adopted by Good. The termination -iati* is more accordant with the 
analogy followed in the formation of similar names. 

310 I G H-I D E 

ICHTHYOCOTLA (Wit, IxOvot, a fish, kAXs, glue). Isin- 
glass ; fish-glue ; a substance prepared from the air-bladder, or sound, 
of different species of Acipenser, and other genera of fishes. 

ICHTHYOSIS (ix0u«t the dried, rough skin of the fish plvn, or 
thark, like shagreen). Fish-skin disease ; a papillary, indurated, homy 
condition of the skin. Mr. Erasmus Wilson complains of the confusion 
into which writers on this diiease have fallen, from the want of a dis- 
tinction between two obvious forms which the disease is apt to present. 
" In one of these/* he observes, " to which I have given the term 
xeroderma ichthyoides, and which may very properly be called ichthyosis 
vera, the epidermis is the seat of the morbid alteration ; while in the 
other, whicn I have termed ichthyosis sebacea, and which may also be 
denominated ichlJiyosis spuria, the morbid appearances are due to the 
presence of the sebaceous secretion altered in its quantity and quality, 
and deposited on the surface of the skin." Sec Sauroderma. 

According to the principle of Greek terminology, the proper term is 
ichthyoma. See Preface, par. 2. 

ICOSA'NDRIA (tiKoai, twenty, dinjp, a man). The twelfth class 
in Linnaeus' b system, comprising plants which have twenty or more 
stamens inserted into the calyx. 

rCTERUS. The Jaundice; also called morbus rcgius, morbus 
arcuatus, aurigo, &c. According to Pliny, the term is derived from the 
name of a bird, of a yellowish-green colour, called by the Greeks 
liars po*, by the Romans galbulus ; the looking upon this bird by the 
jaundiced person was said to cure the patient, though it killed the 
bird ! The same thing was said of the bird x a P«fy i0 *> perhaps the 
lapwing or the curlew. 

1. Icterus cholicus. Bilic jaundice ; a term by which Dr. Macleod 
denotes that variety of jaundice which u arises from the passage into 
the tissues of bile, the product of the hepatic function," as distinguished 
from the following variety. 

2. Icterus choloides. Bilioid jaundice; a term denoting a similar 
distribution as in the preceding variety, *' not of bile itself, but of some 
or all of its constituents, whicn the liver, owing to its function being 
suspended, has failed first to eliminate, and then to combine/' 

o. Icteritia. Icterus neonatorum. Infantile jaundice. 

4. Icterodes (Urtpwim, i.g. Urfptfrd**). Jaundiced; full of jaun- 
dice. From this term must be distinguished icteroid, or jaundice-/tfc, 
applied to a yellow tint or complexion, resembling that produced by 
jaundice. See -Ides and -Odes ; and Preface, par. 4. 

I'CTUS SOUS. Coup de soldi. Sun-stroke ; an effect produced 
by the rajs of the sun upon a part of the body, as erysipelas, or inflam- 
mation of the brain or of its membranes. 

•IDE, in CHEMISTRY. A termination applied, in chemical 
nomenclature, to tbe combinations of certain radicals which have an 
electro-negative deportment, as cyanogen, which becomes cyanufe of 


lDEATilTY. A term in phrenology, indicative of poetic feeling, 
of a sense and love of beauty, and of warmth of imagination and 
expression. Its organ is placed between those of Wonder and Acqui- 
sitiveness, the former of which is frequently developed with it. 

I'DEO-M CATION. Motion arising from dominant idea— neither 
voluntary, nor purely reflex. 

1 D E-I G R 311 

-IDES, -IDE, -ID Moo*, likeness). A terminal syllable of 
several words, indicating likeness to something expressed in the former 
part of the words, as in delto-sties, like the letter delta ; cancro-ufe, like 
a crab ; typho-tf, like typhus. See -Odes. 

IDIOPATHIC (ttioc, peculiar, wido«, affection). A term applied 
to primary disease, as distinguished from symptomatic ; to disease not 
dependent on, or occasioned by, any other disease. 

IDIOSYNCRASY {i&totrvy* patriot, from Idiot, peculiar, and 
ovyKpaatt, a mixing together, a tempering). A term denoting a 
peculiar temperament or habit of body : opium will not induce sleep ; 
milk is poison ; astringents purge ; purgatives are astringent, &c. We 
cannot explain these things ; the clever cloak of our ignorance is— 
idiosyncrasy. See Shock. 

I'DIOT (Idiwrtif, a private person ; one not engaged in public 
affairs). A term characteristic or Greek life ; from its primary use, as 
applied to a private or unofficial person, it came to signify an ignorant 
person, unqualified for office ; eventually, it denoted a person whose 
mental powers were not merely unexercised, but positively deficient. 

IDIOTCY or IDIOCY. Extreme imbecility of intellect, in 
which the faculty of reason has never been developed, owing to con- 
genital imperfection of the brain. See Lunacy. 

IGASU'RIC ACID. Strychnic acid. A peculiar acid, which 
occurs in combination with strychnia in nux vomica, and St Ignatius's 
bean. It is so called from the Malay name Igasura, by which the 
natives in India designate the /aba Sancti Ignatii. 

Igasuria. An alkaloid contained in the mother liquors of the pre- 
parations of strychnine and brucine. 

IGNIPU'NCTURE (ignis, fire, punctura, from pungere, to prick). 
lanipuncturation. Fire-puncture ; the insertion of heated needles into 
the skin or flesh. See Acupuncture. 

IGNIS. Fire. A term especially applied to certain diseases. Thus 
we have the ignis saccr of Celsus, denoting a tubercular affection ; ignis 
Sancti JntonU, or St. Anthony's fire, another name for erysipelas, 
which has also been termed ignis volaticus, or flying fire ; ignis Persicus, 
or Persian fire, for anthrax ; and zona ignea y or the fiery zone, for herpes 
zoster. The ignis fatuus is a luminous appearance, probably occasioned 
by the extrication of phosphuretted or carburetted hydrogen from 
rotting leaves and other vegetable matters. It is popularly termed 
Will-with-ike-wisp, or Will-o -the-wisp. 

IGNITION (*7"**» fire; igtiio, to set on fire; ignesco, to take fire). 
Incandescence. The state of becoming luminous by the application of 
heat. When this effect is attended by oxidation, it is termed combus- 
tion. The term spontaneous is usually prefixed when the ignition is a 
consequence of slow and gradual accumulation of heat from oxidation. 
See Combustion. 

The degrees of luminosity are indicated by the following terms. At 
first it is of a dingy red, or worm-red t as it is sometimes called ; then 
bright-red, indicating what is called cherry-red heat; at a higher tem- 
perature we have an orange or yellow tint ; and, lastly, a vmite heat, 
when the light is painful to the eye. Strictly speaking, incandescence 
denotes the last degree only. 

l'GREUSINE. That portion of volatile oils which is odoriferous, 
and is coloured by nitric acid ; it is called elaiodon by Herberger. 

312 I L E-I M B 

FLEUM («l\i», *IX», to roll up). The lower three-fifths of tho 
tmall intestine, to called from their convolutions, or peristaltic motions ; 
they extend as far as the hypogastric and iliac regions. 

Ileo-ccecal or ileocolic valve. Valvula Bauhini. The name given 
to two semilunar folds of mucous membrane found at the termination 
of the ileum in the large intestine, constituting the division between 
the csecum and the colon, and opposing the passage of matters from the 
luge into the small intes'.ine, while they readily allow of a passage tho 
other way. 

FLEUS or IUAC PASSION {l\t6t or sIXirft, ileus, volvulus, 
m, disease of the intestines, from. il\it». tlKw, to roll up). A 
severe form of intestinal disease, characterized by violent griping pain 
around the umbilicus, spasm and retraction of the muscles of the abdo- 
men, obstinate cos ti tenets, and vomiting. See Chnrdapsus. 

I'LIA. The flanks ; the loins ; the part of the body extending from 
the lowest ribs to the groin, or the region situated on each side of the 
hypogastrium, commonly called the iliac region. 

1. Iliac arteries. These are termed common, where they are formed 
by the bifurcations of the aorta. They afterwards divide into the exter- 
nal iliac., and the internal or hypogastric arteries. 

2. Iliac fossa. A broad and shallow cavity at the upper part of the 
abdominal or inner surface of the os iliacum. Another fossa, alter- 
nately concave and convex, on the femoral or external surface, is called 
the external iliac fossa. 

3. Iliac mesocolon. A fold of the peritoneum, which embraces the 
sigmoid flexure of the colon. 

4. Iliacum os ; os coxarum. Other names for the os innominatum, 
derived from the circumstance that this compound bone supports the 
parts which the Ancients called ilia, or the flanks. 

5. //to-. Terms compounded with this word denote parts connected 
with the ilium, as ilio-lumbar, ilio-sacral, ilio-cacal, &c. The ilio- 
abdominalis is another name for the internal oblique muscle; ilh- 
costalis, for the quad rat us 1 umbo rum. The ilio-hypogastric nerve, or 
superior musculo-cutaneus, and the ilioinguinal, or inferior musculo- 
ontaneus, are branches of the first lumbar nerve. 

6. Ilium os. The uppermost portion of the os iliacum, probably so 
named because it seems to support the intestine called the ileum. This 
bone is also termed pars iliaca ossis innominati. 

I'LICIN. A neutral crystalline vegetable principle obtained from 
the leaves of Ilex aouifolium, or Holly. 

ILLU'SION (iltuaere, to sport at). The involuntary perception of 
objects, specially of a spectral character. In conception, the transference 
of the objects ofth ought to the retina is voluntary. Illusion is practised 
on the senses, delusion on the mind. See Hallucination. 

ILLUTATIO (in, upon, lutum, mud). Mud-bathing; immersion 
into river- or sea-mud. Hot dung is used in France and in Poland. 

IMBECI'LLITAS {imbecUlus, weak). Debility; "uniform ex- 
haustion of all the organs of the body without specific disease." This 
term, originally denoting feebleness of the body, is applied, popularly, to 
weakness of the mind or intellect. 

IMBIBITION (itnhibere, to drink in). The passage of fluid and 
gaseous matters through dead and living tissues. The terms imbibition, 
nod exudation or transpiration, used in physiology, arc analogous to 

IMB-IMP 313 

the terms aspiration and expiration, and have been translated, by 
Dutrochet, by the two Greek words endosmosis and exosmosis. 

I'M BRICATED (imbrex, imbricis, a roof-tile). A form of aestiva- 
tion, or vernation, in which the pieces overlap one another parallelly at 
the margins, without any involution, like tiles upon the roof of a 
house— 4 distinguishing character of the Glumacece. 

IMIDES. A class of chemical substances derived from ammonia, and 
named from their supposed radical imidogen, as the amide) from amidogen. 

IMITA'TION. A term in phreuology, indicative of a disposition to 
copy the manners, gestures, and actions of others ; it is generally more 
active in children than in adults. Its organ is situated at the front of 
the head, on each side of that of Benevolence. 

IMPA'CTIO (impingere, to drive into). A striking against, con- 
cussion, or impact. The term is applied to coagula, in cases of throm- 
bosis, or local coagulation ; and of embolism, in which coagula are con- 
veyed to a distance. These are cases of occlusion of arteries. See Occlusio. 

l'MPARl-PINNATE (impar, unequal in number). Pinnate with 
an odd one; a term appliea to the petiole of a pinnate leaf when ter- 
minated by a single leaflet, as in mountain-ash. 

IMPENETRABILITY (in, not, penetrare, to penetrate). That pro- 
perty by which a body occupies any space, to the exclusion of every 
other body. In a popular sense, all matter is penetrable ; but, philoso- 
phically speaking, it is impenetralile, what is called penetration being 
merely the admission of one substance into the pores of another. 

IMPE'RATORIN. Peucedanin. A neutral crystalline product, 
obtained from the root of Imperaloria ostruthium. 

IMPERFORATE (imperforatus, not bored through). A term ap- 

?lied to any part congeni tally closed, as the anus, the hymen, the nostril. 
mperforatio papilla denotes closure of the pupil by the continuance, 
after birth, or the membrana pupillaris. 

IMPERMEABILITY (tit, not, permeate, to pass through). The 
property by which certain substances resist the passage through their 
mass or other substances; glass, for instance, is impermeable by water, 
though gold is permeable by this fluid. 

IMPETIGINOUS ERUPTIONS. Pustular eruptions. Under 
this term Mr. E. Wilson describes impetigo and ekthyma, rejecting the 
other pustular diseases of Willan. See Pustular. 

IMPETI'GO (impetere, to attack). Ekvuesis impetigo; Psydracia. 
A cutaneous pustular disease, known by the names crusted or running 
dcally pustular or humid tetter, Sec. It is termed figurata, when the 
seat of the eruption is distinctly circumscribed and defined ; sparsa, 
when the pustules are scattered over a considerable surface ; scabida, 
when the diseased surface is covered by a thick, rough crust ; erythe- 
maHca, when there are signs of acute erythema ; and impetigo capitis, 
when the eruption occurs on the head, impetigo larvalis is synonymous 
with Porrigo larvalis. 

IMPLANTATIO (implant art, to engraft). A term applied to a 
monstrosity, in which two bodies are united, but only one is perfectly 
developed, while the other remains in a rudimentary state. 

1. Implantatio externa. This is of two kind*: — 1. implantatio ex- 
terna asqualis, in which the parts of the imperfect embryo are connected 
with corresponding parts of the perfect one; as when the posterior 
parts of the body of a diminutive rectus hang to the front of the thorax 

314 I M P— I N C 

of a fully-formed child, or where a third foot, parasitic hand, or supei- 
numeraryjaw, is present; and, 2. implantatio externa inesqualis, in which 
the perfect and the imperfect foetus are connected by dissimilar points. 

2. Implaniatio interna. In this case one foetus contains within it a 
second. — Muller. 

IMPLICATED. A term applied by Celsus and others to those 
parts of physic which have a necessary dependence on one another ; but 
the term has been more significantly applied, by Bellini, to fevers, 
when two at a time afflict a person, either of the same kind, as a double 
tertian, or of different kinds, as an intermittent tertian, and a quoti- 
dian, called a semitertian. 

IMPLITVIUM (impluere, to rain into or upon). A cistern in the 
floor of a Roman house for receiving rain-water. A shower-bath. 

IMPONDERABLES (in, priv., pondus, weight). A term formerly 
applied to light, heat, actinism, and electricity, from their being desti- 
tute of appreciable weight The term might, perhaps, be extended to 
the unknown causes of gravi